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General Editor: S. N. Sen 

William Baffin’s map i *A description of iiSast India conteyninge tli Bnipire of tlie Great Mogoll 






Director of Archives^ Government of India 


Printed by P. C. Ray at Sri Gouranga 5, Chintamaiii Das Dane, 



In June 1900 the Royal Asiatic Society of England drew the attention 
of the Government of India to the desirability of publishing a series of 
volumes bearing upon Indian history. The object of the Society was 
‘^to foster the growth of historical researches in India by publishing 
monographs summarizing the historical data scattered through the 
numerous oriental texts and these documents/* which, according to the 
sponsors of the scheme, would "'form the material out of which the social, 
industrial and political history of India could be reconstructed.** The idea 
found favour with the Government of India and it was decided to publish 
through the Society two different series, viz,, ‘The Indian Text Series** 
and “The Indian Records Series.** An annual grant of Rs. 15,000 for 
five years was sanctioned, but the Government retained the right to decide 
as to what books should be published in either series and in what order. 
In 1905 it was noticed that the Society was indifferent to the Records Series 
and the Secretary of the State entrusted this part of the publication to 
Messrs John Murray and the work proceeded under the direct supervision 
of the India Ofi6ce. In the course of the next eight (1905-19.13) years 
S. C. Hill*s Bengal in 1756^1757 (3 vols), C. R. Wilson*s Old Fort Willmm 
(2 vols), H. D, Love*s Vestiges of Old Madras (4 vols), and the Diaries of 
Streynsham Master (3 vols) were duly published and then the series came 
to an abrupt end. In January 1942 the recently reconstituted Indian 
Historical Records Commission urged upon the Government of India the 
necessity of resuming their long interrupted publication activities and 
l^resentcd a comprehensive scheme envisaging the printing in extenso of 
the General Letters to and from the Court of Directors in 21 volumes, the 
revival of the Indian Records Series, and the publication through private 
agencies of documents in oriental languages in the custody of the National 
Archives of India (then Imperial Record Department). The new Records 
Series was to consist in the first instance of (a) IVlinutes of the Governor- 
Generals, (h) Browne Correspondence and (c) The Indian Travels of 
Thevenot and Careri. Travellers* accounts cannot be classed as records 
in the technical sense of the term, but a^ they are of undoubted value as 
raw materials of social and economic history of seventeenth century India 
the Commission was of opinion that they should have a place in the new 
series. The Government of India lent their support to the scheme but 
it could not be immediately implemented on account of the abnormal 
conditions caused by the war. But the preliminary w^ork was at once taken 
in hand and steps were taken in September 1942 to terminate the existing 
contract with Messrs John Murray. 

Under the scheme prepared by the Commiission and adopted by the 
Government of India the entire responsibility of editing and publishing 
the Indian Records Series doyolyed upon their Director of Archives 
(formerly peeper of Record^), fox obvious tho editing of the 



Governor -Generals^ Minutes and Elrowne Correspondence had to wait for 
the conclusion of the war and the Indian Travels of Thevenot and Careri 
was given precedence over the rest. Both the works were available in 
early English versions and it was considered undesirable to interfere with 
them, but a cursory comparison with the original French and Italian texts 
revealed omissions and inaccuracies wdiich could not be left unnoticed. 
Principal J. D. Ward of Aitchison College* Lahore, then on military duty 
at New Delhi, very kindly placed his scanty leisure and linguistic gifts 
unreservedly at my disposal and readily volunteered to compare the extant 
English translation with the originals. But for his kind assistance the 
publication of this volume might have been indefinitely delayed and for 
all textual improvement the credit is entirely his. 

In editing and annotating the present volume I have received cordial 
co-operation from so many quarters that an adequate acknowledgment of 
all my obligations is well nigh impossible. Sir William Foster despite 
the weight of. four score years promptly replied to all my enquiries and 
often took the trouble of hunting up the information I sought in different 
libraries of London. I should also like to record here my indebtedness 
to the following for information relating to their particular branches of 
study and loan of books and supply of bibliographical data from their 
respective libraries : — Dr B. N. Chopra, D.Sc., F.N.I., Director, Zoological 
Survey of India; Cavaliero Panduranga Pissurlencar,. Curator, Historical 
Records of Portuguese India ; Dewan Bahadur Professor C. S. 
Srinivasachari, M.A., Principal, Shivaganga College, Shivaganga (South 
India) ; Mr A. J. Macdonald, B.Sc., B.Sc. (Agri), N.D.A., Imperial 
Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar ; Mr Q. M. Munir, B.A., F.L.A., 
Archaeological Survey of India ; Dr H. G. Randle, Librarian, India Office ; 
Prof. C. V. Joshi’, M.A., Rajdaftardar, Baroda ; Mr P. M. Joshi, Bombay 
University Library ; Mr M. W. H. DeSilva, Ceylon Government 
Representative in India ; Senhor A. B. De Braganca Pereira, Presidente da 
Comissao Permanente de Arqueologia, Nova Goa ; Dr T. A. Cockburn, 
Assistant Superintendent, Zoological Society of London ; Mm. Professor 
D. V. Potdar, Bharata Itihasa Samsodhaka Mandala, Poona ; Dr Ghulain 
Yazadani, M.A,, D.Litt.,- O.B.E., Hyderabad (Deccan) ; Professor Jagdish 
Narain Sarkar, M.A., Patna College, Patna ; Mr V. N. Damodaran 
Nambier, B.A., B.L., Superintendent, Central Records, Ernakulam ; 
Prof. Girija Prasanna Majumdar, M.Sc., B.L., Ph.D., Presidency College, 
Calcutta ; Mr K. S. Srinivasan, Indian Museum, Calcutta ; Dr B. S. Guha, 
Director, Anthropological Survey of India ; Dr B. Ch. Chhabra, Govern- 
ment Epi'graphist for India ; Mr Willy Heimann, Stockholm ; Mr E. J. 
Dingwall, Honorary Assistant Keeper, Printed Books and Mr A. I. Ellis, 
Deputy Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum ; Mr M. Rieunier, 
Biblioth^que Nationale, Paris ; Miss Althea Warren, City Librarian, Los 
Angeles Public Library; Mr Lyle. H. Wright,’ Bibliographer, Henry E. 
Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, Calif ; Mr Horace I. 
Poleman, Chief, Indie Section, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. ; 
Mr Paul North Rice, Chief of the Reference Department, The New York 
Public I^ibrary, New York ; Mr R. Gopalan, M.A., L.T., of the Central 


Secretariat I^ibrary, New Delhi and Mr Des Raj Sharma, M.A., of the 
Central Archaeological library, New Delhi. 

It will be redundant to mention here my colleagues of the National 
Archives of India whose ungrudging assistance has considerably lightened 
my labour and facilitated my work. 

A word may be added here about the notes. All omissions and errors 
in the translation have been corrected in the notes without any specific 
indication in all cases. Synonyms of archaic words, where considered 
necessary, have also been supplied. It is hoped there will be no diflBculty 
in distinguishing them, from the corrections. 

National Archives of India, 
New Delhi, 

the 23rd December, 1948. 




Preface ... ... ... ... ... v 

Introduction ... ... ... ... ... xvii 

Indian Travels of Thevenot (being The Third Part of the Travels 
OF M. DE Thevenot containing the Relation of Indostan, the 
New Moguls, and of other People and Countries of the Indies) ! — 152 

Book I 

Chapter I 
Chapter II 
Chapter III 
Chapter IV 
Chapter V 
Chapter VI 
Chapter VII 
Chapter VIII 
Chapter IX 
Chapter X 
Chapter XI 

Chapter XII 

Chapter XIII 

Cliapter XIV 
Chapter XV 
Chapter XVI 
Chapter XVII 
Chapter XVIII 

Chapter XIX 
Chapter XX 
Chapter XXI , 
Chapter XXII 

Chapter XXIII 
Chapter XXIV 
Chapter XXV 
Chapter XXVI 
Chapter XXVII 
Chapter XXVIII 
Chapter XXIX 

Chapter XXX 
Chapter XXXI • 

— Arrival at Surrat 
— Of the Indies 
— Of the Great Mogul ... 

- — ^The Province of Guzerat 
— Of Amedabad 

— Departtue from Amedabad to go to Cambaye 
—Of Surrat 
— Of Tary ... 

— Of the Weights and Money of Surrat 
— Of the OflB.cers of Surrat 
—Bad OfSces done to the French Company at 
Surrat ... 

— Of the Marriage of the Governour of the 
Town’s Daughter ... 

— Of Burying-places, and the Burning of Dead 
Bodies ... 

— Of Diverse Curiosities at Surrat ... 

—The Port of Surrat ... 

— Of the Irruption of Sivagy 
— Of Father Ambrose A Capucin ... 

— Of the Other Towns of Guzerat, and the 
Siege of Diu by the Turks, which was 
Defended by the Portuguese ... 

— Of the Province and Town of Agra 
— Of the Habits at Agra 
< — Of Other Curiosities at Agra ... 

■ — Of the Province or Town of Dehly, or Gehan- 
Abad ... 

— Of the Arms of the Mogul’s ... 

— Of the Beasts at Dehly 
— Of Other Curiosities at Dehly ... 

— Of the Festival of the Kings Birth-day ... 
— Of the Province and Town of Azmer 
—Of the Feast of the New Year ... 

Of the Beasts of the Country of Azmer, and 

of the Saltpetre ... 

— Of the Province of Sinde or Sindy 
— Of Palanquins 




























t INDIAN Travels of thevenot and cAreri 

Book I Page 

Chapter XXXII — Of the Province of Multan ... 77 

Chapter XXXIII — Of the Province of Caiidahar ... ... 78 

Chapter XXXIV — Of the Province of Caboul, or Caboulistaii 80 

Chapter XXXV — Of the Province of Cachmir or Kichmir ... 82 

Chapter XXXVI —Of the Province of Labors and of the Vartias 84 

Chapter XXXVII — Of the Provinces of Ayottd, or Haoud ; 

Varad or Varal ... ••• S7 

Chapter XXXVIII — Of the Province of Becar, and of the Castes 

or Tribes of the Indies ... ... 88 

Chapter XXXIX —Of the Province of Halabas, and of the 

. Faquirs of the Indies ... ... 92 

Chapter XL — Of the Province of Oulesser or Bengala, and 

of the Ganges ... ... ... 94 

Chapter XLI — Of the Province of Malva ... ... 97 

Chapter XLII — Of the Province of Candida ... ... 99 

Chapter XLIII — Of the Province of Balagate ... ... 101 

Chapter XLIV — Of the Pagods of Flora ... ... 104 

Chapter XLV — Of the Province of Doltabad and of the 

Feats of Agility of Body ... ... 107 

Chapter XLVI —Of Chitanagar ... ... ... Ill 

Chapter XLVII — Of the Province of Telenga ... ... 113 

Chapter XL VIII — Of the Province of Baglana, and of the 

'Marriages of the Gentiles ... ... 116 

Chapter XLIX —Of the U^age of the Dead ... ... 119 

Book II 

Chapter I — Of Decan and Malabar ... ... 121 

Chapter II — Of the Revolutions of Decan ... ... 126 

Chapter III . . — Of Goa ... ... ... ... 129 

Chapter IV . — Of the Kingdom of Golconda 

Of . Bagnagar ... ... ... 130 

Chapter V — Of the Inhabitants of Bagnagar ... ... 135 

Chapter VI — Of the Castle of Golconda ... ... 137 

Chapter VII — Of the King of Golconda that Reigns ... 140 

Chapter VIII — Of the Omras or Omros of Golconda ... 143 

Chapter IX — ^The Authors Departure from Bagnagar for 

Masulipatan ... ... ... 146 

Chapter X — Of the Authors Departure from Bagnagar 

for Surrat, and of Mor dechin ..., ... 150 

Indian. Travels of Careri (being Part in of A Voyage Round the 

WORUD BY Dr Joiin Francis Gemelli Careri, containing the most 

Remarkable Things he saw in Indoslan) ... ... 153 — 276 

Book I 

Chapter I — ^The Description of Daniam, 

A City belonging to the Portugueses in 
Indostan ... ... ... 157 

Chapter II — ^The Authors Short Voyage to Suratte, and 

Return to Damam ... ... 163 



Book I 


Chapter III 

— The Authors Short Voyage to Bazaim, and 

Description of that City 


Chapter IV 

—The Description of the Pagod in the Island 

of Salsete by the Portugueses Call’d the 



Chapter V 

— The Author’s Voyage to Goa ... 


Chapter VI 

— The Description of the City Goa, and its 

Delightful Channel 


Chapter VII 

— Of the Antient and Modern Dominion of 

the Portuguese in India 


Chapter VIII 

— Of the Fruit and Flowers of Indostan 


Book II 

Chapter I 

— ^The Author’s Journey to Galgala 


Chapter II 

— The Author’s Arrival at Galgala, Where the 

Great Mogul was Incamp’d ... 


Chapter III 

— The Artifices, and Cruel Practices of the 

Mogul now Peigning, to Possess Himself 

of the Empire 


Chapter IV 

— The Genealogy of the Great Moguls, and 

Other Things the Author Observ’d at 

That Court 


Chapter V 

— Of the Government of the Great Mogul ... 


Chapter VI 

— Of the Revenues and Wealth of the Great 



Chapter VII 

— Of the Weapons, and Forces of the Great 



Chapter VIII 

— ^The Manners, Habit, Marriages and Funerals 

of the Moguls 


Chapter IX 

— Of the Climate, Fruit, Flowers, Minerals, 

Beasts and Coin, of Indostan 


Book III 

Chapter I 

— Of the Several Religions in Indostan 


Chapter II 

— Of the Opinions and Superstitions of the 



Chapter III 

— Of Several Pagods of the Gentils 


Chapter IV 

— ^The Author Continues the Account of What 

He Saw in the Camp of Galgala 


Chapter V 

— ^The Author’s Return to Goa, the Same Way 

He Came 


Chapter VI 

— ^The Author’s Voyage to Malaca 



Indian Travels of 



Indian Travels of Careri 


Additionai, Notes 

... ... ... ••• ••• 


Itinerary of M. de Thevenot ... 


Itinerary of Dr Gemeuj Careri 












M. de Thevenot ... 

Facing page 




Title page of ''Les Voyages de Mr. de Thevenot 
Aux Indes Orientales, Troisi^me Partie'* 

Facing Plate 



The sepulchre of Shah Alam at Sarkhej ... 

Facing page 



Tapping toddy 



The marriage of the daughter of the Governor 
of Surat 



The Moor’s headgear 



A woman robber ... 



The weighing of the Emperor 



Indian conveyances 



A Holi ritual — K boy representing Krishna 
shooting at the effigy of a giant ... 



A strange way of covering distance as penance 



Juggler’s feat 






The sepulchre of the King of Golcunda ... 



The Malabar Cyphers 



The Malabar Alphabet 



The Consonants ... 



Dr. John Francis Gemelli Careri 



Title page of ‘‘Giro Del Mondo del dottor D. 
Gio : Francesco Gemelli Careri — ^Parte terza, 
Nell I’ndostan” 

Facing Plate 



Kanheri — Cave No. 3 (2nd. century a.d.) 

Sculptured capitals of 7th. & 8th. pillars, 
from west in north row, view from south 

Facing page 


NOTE: — ^Plates Nos. 1-14 have been reproduced from the 
French edition of Travels of M. de Thevenot, 
published in Paris, 1689 ; Nos. 15-17 from the 
English edition of his Travels, London, 1687 and 
Nos. 18-19 from the Italian edition of Dr. Gemelli 
Careri’s Travels, (Naples, 1699 and 1700) and Plate 
No. 20 by the courtesy of the Department of 
Archaeology, India. 


William Bafl&n’s map : 'A description of East India conteyninge 
th’ Empire of the Great MogolP [Original at the British 
Museum— No. K 115(22)] ... ... Froniispiece 

Map illustrating the itinerary of M. de Thevenot Facing Page 152 
Map illustrating the itinerary of Dr. Gemelli Careri Facing page 276 




The seventeenth century found many European travellers in India. 
They were a motley crowd of merchants and medicos, envoys and eccle- 
siastics, soldiers and sailors, fortune hunters and adventurers of all descrip- 
tions. They came from diverse countries by diverse routes on diverse 
missions ; some in quest of trade, others in search of a career, and yet 
others, a small minority, to seek diversion in new countries among new 
peoples with strange manners and novel customs. Tom Coryat, the 
eccentric but ^^unwearied walker”, hiked all the way from Aleppo to 
Ajmer and ‘‘hath not left a pillar or tombe nor ould character unobserved 
almost in all Asia.” “His notes,” already “too great for portage” were 
left “some at Aleppo, some at Hispan” for he travelled light, his daily 
expense being limited to two copper pence. The German Mandelslo was 
better provided. A man of noble birth and liberal education, he accom- 
panied, of his own accord, the Holstein embassy to Ispahan and subse- 
quently sailed to S.urat. The Italian Pietro della Valle traversed the wide 
plains of Egypt, Palestine, Ass 3 nri‘a and Persia and thence crossed over to 
India not to shake the proverbial pagoda tree but to forget frustrated love 
under a new sun and a new sky in more congenial environments. Pro- 
bably their wander-lust was inflamed by the legends of the gorgeous east 
and reinforced by the lure of the unknown, but they were all seekers of 
knowledge loyal and true. To this rare company belonged Jean de 
Thevenot and Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri. Neither greed nor 
cupidity not even their country’s interest but natural curiosity brought 
them to the east and with uncommon fidelity they recorded what they 
saw and heard. 


Jean de Thevenot was born at Paris on the 6th June 1633. He died 
near the small town of Miana in Persia while returning to his native 
land after an arduous journey of about four years on the 28th November 
1667, During this brief span of thirty-four years he had visited more 
countries of Europe, Asia and Africa than many of his contemporaries 
ever heard of. An ardent student of geography and natural sciences, he 
assiduously studied the accounts of early travellers in which his uncle 
Melechisedech was keenly interested. The elder Thevenot long survived 
his nephew but he never crossed the limits of his own continent. If not 
so well known as an explorer, Melechisedech de Thevenot may claim to 
have vitally influenced his famous nephew’s career by his literary enter- 
prise. In emulation of Richard Hakluyt and Samuel Purchas he under- 
took to compile exhaustive accounts of famous travels under the title of 


2 Cviii 

'^Relations of diverse curious voyages hitherto unpublished which have 
been translated or extracted from the original works of French, Spanish, 
German, Portuguese, Dutch, Persian, Arab and other Travellers, Jean 
de Thevenot probably inherited his taste for strange lands and strange 
languages from his scholarly uncle. A man of independent means he 
could travel wherever he liked without any financial worry. In 1652 he 
set out on his European tour and visited in succession England, Holland, 
Germany and Italy. In 1655 he met at Rome Herbelot, ‘'the most learned 
Man of his own, or perhaps of any Age, in every Branch of Oriental 
Eiterature’*/ according to the editor of Harris’s Navigation, and they 
planned a trip to the east. For reasons unknown to us Herbelot could 
not go but Thevenot left Rome on 31st May to embark at Civita Vecchia 
on a galley commanded by Count Gaddi. After five months in bicily and 
Malta he sailed for Constantinople. On the 30th August of the next year 
(1656) he set out for Anatolia whence he proceeded by sea to Egypt. The 
voyage proved unusually long but Thevenot ultimately reached Alex- 
andria, In Egypt he saw the Nilometres and visited the Pyramids. He 
then joined a caravan bound for Suez as he wanted to have a look at the 
Red Sea. While returning his boat was set upon and plundered by Arab 
pirates but he eventually reached Cairo and sailed to Tunis in an English 
ship. A visit to the ruins of Carthage concluded his first voyage to the 
east but the journey home was not without the usual adventures. The 
boat in which he left Tunis encountered three Spanish corsairs and in 
the sanguine conflict that followed the young traveller almost lost his 
life. The corsairs, however, were worsted and Thevenot safely reached 
Eivourne and returned to France through Italy in 1662. His friends and 
relatives fondly hoped that seven years of unmitigated hardship had suffi- 
ciently cooled his passion for foreigm countries but the east called him 
back before long and he readily responded. As soon as his private affairs 
were settled Jean de Thevenot was out of Paris (16th October 1663) but he 
did not finally leave France till 24th January 1664 when he embarked at 
Marseilles. The 24th of the next month found him at Alexandria. He 
did not tarry there long and went east to visit Damascus, Aleppo and 
' Mosul and then sailed down the Tigris to Bagdad, From Bagdad Thevenot 
went to Persia and after five months at Ispahan left for Bandar Abbas to 
catch a boat for India. Thwarted in his object Thevenot retraced his steps 
and visited the ancient monuments at and around “Shiraz. The voyage to 
India was only postponed but not abandoned. On the 6th November 1665 
he boarded at Basra an English built ship the Hopewell owned by an 
Armenian and commanded by an Italian, Captain Bernardo. The fare 
from Basra to Surat was 40 Abbasis or 60 shillings per head which was 

1. Bartheleiny d’HerlDelot, born at Paris 1625, died 1695, studied Hebrew, 
Chaldean, Syriac, Arabic, Persian and Turkish. Ferdinand II, Grand Duke of 
Tuscany, invited him to his court and presented him a rich collection of oriental 
manuscripts. He later became Professor of Syriac at College de France. He 
had a large number of publications on oriental subjects to his credit. He 
went to Rome in 1655 with a view to contacting oriental people visitiu" the 
ports of Italy. ** 



three times as high as a Muslim ship would charge. On the New Year’s 
Day 1666 the ship arrived near Diu, a Portuguese port off the coast of 
Gujarat, and four days later another Portuguese station Bassein was sighted 
and then the Hopewell sailed north past Daman and reached the Surat 
Bar on Sunday the 10th January, Soon afterwards the ship was boarded 
by a customs officer and the French traveller had his first experience of 
the Great Moghul’s agents. From Surat he travelled overland to Ahmada- 
bad and Cambay farther north when he retracted his steps to the starting 
port. But he was not to stay there long. Across the Deccan peninsula he 
journeyed to Masulipatam on the eastern coast passing through Burhanpur, 
Aurangabad and Golkonda, cities noted for their commerce and industry, 
and visited on his way the far famed rock-cut temples of Ellora. He was 
the first European to describe these wonderful caves^ and if his account of 
the sculptures and images are so|newhat vague and inadequate we must 
not forget that few westerners were at that date sufficiently conversant 
with Indian iconography to identify Hindu and Buddhist idols and Tlievenot 
spent only two hours at Ellora. By the end of the year he was back at 
Surat whence he sailed for Bandar Abbas in February 1667 en route to 
France but the rigours of his unceasing travels had seriously impaired 
his health and he passed away in Persia at the early age of thirty four. 
Thevenot’s premature decease was a serious loss to science and oriental 
learning. But if death cut short his career so early the immortal fame 
that was his by right was not denied a moment too long. His Voyage to 
the Levant, published at Paris in 1664, proved a great success and definitely 
established his reputation as a keen observer and an able writer and his 
posthumous publications not only ensured but considerably added to that 
renown. Conversant with the principal languages of the Middle East, 
Turkish, Arabic and Persian, Thevenot freely moved among the people 
of those countries and he could not have experienced much inconvenience 
in India on the score of language as most of the Muslim officers and some 
Hindu dignitaries as well spoke at least one of these tongues. If his 
physique succumbed to the rigours of twelve years of toil and discomfort 
in foreign lands his indomitable will refused to own defeat until the last 
moment. In .spite of failing health and approaching death Thevenot con- 
tinued to write his journal and ^‘described his Journey as far as the Bourg 
of Farsank, where he lodged the 16th of November.” After his death the 
remaining parts of Thevenot’s manuscripts were arranged and published 
by two of his friends, Sieur de Duisandre and the French Orientalist Petis. 
They passed through many editions and were translated into English, 

' Dutch and German. To the students of Indian history Thevenot’s Voyages 
is a work of abiding interest for nothing illustrates so well the merits and 
demerits of a foreign traveller’s account of a country so vast with a history 
so chequered and a culture so ill-comprehended. But Thevenot did not 

2. Seely remarks Thevenot was but two hours inspecting them (the rock 
cut temples of BHora) ; and speaks of his fear in passing under the excavated 
mountains. Without wishing to detract from the merit of former travellers, 
I must observe, that from personal observation I have discovered much inaccu- 
racy, and occasionally wilful exaggeration.” Wonders vf Elora, p. 327, 



confine himself to a general account of India and its people, he tried 
to describe in a general way its fauna and flora as well. The Indian flora 
however aroused his interest most and he essayed a separate scientific work 
in which each of the plants was to have a full and graphic description. 

The Voyages of Jean de Thevenot were issued in successive parts from 
1664 to 1684. Relation d'un Voyage fait au Levant dans laqnelle il est 
.... traits des etats sujets au Grand-Seigneur, de VArchipel, Terre Sante, 
Egypte, Arabia — ^Paris 1664 — 4^. 

Do., Rouen and Paris 1665. 

Suite du meme voyage ou il est traite de la Perse — ^Paris, 1674. 

Relation de ITndoustan, des nouveaux Mogols et des autres peuples 
et pays des Indes — ^Paris, 1684. 

These three parts were later collected under one title and issued in 
5 vols. in 1689. 

Voyages de M. de Thevenot tant en^’Europe qu^en Asie et en Afrique — 
Paris, 1689, 5 vols. 12<^. 

Five successive editions in five volumes each appeared at Amsterdam 
in 1705, 1723, 1725, 1727 and 1729. 

A Dutch translation published at Amsterdam in 1681 is mentioned 
in Biographie UniverselleA 

At least one German version is known. It consisted of three parts 
separately numbered and was published at Frankfort in 1693. The third 
part relates to Thevenot’s Indian travels and has 228 pages. The title 
page is as follows: 

Dess/Hn THEVENOTS/Reysen/In/Ost-Indiaii/Dritter Theil/In sich 
haltend/Eine genaue Beschreibung des Konigreichs Indostan/, der/neuen 
Mongols und anderer Volcker und Dander in Ost Indian /Nebeiist/Ihren 
Sitten, Gesetzen, Religionen, Festen, Tempeln, Pagoden, Kirchhofen/Com- 
mercien, und andern merckwurdigen Sachen/ 

Mit Rom. Kayseri Majest und Chur-Sachsis. gnMiger Freyhit/Franck- 
furt am Mayn/Gedruckt und Verlegt durch Phillipp Fievet Buchhandlern / 
Anna M.D. CXCIII. 

It appears that ThevenoFs Voyages was first rendered into English by 
A. Eovell and printed in 1687 at London by H. Clark for H. Faithorne, 
J. Adamson, C. Skegnes and T. Newborough, Booksellers in St. PauPs 
Churchyard. It was in three parts (i) Turkey (ii) Persia and (in) The East- 

Extracts appeared in Harris’s Navigation, 1742, 1744-1748, 1750 and 
1764, in John Knox’s A New collection of Voyages, Discoveries and Travels 
1767 and in John Newbery’s ''World Displayed'^ 1774 but the Indian part 
was not included in any of these compilations. 


Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri was eighteen years younger than 
Jean de Thevenot. He was born of a noble family of Radicena (Calabria) 

3. Volume 45, p. 384, 



in 1651 and unlike tke Frenchman lived to a ripe old age and died at 
Naples in 1725, long after he had concluded his tour round the world (1698). 
A student of jurisprudence and a lawyer by profession, Careri had attained 
the highest distinction his University had to confer, for his learned labours 
had earned him the degree of Doctor of Civil Law. For a few years he 
practised law and then some misfortunes at home which he does npt specify 
drove him abroad to seek peace. But as the editor of Churchill’s 
Voyages and Travels affirms he did not go ''as a vagabond trusting to 
Fortune, but well provided with Mony to make him acceptable in all Parts, 
and gain Admittance where others under worse Circumstances could not.” 
Like Thevenot again he started by visiting European countries first. 
Between 1685 and 1687 he travelled in Italy, France, England, Belgium, 
Holland and Germany. He is believed to have served as a volunteer in 
Hungary in 1687 and then went to Portugal and Spain and rettuned home 
in 1689 but his account of his European travels was published much later. ^ 
He had apparently resumed his practice but "the ill treatment and per- 
petual persecution to which he was subjected in his family” again sent 
him on a longer journey away from the uncongenial environments. When 
he left Radicena in June 1693 he told his brother that he intended to visit 
the Holy Lands alone but he had already made up his mind not to return 
until he had gone round the world. Careri was familiar with the published 
works of Thevenot. We do not know to what extent his tour programme 
was based on that of the French traveller but it is interesting to note that 
like Thevenot he also began his eastward voyage by visiting Sicily and 
Malta and then proceeding to Alexandria. He travelled up the Nile to 
see the ancient monuments of the country. From Egypt Careri went to 
Palestine. After visiting the sacred sites he returned by sea to Alexandria 
where he embarked for Smyrna on the 12th October. He left that town 
two months later and went to Gallipoli. From there he travelled as far as 
Adrianople and early in January of the next year (1694) reached Constanti- 
nople. Careri next came back to Smyrna where his luggage had been 
left and then set out for Trebizond. After crossing the mountains of 
Armenia and Georgia he entered Persia and arrived at Ispahan on the 
17th July. While there Careri exploited his friendship with the Polish 
ambassador and in his train twice visited the court of the Shiah. Like 
Thevenot again he visited Shiraz and the ruins of Persepolis and then went 
via Lar to Bandar Congo where he took a boat for Daman on the 26th 
November 1694. But it was not until the 10th January 1695 that Careri 
arrived at his destination. The journey was not without its excitements. 
Careri had been advised to take his passage in an English boat bound 
for Surat but he preferred a Moorish ship going to Daman instead. The 
English w’ere then at war with the French and he apprehended that French 
men-of-war might be lying in wait near Surat for their enemies but the 
Moors were at peace with all nations and it was safer to travel in one of 
their vessels. He had been also told that the customs house men at Surat 
were exceptionally strict as pearls were often smuggled from Persia through 

4. Viaggi per Europa, 2 Vols^ first published at Naples in 170h 


that port. Moreover the English boat had yet to take its cargo while the 
ship of his choice was ready to sail immediately. The fare from Congo to 
Daman says Careri was “according to the usual rate a Toman for me and 
thirty Abassis^" for the servant but through the good ofiices of the Portu- 
guese Commissioner he got his passage free. The sea was infested l.iy 
corsairs. The Baloche pirates operated in their home waters while the 
notorious Sanganians cruised along the coast from Sind to Gujarat and 
sometimes extended their lawless activities as far as the Bay of Surat. 
The pilot a former trader in tobacco knew nothing about things nautical. 
No wonder the ship lost its bearing and an overdose of opium did not help 
to restore the confused pilot’s sang-froid. Every sail on the distant horizon 
caused an alarm and Careri had no doubt that more than once they narrowly 
escaped the Sanganians. He had only one thing to say in their favour, 
while the Baloche pirates made slaves of their prisoners and treated 
them with barbarous cruelty the Sanganians being Hindus were content 
with the prize and left the passengers alone. At last when the coast line 
was in view and the captain and crew were under the erroneous impression 
that they were somewhere between Bassein and Daman Careri volunteered 
to go ashore and ascertain their position. He found to his dismay that 
they were off Mangrol, a small port of Gujarat, far to the north of Daman 
and the point they had sighted a few days earlier was not Diu as they 
had persuaded themselves but probably a stronghold of the dreaded 
Sangamans. It is no small credit to him that in the midst of all this 
confusion Careri did not fail to note when he first saw a flying fish. Once 
at Daman Careri was among friends for throughout his journey in the 
east he experienced notlung but kindness from the Portuguese. From 
Daman he went to Bassein where the Superior of the Jesuits invited him 
to settle and resume his legal practice. He was assured not only of a 
number of wealthy clients but also of an advantageous marriage but the 
prospects of a happy home and a busy practice could not tempt the restless 
wanderer. He moved on and visited the famous Buddhist caves at Kanhcri 
which his fellow countryman Pietro della Valle had left unnoticed. Careri 
OTongly imagined that he was the first European to describe this wonder 
of indusffy and stone carvers’ art for long before him Garcia da Orta had 
accost of the cave temples of Mandapeshwar and Kanheri. 
The Dutchman John Huyghen van Dinschoten almost literally reproduced 
Da Orta s account but Careri can rightly claim that no writer. Indian or 
European, had previously described the caves in such minute details viS 

Tkevanofs .ccomts of EUora tat 

for some of the figures were simolv complete as Herbert suggests 

the plaster reyealed a remarkable N^arajn group!^' removal of 



unfavourably with Careri’s graphic discourse on Kanheri which may still 
serve as an excellent guide for the visitors of to-day so far as the general 
aspects are concerned. It is true he mistook Buddhas and Bodhisattvas 
for Greek giants and ascribed the rock-hewn temples to Alexander. But 
Indology was a science yet to be born when Careri rode to Kanheri ^d 
the average educated European knew the story of Alexander’s Indian 
campaign and things of a gigantic dimension were naturally associated with 
the Greek hero just as Indians were wont to credit to Bhima all perform- 
ances involving superhuman exertion. But Careri was not alone in his 
error. William® Finch thought that the Asoka pillar in the Allahabad fort 
^'seemeth to have been placed by Alexander or some other great conqueror, 
who could not passe further for Ganges”. Coryat laboured under a triple 
delusion when he asserted that he had been to a city called ''Detee (Delhi) 
where Alexander the Great Joyned battell with Porus, King of India, and 
conquered him ; and in token of his victorie erected a brasse pillar, which 
remaineth to this day.’”" Alexander did not fight Porus at Delhi, he did 
not set up a pillar there and the one to. which Coryat alludes was of polished 
sandstone and not of brass. Once a legend gains sufficient currency it is 
apt to be accepted without criticism, and we are not surprised when Sir 
Thomas Herbert® says that the Allahabad pillar was ''probably fixt there 
for ostentation by Alexander or Bacchus^^ and quotes in support Ovid’s 
verses : 

Whose conquest through the Orient are renowned 
Where tawny India is by Ganges bound. 

Careri did not fail to notice the inscriptions of Kanheri though he did 
not care to give an exhaustive list. In his days neither the script nor 
the subject matter of these strange writings were known but they have 
since been all deciphered. He followed the same road from Mandapeshwar 
as a modern visitor does to-day, the road is still bad, but the jungle has 
been thinned and the wild animals have all disappeared with the exception 
of perhaps a few jackals. When Dord Valentia went to Kanheri in the 
early years of the nineteenth century the jungle was still haunted by 
tigers.® A few hamlets or to be more accurate, miserable huts are still 
to be found in the forest between Borivili and Kanheri but it is not 
possible to identify the villages Careri passed through. The caves were 
deserted long before he came to India and they still remain completely 
untenanted though most of them are in an excellent state of preservation 
and may serve as good dormitories for people seeking solitude. Careri 
then proceeded to Goa. Tike other travellers he refers to the decline of 
Portuguese power in India but there is hardly any hint about that moral 
depravity of which Francois Pyrard de Eaval and Pietro della Valle made 

6. ‘Foster— Barly Travels in India, p. 177. 

7. Foster, op, cit,, p. 248. 

8. Herbert — Yeares Travels, pp. 66-67. 

9. Valentia— Foyages and Travels, Vol. II, p. 198 (London ISOQ). 



so much/® At Ispahan, Congo, Daman, Bassein and Goa, Careri had 
enjoyed the unbounded hospitality of Portuguese priests and laymen alike 
and although he writes of the stinginess of two Augustinian fathers the 
Portuguese had every claim on his gratitude. Careri left Goa before long 
for his cherished object was yet unattained. He wanted to have an 
au<^ence of the Great Moghul himself. Aurangzeb was then encamped 
at Galgala waging a war against the Hindu and Muslim powers of the 
south that was ultimately to prove the ruin of his empire. To Galgala 
then Careri turned his unwearied steps accompanied by a Kanarese porter 
from Goa and a Hindu interpreter from Golkonda. Through the good 
offices of the Christian soldiers in the Moghul army Careri at last obtained 
admission to the court of the Emperor of whom he has left a fairly good 
pen-picture. His ambition fulfilled, Careri returned to Goa by a partly 
different route and embarked for China. He visited Macao, Canton, 
Nanking and Peking. While in China he was suspected to be an emissary 
of the Pope specially deputed to enquire into the differences then prevailing 
among the missionaries of different orders. Unfounded as it was, the 
suspicion cost him the good feelings of the Jesuits. None the less he 
managed to get an introduction to the Emperor and thus had audience 
of three of the mightiest rulers in Asia, a good luck that fell to the lot 
of few travellers. It is needless to add that a man of Careri’s enterprise 
and inquisitiveness could not leave China without visiting the great wall. 
He left Peking on the 25th November, 1695 and set out from Macao on 
the 9th April 1696 to arrive at Manilla on the 8th May. A Spanish 
galleon took him across the Pacific and after a long voyage of five months 
he reached Acapulco in Mexico on the 12th January 1697. Then he went 
to Mexico city where he was warmly received by the Viceroy, Count of 
Montezuma, a nobleman of mixed descent as his name indicates. But 
the charms of the metropolis could not hold him long and he was on his 
way again intent on seeing the mines of Pachuca and the pyramids of 
Tezcuco. After witnessing many of the wonders of the two worlds he at 
last turned homewards and reached Cadiz on the 4th June 1698. He then 
travelled across Spain to France and took a boat at Marseilles for Genoa. 
From Genoa he proceeded to Milan and from Milan to his home town of 
Naples where Careri reached on the third of December. According to his 
own calculation, Careri completed his tour round the world in five years 
five months and twenty days. A man of untiring energy Gemelli Careri 
had kept his journal with strict punctuality and even in the midst of a 
stormy voyage he did not fail to note anything worth recording. After 
his return home he did not take long to revise his journal put it in the 
proper form and get it ready for the press. Giro del Mondo was published 
in six volumes at Naples in 1699-1700. Each volume dealt specially with 
one particular country and was dedicated to a separate personage. The 
first volume was dedicated to Don Euigi, Duke of Medina and the volume 
on Indostan (Hindusthan) to Don Carlos Sanseverino, Prince of Biriguano 

10, Pyrard, Vol. ir, Part I, pp. 114-115. 
Pietro della Valle— Vol. I, p. 161. 



and Duke of Sao Marco. The publication attained an unprecedented 
popularity and a second edition quickly followed. The Italian text went 
through eight editions within thirty years, six in the author’s lifetime and 
two after his death. 

Giro del Mondo 6 vols. Naples, 


6 vols. Venice, 


9 vols. „ 


9 vols. „ 


6 vols. Paris, 


6 vols. Naples, 


6 vols. Paris, 


9 vols. Venice, 


The last edition, that of 1728, is usually considered to be the best. 

Careri^s fame as a writer and traveller soon spread across the limits of 
his own country and his work was translated into English, French, 
German, Spanish and Portuguese. Within four years of the publication 
of the Italian text an English version appeared in Awnsham and John 
Churchiirs A Collection of Voyages and Travels (1704) and reappeared in 
the subsequent editions of that collection in 1732, 1744, 1745 and 1752. 
Extracts from Careri’s account of China were printed in Thomas Astley’s 
New General Collections of Voyages and Travels in 1745-47 and the Travels 
round the World found a place in A Compendium of Authentic and Enter- 
taining Voyages edited by Tobias Smollett, published in 1756 and re- 
published ten years later (in 1766). Obviously Careri had lost none of 
his original popularity. John Harris mentions him and may have utilised 
his work but did not reprint any part of it, James Burney commented on 
Careri’s account of his voyage from Manila to Mexico in Vol. IV of his 
Chro7iological History of Discoveries in the South Sea (1803-1817) and 
Plates of Mexican antiquities reappeared in Vol. IV of Aglio’s Antiquities 
of Mexico (1830-48). The first French version was published at Paris in 
six volumes in 1719 under the title of Voyage autour du Monde. It went 
through two more editions in 1727 and 1776-1777 and again found a place 
in Vol. 16 of Antoine Francois Prevost's Hisipire Genirale des Voyages 
(1747-80) and Vol. 15 of J. F. Eaharpe’s Ahrege de Vhistoire generate des 
Voyages (1816). A German rendering Reise um die Welt is available in 
Vol. IV of Allgemeine Historie der Reisen zu Wasser und Lande (Leipzig 
1747-77) and a Portuguese version Naufrage d'une Patache Portugues in 
Vol. 3 of Voyages Imaginaires (Amsterdam 1787-1789). The Spanish tran- 
slation of the part relating to Mexico Viaji a la Neuva Espana was published 
at Mexico as recently as 1927. 

If Careri found a wide circle of readers in Western Europe both before 
and after his death some of the later critics had not been very kind to him. 
He has been roundly accused of literary piracy and unscrupulous menda- 
city. It has been suggested that he had never been to the court of Peking 
and his account was based entirely on the works of previous writers. One 


critic went so far as to insinuate that Gemelli Careri had nevei been out 
of Naples and the whole of his voyage was an outrageous invention. Caieii 
makes no secret of his indebtedness to his predecessors. In fact he refers 
by name to Mafiaeus (pp. 27, 69, 73, 75, 94, 209 and 304). Thevenot 
(pp. 13, 196, 214 and 230), Tavernier (pp. 85, 187, 188 and 223), Bernier 
(pp. 136, 196 and 212) and Teixeira (p. 196) in Part III of his Giro del 
Mondo and also mentions Vida de Affonso da Albuquerque (p. 96) and 
Asia Portugueza (p. 95), though the author *s (Fariya e Souza) name is 
not given. But it is preposterous to suggest that Careri produced a work 
so informative and accurate without ever leaving his native city. His 
detailed description of Kanheri alone would give a lie to the chai'ge.^^ 
Whether he was actually introduced to Aurangzeb at Galgala or to the 
Chinese Emperor at Peking it is diflScult to prove or disprove at this dis- 
tance of time but how could he learn that Aurangzeb was at Galgala, a 
place by no means widely known, in March 1695 without ever leaving 
Naples is a question that is not easy to answer. Careri had certainly been 
to India and no less an authority than Humboldt asserts that he must 
have been to Mexico as well. ‘^I shall not discuss the question whether 
Gemelli had been to China and Persia’’, says he '"but having travelled in 
the interiors of Mexico, mainly by the road the Italian traveller describes 
so minutely I can afSrm that Gemelli had as undoubtedly been to Mexico, 
to Acapulco, and in the small villages of Matzlan and San Augustin de les 

11. A brief winter day was all that Careri could spare for Kanheri and the journe}^ 
back had to be completed before darkness added to the dangers of a tiger 
infested jungle path. That probably explains the omission of a few interesting 
details which we notice in his account of the Chaitya hall. Evidently he had 
not the time to examine more carefully the figures ranged on either side of 
the main door of the spacious cave nor did he realise that they were the con- 
ventional effigies of the donors and their wives and that is vdiy he failed to 
recognise that on the right as well as on the left there are two male figures 
with the complement of a couple of the other sex. Though the upper part of 
one of the female figures on the right side of the door is missing a cursory 
glance at the anklets on the Tegs and the clothes leave no doubt about its real 
character. Careri correctly says that seventeen of the pillars in the Chaitya 
hall '*have capitals^ ^ but his account remains incomplete when he adds that 
they had ‘'figures of elephants on them.^* Elephants there are and plenty of 
them but they form parts of sculptured groups depicting different scenes. 
Sometimes the elephants are seen pouring water on stupas while two naga 
figures hold Puma Kalasas or pitchers filled with water. In other cases they 
pay their homage to the sacred Bodhi tree. In one group royal personages 
are seen riding elephants obviously to a place of worship ; in another a worried 
mahout anxiously attempts to control an infuriated tusker. The figures on 
another capital depict riders gliding down the flanks of the beast and else- 
where a frightened lady is being coaxed to mount it. Two other animals 
sacred to the Buddhists, a lion and a horse, both couchant, are seen on the 
first pillar to the proper left while on another a bull is seen on the back 
side. Thus the Kanheri capitals bear all the four animals which are found 
on Asoka pillars. Since Careri visited Kanheri one pillar in Cave No. 10 has 
disappeared and of the four figures he saw in Cave No. 31 the outline of the 
seated ones alone remain while the standing figures are entirely gone. Other- 
wise the caves remain as the Italian traveller found them more than two 
hundred and fifty years ago. 



Ceuves as Pallas to Crimea and M. Salt to Abyssinia/' Abbe Clavigero, 
who traversed Mexico fifty years before Humboldt, pertinently asked how 
the author of Giro del Hondo could so accurately describe persons living 
at the time, the convents of Mexico, and churches of many villages 
unknown even by name in Europe without ever leaving Italy/^ Whatever 
may be the shortcomings of his account Careri was no charlatan but that 
does not mean that each and every one of his statements must be accepted 
without a careful scrutiny. 


Both Thevenot and Carerr had eyes to see and ears to hear, they 
were blessed with an unusually retentive memory, they wielded a facile 
pen and commanded a charming style. Careri had not, it is true, the 
linguistic abilities of Thevenot but he made up for this deficiency by his 
social virtues which earned him the friendship of Europeans of all nationa- 
lities resident in the east. His narrative was all the more readable, 
interpersed as it was with the gossips of the market place and scandals 
whispered at the dinner table. But both of them suffered from one common 
handicap. They were expected to deal with subjects beyond their personal 
experience and they wrote not only of what they saw but also of what 
came to their knowledge through less dependable sources. In assessing 
the historical value of their evidence it is therefore essential to remember 
that things heard are not things seen and to see things is not to compre- 
hend them properly. 

Our travellers were not more gullible than their learned contempora- 
ries. Sometimes they rightly refused to accept doubtful statements at their 
face value. Careri for instance did not believe that the cupolas at Kanheri 
were tombs of deceased persons, for hewn out of solid rock they could 
not possibly have any hollow chamber inside. But they lived and worked 
in an age by no means oversceptical and could not always rise above 
the easy credulity that characterised it. Careri unhesitatingly repeated 
the story of Nuno da Cunha ‘ 'encountering the city Diu, in the year 1635, 
found an old Man of 335 years of Age, who had a Son of 90. He had 
chang'd his Teeth three times, and his Be£>‘rd as often grew Grey, after 
having been Black."^^ No less astounding is the "apish miracle" though 
Sir Thomas Roe had not the least suspicion about its authenticity.^^ "A 
juggler of Bengala (of which craft there are many and rare) brought to 
the King a great ape, that could, as hee -professd, divine and prophesy 
(and to this beast by some sects is much divinitie ascribed). The King 
tooke from his finger a ring, and caused it to bee hid under the girdle of 
one among a dozen other boys, and bad the ape divine ; who went to the 
right child, and tooke it out. But His Majestie (somewhat more curious) 
caused in twelve several papers in Persian letters to bee written the names 

12. Humboldt quoted in Biographie Universelle, Vol. 17, p. 53, 

13. Careri, Book III, Chap. V, p. 192. 

14. Foster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas B.oe^ p. 280. 



of twelve lawgivers, as Moses, Christ, Maliomett, Aly, and others, and, 
shuffling them in a bagg, bad the beast divine which was the true law ; 
who, putting in his foote, tooke out that inscribed the Christ. This amazed 
the King, who, suspecting that the apes master could reade Persian, and 
might assist him, wrote them anew in court characters, and presented them 
the second tyme. The ape was constant, found the right, and kissed it. 
Wherat a principal officer grew angry, telling the King it was some im- 
posture, desiering hee might have leave to make the lotts anew, and offered 
him selfe to punishment if the ape could beguile him. Hee wrote the 
names, putting only eleven into the bagg, and kept the other in his hand. 
The beast searchd, but refusd all. The King commanded to bring one ; 
the beast tore them in fury, and made signes of the true lawgivers name 
was not among them. The King demanded wher it was ; and hee rann 
to the nobleman and caught him by the hand in which was the paper 
inscribed with the name of Christ Jesus. The King was troubled, and 
keepes the ape.** Roe affirms that the miracle of the Christian ape was 
witnessed by thousands of spectators. Nor was this attitude limited to 
spheres spiritual. Necromancy being a recognised art(?), Thomas Coryat 
had no difficulty in believing a story about Akbar*s sorcery, ''who beeing 
once in a strange humour, to shew a spectacle to his nobles, brought forth 
his chiefest queene, with a sword cut off her head, and after the same, per- 
ceiving the heavinesse and sorrow of them for the death of her (as they 
thought), caused the head by vertue of his exorcisms, to be set on againe, 
no signe appearing of any stroke with his sword. **^^ This is not indeed a 
contemporary account of Akbar*s proficiency in the black magic but between 
the emperor*s death and Coryat*s arrival in India there was hardly a 
decade’s interval. Mandelslo did not believe in the existence of two- 
headed snakes except as a freak^® but William Finch writes of "bucklers 
and divers sorts of drinking cups** made of "Indian asse-horne,**^’' 


It is no wonder that the seventeenth century travellers should be in- 
adequately informed about the geography of India. They did not know 
the country as a whole and in most cases their stay was all too brief. The 
knowledge of the Greek authors, which many of them could not claim, 
was" of little use. Herbert quotes Strabo, Pliny, Curtius and Herodotus 
but he puts the southern limit of Alexander’s advance at Daman^® and 
identifies Surat with Muziris.^® Thevenot’s reference to murdakhors or 
the anthropophagi is also to be attributed to his classical studies. He 
probably relied on Herodotus who mentions an Indian tribe that lived 

15. Foster, Early Travels in India, pp. Zl^-211, 

16. Mandelslo, p. 27. 

17. Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 176. Foster suggests that the Indian 
Rhinoceros is meant. 

18. Some Yeares Travels, p. 41, 

19. Ibid, p. 43. 



on raw flesh and practised cannibalism, Yet some of them, like Herbert, 
interrupted their narrative and paused to give an account of the country, 
its people and their history. When they set to write of the entire sub- 
continent they had naturally to rely on the available literature on the 
subject. But unfortunately the earlier writers were not better informed 
and they had in their time blindly drawn upon their predecessors. Thiis 
wrong information passed from traveller to traveller and gaiiied wider 
currency and greater credence as uncritical acceptance was apt to be 
misconstrued as independent corroboration. A few travellers more enter- 
prising than the rest like Tavernier, Bernier and Manucci spent long y^^ears 
in India and had first hand knowledge of many of the provinces. The 
employees of the English, French and the Dutch Sast India Corhpaiiies 
like Hedges, Methwold, Paelsert and Martin had wide experience of persons 
and places in their own particular spheres. But none b£ them had the 
industry, scholarship or critical acumen that marked the eleventh century 
Muslim mathematician Abu Rihan Alberuni and theiir credulity and care- 
lessness often landed them in setious blunders. These were accepted ds 
authentic facts by unwary writers and were repeated by then! sometimes 
without any reference to the original sources. Nor werb all the late corders 
content with a faithful recital df their predecessors* tales arid they often 
essayed to embellish them with additional details. Hawkins despite his 
intimate association with Jahangir did riot know that the Mughal eihpire 
had more than five sub-divisidris^^ but fdrtUriately his accouht werit uri- 
noticed by many of the more popular later travellers. Herbert writing of 
the same reign extends the north-western bdundary of the empire ‘'to 
the Caucasus and the Maurenahar, Tartar arid PerHan*^ arid asserts that 
India had “thirty eight large Provirices (petty kirigdoms of old).**^^ Peter 
Mundy had Bafcn*s map before hini and excluded the Deccan from India,®® 
But there was a remarkable agreement among Roe, Terry, De Daet and 
Mandelslo®^ as to the nuinber df provinces into which the empire was 
divided in their days. They all affirm that the provinces numbered thirty- 
seven but on important details vital divergence df opinion is noticed. The 
chaplain very likely made better usd of His leisure than His Excellency 

20. Rawlinson, The History of Herodotus, yd. II (1858), pp. 489-490. Slpiiinstone 
heard from some travelling merchants that ‘one Afghan tribe (the Vizeeirees) 
were savages and ate hninan flesH^ Kingdom of Cauhul, Vol. I, p. 45. 

21. Foster, Early Travels, p. 100, They atfe, thfe Punjab, Bengal, Malwa, the 
Deccan and Gujarat. 

22. p. 58. 

23. Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol. II, p. 305. 

24. Foster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, pp. 490-496; Foster, Early Travels, 
pp. 291-295 ; Hoyland and Banerjee, De Laet's Empire of the Great Mogol, pp. 5- 
14 ; Mandelslo, pp. 14-16. Terry mentions the following thirty-seven provinces ; 
(1) Candahar, (2) Cabul, (3) Multan, (4) Hajacan, (5) Euckor. (6) Tatt^, 
(7) Soret, (8) Jesolmeere, (9) Attack, (10) Penjab, (11) Chishmere, (12) Banchish, 
(13) Jengapor, (14) Jenba, (15) Delli, (16) Barido, (17) Malway, (18) Chitor, 
(19) Guzarat, (20) Chandis, (21) Berar, (22) Narvar, (23; Gwdiaf, (24V Agra, 
(25) Sanbal, (26) Baker, (27) Nagracutt, (28), Syria, (29) Kakares, .(SQf) Gbr, 
(31) Pitan, (32) Kanduana, (33) Patna, (34) Jesual, (35) Meuat, (36) Udessa, 
(37) Bengala. 



the ’ Ambassador in testing the information that possibly came from a 
common source. Between Roe’s and Terry’s lists there is but one dis- 
crepancy and that a very minor one. “Jeselmeere” No. 8 in Terry s list 
found no place in Roe’s, while Roch, Roe’s No. 27 is omitted by Tcuy. 
De Daet did not come to India at all. His account of The Empire of the 
Great Mo got is professedly a compilation and his list agrees with Terry 
except for greater details. As De Taet’s work on the Moghul empire was 
published in 1631 Mandelslo made free use of it only wdth one variation in 
the list of provinces, Narwar, No. 28 of De Laet being Mandelslo’ s 26. 
Otherwise the two lists agree not only in sequence but in all the main 
details. But Mandelslo was less careful in checking his facts and rashly 
committed himself to statements the more cautious Dutch geographer warily 
avoided. Two instances will suffice to illustrate the point. De Daet writes 
of Kashmir ‘'The capital of this province is called Siranakar. The province 
lies upon both sides of the river Behat or Phat which winds in a meandering 
course with many islands, and finally falls into the Indus, or as others 
declare into the Ganges though this latter appears to me less probable. 
The, province is mountainous (it marches with Kabul) and rather cold, 
though less so than the kingdom of Thebet which adjoins it on the east. 
At a distance of 8 leucae from the capital lies a large lake 5 leucae in 
circumference, in the middle of which is an island upon which a royal 
palace has been built for the convenience of those hunting wild geese ; 
these birds abound in the lake in vast numbers. Near to the river which 
flows through the middle of this lake towards the west, enormous trees 
are to be seen, whose leaves are somewhat similar to those of the chestnut, 
though their wood is different. When it is cut into planks, this wood 
presents the appearance of waves, and is very well suited for the making 
bf boxes. Terry’s note being the earlier is more precise and brief — 
“the chief e citie is called Siranakar. The river Phat passeth through it, 
and so, creeping about many ilands, slides to Indus. Roe agrees that 
“The Cheefe city is called Sirinakar” but he makes the Jhelum a tributary 
of the Ganges. “The river of Bhat passeth thorough it and findeth the 
sea by Ganges or, some say, of itself in the north part of the Bay of 
Bengala.”^’^ Mandelslo closely copies De Taet but without his circum- 
spection commits the same error as. Roe. His note on Kashmir is as 
follows : “The Province of Chismerj or Quexmer, the chief City whereof 
is called SyranakaTj is seated upon the River of Bezat or Badt which makes 
a great number of Isles in their Province, * and after a great compass falls 
into the Ganges. It touches some part of the Province of Kabul, and is 
eold enough by reason of its Mountains, though it may be affirm’d, that 
in comparison of the kingdom of Tiebet, which is as it were its Frontiers 
on the East side, it is very temperate: About eight Cos (which make four 
Eeagnes) from the chief City, in the midst of a Take which is three miles 
about, there is a little Isle, where the Mogul hath built a very fair House, 
for the convenience of hunting the wild Goose. All along the River which 

25. Hoyland and Banerjee, Ve LaeVs Empire of the Great MozoL pp 7-8 

26. Poster, Early Travels, p. 292. ^ ^ ^ ' 

?7. Poster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, p. 491 ^ 



runs througli the middle of this Ivake, there is a kind of a tree, whose 
leaves are like that of Chestnut, but the wood which is somewhat of a 
brownish colour, is chequer’d with small streaks of several colours, which 
makes it much sought after by persons of Quality.”^® De I^aet had the 
scholarly integrity and decency of frankly owning his indebtedness to Terry. 
He does not deny his knowledge of Roe’s Journal, on the contrary he 
compares the two lists and makes a pointed reference to their general 
agreement. Mandelslo relied solely on De Laet but he had not the fairness 
of acknowledging his obligations to the Dutch scholar. He made such 
omissions and alterations in the plagiarized note as would give it a semblance 
of originality but in doing so he committed an egregious factual mistake 
which the more cautious scholar had avoided. This is not the sole instance 
of Mandelslo’s incompetent pilfering. In a note that he appended to his 
list of the thirty seven provinces De Taet observed: ‘Teter Texeira, in 
his account of the kingdom of Persia, enumerates several provinces of India, 
but not nearly so many as I have just mentioned. He speaks of the 
province of Utrad on the Jaxartes with a capital of the same name, but 
does not say where it is situated. He also writes that the kingdom of 
Cache produces most excellent horses. These are called Cachy after that 
kingdom Y/hich seem to be situated to the north of Cambay.”^® With the 
circumspection characteristic of a true scholar De Daet refrains from making 
any comment on Teixeira’s statement and leaves it“ to his readers to take 
it for what it is worth. Not so the traveller. He had been to Cambay and 
felt himself competent to hazard a guess about the neighbouring regions, 
and here is the result : ^^Texeira, in his description of Persia^ speaking 
of certain Provinces of the Indies, names that of Utrai, with its chief City, 
but he only names it, without giving any account of its situation. He 
speaks also of the kingdom of Caeche, and sayes it is considerable for the 
Race-horses it breeds, near Camhaya, towards the North : but certainly, 
it is no other than the Province of Candisch, before spoken of.”®° Teixeira 
was right in saying that Cutch was noted for its horses and lay to the 
north of Cambay though the peninsula of Kathiawad intervened between 
the island of Cutch and the Gulf of Cambay bht Khandesh was nowhere 
near it and certainly could not boast of a special breed of race-horses. To 
confuse Cutch with Khandesh is to betray the grossest possible ignorance 
about Indian provinces. It is unnecessary to labour this point further. 
All that is needed is to remember that even a contemporary account cannot 
be more reliable than its sources and neither Thevenot nor Careri was 
more conscientious or less confident than Mandelslo. The average 
European traveller had no scruple about plagiarism and it was practised 
without any compunction throughout the century. Of course journals kept 
by resident merchants fall under a difEerent category and are not to be 
confused with travellers’ accounts. 

It will be unfair to suggest that no seventeenth century traveller ever 
questioned the accuracy of current heresies, historical and geographical. 

28. Mandelslo, p. 14. 

29. Hoy land and Banerjee, De LcieVs Empire of the Great Mogoh p. 15. 

30. Mandelslo, p. 16. 

Indian travels of thevenot and carer! 


In his letter to Lord Carew dated January 17, 1615(16) Sir Thomas^ Roe 
drew his lordship’s attention to certain errors in the maps of India/^ ‘'I 
have one observation more to make of the falseness of our maps, both of 
Mercator and all others, and their ignorance in this countrey* First, the 
famous River Indus doeth not emptie himself e into the sea at Cambaya as 
his chief e mouth but at Sinde. My reason is : Labor stands upon Indus, 
from whence to Sinde it is navigable, to Cambaya not so. Labor in the 
maps is also falsely set downe, it lying north from Surat about a thousand 
miles.” Roe was both right and wrong, for the Indus flows into the sea 
through the province of Sind but Lahore is on the banks of one of its 
principal tributaries and not on the Indus itself. William Finch was better 
informed and correctly stated that ‘^The Castle (of Lahore) is seated on 
Ravee, a goodly river which falleth into Indus, downe which go many 
boats of sixty tunne or upwards, for Tatta in Sind after the fall of the 
raine, being a journey of some fprtie days alongst by Multan, Seetpore, 
Buchur, Rauree^^ etc.” Finch had been to Lahore himself but Roe wrote 
from Ajmer. Finch also knew that '‘Indus passeth in great beautie” by 
“Attock, a citie with a strong castle.”®^ Coryat crossed the Indus on his 
way to Lahore and knew that the river had its source somewhere outside 
India.®*^ Pietro della Valle added further to the extant knowledge and 
pointed out that “the River which disembogues in the inmost part of this 
Gulph (Cambay) - is not Indus j but this Mehi, which I speak of, a River 
of handsome but ordinary greatness, and which hath not the least corres- 
pondence wdth Indus. Thevenot also crossed the Mahi but was not 
apparently worried by these topographical errors. In his account of Kashmir 
he confuses the Chenab with the Jhelum and makes it flow into the Indus 
at Attock and confidently warns others not to mistake it for the Moselle 
which flows through Kabulistan and should be identified with Behat, which 
again is the Muslim name for the Jhelum. The source of Thevenot* s error 
is not difl5.cult to trace. His own personal knowledge was limited to the 
tract between Surat and Cambay and the road from Surat to Masulipatam. 
For information about other regions he usually turned to two of his country- 
men Tavernier and Bernier, while he specifically mentions Bernier as one 
of his authorities more than once, Thevenot does not extend the same 
courtesy to Tavernier. Bernier does, not mention the name of the river 
that flows by Srinagar but correctly indicates its course. “It winds gently 
around the kingdom^ and passing through' the capital, bends its peaceful 
course towards Baramoule, where it finds an outlet between tu^o steep 
rocks, being then joined by several smaller rivers from the mountains, and 
dashing over precipices it flows in the direction of Atek, and joins the 
Indus/'^^ Earlier while describing the journey to Kashmir Bernier had 
written, “Some will pitch their tents on the banks of the Tchenau, others 

31. Poster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roc, p. 91 and also p. 104. 

32. Poker, Early Travels, p. 161. 

33. Ibid, p. 168. 

34. Ibid, p. 243. 

35. Pietro della Valle, Travels in India, Vol. I, .p. 64. 

36. Bernier, Travels in the Mogul Empire, pp. 396-97. 



will repair to the adjacent towns and villages, and the rest will be under 
the necessity of encamping in this burning Bember/’ Thevenot, in his 
anxiety to improve upon Bernier supplied the name of the river that flowed 
by Srinagar and Baramula and tried to indicate more definitely where it 
met the Indus, not pausing to think that if Berneir was not so precise in 
his statement he might have good reasons for remaining vague. 

Bernier names twenty provinces into which Aurangzeb's empire was 
divided.®® These were Delhi, Agra, Tahore, Hasmer (Ajmer), Gusaratte, 
Candahar, Maloua, Patna or Beara, Elabas (Allahabad), Haoud (Oudh), 
Moultan, Jagannat in which is included Bengale, Kachemire, Caboul, Tata, 
Aurengabad formerly Dauletabad, Varada (Berar), Candeys, Talengand 
(Telengana) and Baganala (Baglan). It would have been wise of Thevenot 
faithfully to follow a guide generally so reliable, but evidently he w^as 
familiar with the works of the earlier writers who mentioned no less than 
thirty-seven provinces. Thevenot made confusion worse confounded in 
his attempt to reconcile the earlier lists with the later. Roe was included 
in his nucleus Relations of diverse curious voyages and Roe claimed to have 
derived his information from a state paper preserved in the library of the 
Imperial Moghul. He was supported by Terry and Mandelslo and the 
discrepancy between the old list and the new might have caused no little 
bewilderment to the new enquirer- He arranged his chapters according 
to Bernier’s list and then tried to locate the missing provinces in some 
of the new subahs, possibly with the help of BajQSn’s map, an easy solution, 
no doubt, but liable to serious inaccuracies in the absence of precise know- 
ledge. He naturally started with the province of Gujarat as Surat, w’here 
he landed, and Ahmadabad and Cambay, cities he visited immediately 
after his arrival in India, were all within that province. He next described 
the province and towm of Agra no doubt because it was the metropolis of 
the empire. Dehly or Gehanabad, Azmer, Sinde (Tatta of Bernier’s list), 
Multan, Candahar, Caboul, Cashniir, Labors, Ayoud with which he added 
Varad, Halabas, Becar, Oulesser (Orissa) or Bengala, Malava, Candich, 
Balagate (Bernier’s Aurangabad), Dolatabad, of which Thevenot makes a 
separate province, Telenga and Baglana completed the list. Thus the 
tally of a score remained unaSected though Varad was joined with Oudh 
to make room for Daulatabad and a new province, Becar, was substituted 
for Bihar. In the joint province of Oudh and Varad which however were 
not geographically. contiguous Thevenot placed some of the northern pro- 
vinces of the Moghul, empire mentioned by De Laet on the authority of 
Terry and Roe, and by Mandelslo on the authority of De Laet — ^Caucares, 
Bankich, Nagarcut, Siba, Gor, Pitan, Canduana and some others. In the 
mysterious province of Becar were included Douab, Jesuat and Udesse. 
Three more provinces, Gualear, Chitor and Mando were located in Malaya. 
Thus thirteen out of the seventeen remaining provinces were accounted 
for but this created an insuperable difl&culty for the modern student. He 
is called upon to solve the jigsaw puzzle of the composite provinces of 
Ayoudh, Varad and Becar. 

37. Bernier, Travels in the Mogul Empire j p. 391, 

38. lUd, pp. 456-458. 



It should be noted that even with this ingenious makeshift, Thevenot 
failed to provide for all the additional provinces of Roe and Terry as a 
cursory comparison will show^ To add to our difficulty Thevenot s Becar 
cannot be safely identified wfith Bakar of the earlier writers on the ground 
of similarity or with Bernier’s Bear a or Bihar which a process of elimina- 
tion would indicate. According to Thevenot, ‘The province of Becar, 
which comprehends the Countries of Douah, Jesuat and Udesse, is also 
watered by the Rivers that discharge themselves into the Ganges. It lies 
not only to the Bast of Dehly, but is also the most Eastern Province of 
Mogolistan, by the countrey of Udesse, which shuts it in with its Moun- 
tains. And that great Province being rich, by reason of the fertility thereof, 
yields to the Great Mogul Yearly above fourteen Millions. It contins 
several good Towns ; but the best are Sumbal, Menapour, Rageapour, 
Jehanac and above all Becaner, which at present is the Capital, standing 
to the West of the Ganges.” Terry says of Bakar “the chiefe citie called 
Bikaneer. It lyeth on the west side of Ganges.”^® Roe affirms that “The 
cheefe citty is called Bikanir. It bordereth north-west on Ganges. 
There is therefore no difierence between Terry and Roe, if Bikaner is not 
in the near neighbourhood of the Ganges it is certainly to the west of that 
river. But Thevenot placed the province to the east of Delhi and still 
maintained that Bikaner was its capital at the time he wrote. Of the other 
cities in this mysterious province Sambal is the chief town of a province 
of the same name, according to Roe (his No. 19) and Terry (No. 25). 
Rageapour (Roe’s Ragepur) is the capital of Jesual (Thevenot’s Jesuat and 
Nos. 16 and 34 of Roe and Terry respectively) and Terry places it eaist of 
Patna. Neither Roe nor Terry is a safe guide for they make two separate 
provinces of Gor (Gaur) and Bengala and commit other mistakes, but 
Thevenot’s confusion was probably due to too much reliance on Baffin’s 
map, Baffin places Udessa, with its capital Jekanat to the north east of 
Bengala. To its immediate west he places Mevat, and next to that pro- 
vince Jesuoll and Sanball. Baffin’s Bakar is to the north of Sanball and 
north east of Delhi. No province of the Moghul days even approximately 
corresponded to this geographical fiction. But as Thevenot went mainly 
by Bernier’s list he probably made an ineffective attempt to reconcile Baffin 
and Bernier, for Baffin’s Udessa is the easternmost province of India, by 
including Sambal, Bikaner (located east of Delhi by Baffin) Rajapur and 
Udessa in Bernier’s province of Patna or Beara (modern Bihar). 

Nor is it possible to identify Thevenot’s Varad or Varal with Bernier’s 
Varada (Berar). It is like Becar another fictitious province that comprised 
the north-eastern region of Baffin’s map “to wit Gor, Bitan, Canduana and 
some others.” But why Thevenot placed Nagarcut (Nagarkot) and 
Calamac (Jwalamukhi) in the province of Ayoudh and Nerval (Narwar) and 
Gehud (Gohad) in the province of Halabas (Allahabad) is more than what 
we can guess.'*^ 

39. Foster, Early Travels, p. 294. 

40. Foster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, p. 493. 

41 CurioTisly enough with all the guides and popular handbooks at their disposal 
even modern travellers are not always free from geographical Confusion. Ibanez, 



Bernier^s scheme, limited, as it was, to an inventory of the provinces 
with their Sarkars and Parganas and the estimated revenue, was too modest 
for Thevenot. He tried to embody in his account of the provinces all 
information that he could gather about the curiosities of the region, the 
habit of the people, the agricultural and industrial products as well as 
plants and animals. But in spite of his best efforts this ambitious plan 
suffered from serious inaccuracies. Not knowing that the musk deer was 
not an animal' of the plains he extends its habitat to the province of 
Azmer (Ajmer) and confidently states : ^^There is in these countries, a 
Beast like a Fox, in the Snout, which is no bigger than a Hare ; the Hair 
of it, is of the colour of a Stags, and the Teeth like to a Dogs. It yields 
most excellent Musk.’^ The musk deer has it is true two protruding canine 
teeth but it is a denizen of the Himalayan regions and not to be* found 
anywhere near Ajmer. Careri knew that the musk deer or, as he called 
it the musk goat, occurred in Bhutan and in regions bordering on China, 
but not knowing all the facts he could not dismiss Thevenot's statement 
as utterly unfounded and imhesitatingly copied it almost word for word. 
Roe mentions musk among other costly articles to be found at Ajmer'^" 
and Thevenot might have been under the impression that the musk yielding 
animal also lived in the neighbourhood. Thevenot and Careri at least 
knew that the musk came from a “Bladder full of corrupt Blood, and that 
Blood maketh the Musk or is rather the Musk itself,” but Francois Pyrard 
gives the most queer account of the animal and the process of extracting 
the scent. “Musk,” he asserts, comes from China alone. It proceeds 
from a little animal of the size of a cat. To get musk they kill this animal 
and beat it all over in its skin and so let it rot ; when rotten they make 
little purses of the skin, and fill them with the flesh, minced small, and 
thus sell it.”^^ This information probably originated with a Jesuit writer 
Michael Boyen who makes a similar' statement in his La Flore Chinoise^^ 

One of Thevenot’s very curious mistakes can be traced to Tavernier. 
Writing of the province and town of Agra, Thevenot asserts that the 
emperor Jehangir “was Interred in a Garden” of Agra “where his Tomb 
is only painted upon the portal.” How Tavernier came to commit so 
astounding an error we cannot explain, but had not Thevenot inadvertently 
appropriated some of his worst mistakes the younger traveller’s indebted- 
ness to the older would not only have remained unacknowledged but also 

Careri came to India nearly thirty years after Thevenot but unlike his 
French predecessor he did not undertake an ambitious survey of the 
Moghul empire. He furnishes graphic descriptions of cities and camps 
he visited himself and his* minute account of the churches and convents 
of Goa is accurate in every detail. Two earlier travellers Francois Pyrard 
of Laval and Pietro della Valle might have served as excellent guides but 

the Spanish Nobel laureate, places Colombo on the east coast of Ce^’lon and 
the late Lord Lytton after five years >in India located Puri in Bihar. 

42. Foster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, p. 116. 

43. The Voyage of Francois Pyrard of Laval, Vol. 11, part II, p. 359. 

44. Mandelslo’s Travels, p. 24, 



Careri knew kis Goa well and not only described tke city and its monu- 
ments but its flowering plants and fruit trees as well. Not that he does 
not refer to towns and regions he did not visit but such references are neither 
numerous nor important. I/ike Thevenot he also depended on hearsay 
particularly for the history of the ruling dynasties and the civil administra- 
tion of the country and naturally his account is not free from occasional 
errors. But on one important subject that may not be entirely without 
any interest to the Indian students Thevenot and Careri squarely con- 
tradicted each other. Neither of them had any personal knowledge of the 
notorious Sanganian pirates. Thevenot had not even had a distant glimpse 
of their sails. Careri suspected tliat he had. But while Thevenot gave 
them the worst possible character Careri credited them with a more humane 
behaviour. Writes Thevenot : 'They Board and leap into the Bark, putting 
every living soul to the Sword (for they have no other Arms but Swords 
and Arrows : ) and if any have a mind to save their lives, there is no other 
way to it, but to jump into the Sea, and so avoid their fury until they 
be wholely Masters of the Vessel, for till then; they give no Quarter : 
but when they find themselves sure of their Prize, they shed no more 
blood, and make Prisoners of all that remain alive ; to hinder whose 
escaping, they cut the great Tendon that is above the Heel in each Leg, 
which renders them for ever unable to run away, and indeed it is not 
possible for a Man who has these Nerves cut, to go. Then they carry 
them to their Habitations, and set them to keep theiir flocks, without any 
hopes whilst they live of being delivered froih that Bondage which is worse 
than death itself. Careri oh the contrary contends that these pirates 
did not make slave of the people they robbed. "The Pirates call’d 
Sanganos and Rdnas, who are Gentils of Religion, and make no Slaves, 
but take what they fiitid Aboard without hurting any Body. They live in 
some Islands, ahd oil the Continent in marshy and inaccessible Places as 
also in Woods hear Syndi and the kingdom of Guzaratte/^^^ We do not 
know which of the two travellers was more correctly informed but in 
the absence of corroboration from more dependable source^; it is not safe tO 
accept one version ih preference to the other. 


If our travellers were indifferent geographers they were no better 
naturalists. Duarte Barbosa mentions flying serpents of tiie kingdom of 
Narsyhgua (Vijayanagar) in all seriousness. "There are as well serpents 
which fly in the air, whereof the mere breath and aspect are so deadly 
as to stay any man who comes near them, which serpents alight on trees 
or wheresoever they will.’’^'^ Mandelslo believed that the crocodile of the 
Indian rivers had "no Peftehre or joynis either ih his neck or back.”^® 
The flying foxes or fruit bats of India were noticed by liiPst of the 

45. The Travels of Monsieur de Thevenot, Part II, hook IV, Chap II p 176 

46. Careri, A Voyage round iUe World, Book ill, Chap. V p. 190 

47. The Booh of Duarte Barloosa^ Vot I, p. 199, 

4S. Mandelslo, p. 27, 



travellers ; lyinschoten and Fryer^® referred to the enormous size they 
attain, Mandelslo and Pietro della Valle®^ found ‘'batts as big as crows’% 
Francois Pyrard de lyaval used slightly different language and wrote that 
'‘bats there are as large as ravens/*®^ But Finch had strange ideas about 
this common but curious mammal’s method of reproduction. “This fowle” 
he wTites, “the people say ingendreth in the eare.”’'^^ Tom Coryat claimed 
to have seen two unicorns, mistaking rhinoceros for the mythical beast.®® 
Roe was not less credulous. He offered to sell in all seriousness “a 
unicorn’s home” to an imperial prince.®^ 

Not only were they prepared to believe whatever they were told about 
unfamiliar birds and beasts but many of them could not properly describe 
even domesticated animals they had seen at close quarters. It is not at all 
difficult to describe the peculiar features of an elephant but Nicholas 
Downton’s account can certainly be improved upon. “(He) hath a body 
like a house, but a tayle like a ratte, erecting it like a cedar ; little eyes, 
but great sight ; very melancholly, but wise (they say) and full of under- 
standing (or subtility rather) for a beast. Sometimes they become madd 
(of what I know not) and breaking loose endanger multitudes, (He) is fed 
somewhat costly, as with good bread, musk millions, sugarcanes, sweete 
stalkes, and sower grasse or sedge of the worst. (He) steeres like a hulke, 
stif-necked, almost all of one peice ; feeds himselfe with his trunck or 
snoute (that deadly instrument for his rage) being of a just length to 
the ground ; taking his meat with the end thereof and winding it up (or 
under, rather) to his mouth, so eates it ; but drinkes there with at length.”®® 
Though Downton takes the trouble of describing in details how the 
elephant eats and drinks and moves it is not easy to visualise the animal 
with “a body like a house and a tail like the rat’s that moves like a 
hulk and eats and drinks with its snout.” Terry’s description of the 
second biggest Indian animal, the rhinoceros is not more helpful. The 
“Rhynocerts” “are large beasts as bigge as the fayrest oxen England 
affords ; their skins lye platted or as it were in wrinkles upon their backs”®® 
is all that we are told. Peter Mundy’s account though equally brief is 
more life-like. He Avrites of the “Ghendas, wffiose skinne is very thick 
and hard, lyeinge in plates over his bodye, with one home standinge on 
his nose, as high as a tall horse, but made in proportion like a hogge.”®^ 
Better still is Linschoten’s®® pen picture but neither of them had actually 
seen the animal and the credit of accurately describing the pachyderm 
belongs not to the travellers but to their informants. Thevenot’s descrip- 

49. Voyage of Linschoten to the East Indies, Vol. I, p. 302. 

Fryer's East India and Persia, Vol. II, p. 99. 

50. Mandelslo, p. 27 ; Travels of Pietro della Valle in India, Vol. I, p. 103. 

51. Voyage of Francois Pyrard of Laval, Vol. I, p. 115, 

52. Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 135. 

53. Ihid, p. 246. 

54. Foster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, p. 254. 

55. The Voyage of Nicholas Downton, p. 145. 

56. Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 304. 

57. The Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol. II. p, 171. 

58. Voyage of Linschoten to the East Indies, Vol. II, Chap. 47, pp, 8-11, 



tion of a tame bat however leaves no doubt that he could give an accurate 
account of a strange animal in minute details when carefully observed. 

Both Thevenot and Careri were also careless about the nomenclature 
of the animals they saw. They write indiscriminately of apes, baboons 
and monkeys. In India there is only one ape or man-like monkey, the 
gibbon or hoolock, and that does not occur in the parts they visited. Of 
baboons, dogheaded monkeys, there is none in this country. Among the 
wild beasts that infested the forest near Kanheri Careri mentions tigers 
and lions. There is no doubt that tigers haunted the neighbourhood of the 
caves when the Neapolitan traveller visited India and even much later but 
whether lions survived in the woodlands south of the Narbada in the 
closing years of the seventeenth century must remain a subject of enquiry. 
Careri took careful notes of the ancient monuments he saw. His account 
of the rock-hewn caves and the colleges, convents and cathedrals of Goa 
leaves little to be desired but his description of the birds he saw as he rode 
through the lonely forest on his way to Kanheri is extremely vague. 
Having no guide with him he naturally left them unnamed and only says 
'^some were Green and as big as a Thrush, and sang very well, others 
bigger, black as velvet, and with vast long Tails ; others Red and Green ; 
some Black and Green, as big as a Turtle-dove, and many more never seen 
in Europe.’^ One may guess the identity of the bird with a long tail 
and velvety black feathers. Careri in all probability saw the ubiquitious 
king crow but the forest to-day is not very rich in bird life and it is not 
safe to hazard a guess about the green songster and his red and green 
and black and green confreres. Probably the latter two were paraqueets 
and Careri having only a fleeting glimpse of them could not describe them 

Thevenot devotes one chapter each to the beasts at Delhi and the 
beasts of the country of Ajmer but he describes only four animals in 
any detail, the horse, the elephant, the ox and the musk deer. Of these 
the musk deer alone is wild and uncommon and as we have already noted 
it has been given a habitat other than its own. The elephant naturally 
attracted the curiosity of foreign vi’sitors and most of them had something 
to say about it. Much was not known about the period of gestation or 
the longevity of this huge beast and it is no wonder that Thevenot and 
others imagined that its method of mating was different from that of other 
quadrupeds. Nor was Thevenot alone in attributing rare physiological and 
psychological peculiarities to the elephant. Peter Mundy believed that 'hhe 
females (different from other animals) in their place of generation which lyes 
right under their bellies where the Cowe’s adders are placed, and the 
duggs of these are close to the fore legs.’’"® Francois Pyrard ascribes to 
it almost a human abhorrence of indecency when he asserts that ‘hhe 
animal^ never covers the female in whatever heat he be, while any one 
is^ by. Terry goes one better and says that ‘‘The males testicles lye about 
his forehead ; the females teates are betwixt her forelegges,”®^ though he 

59. Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol. U, p. 234. 

60. Voyage of Francois Pyrard of Laval, Vol, JI, Pt 11 p 346 

01. Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 307, ‘ ‘ ’ 



claims to have seen several of thetn.®^ Mundy and Terry were right as 
to the position of the teats, as for the rest their statement should be taken 
with more than the proverbial pinch of salt. The story of an elephant 
run amuck that had the good sense to gently put aside a helpless baby out 
of gratitude to its mother, which Terry heard from ‘^an English merchant 
of good credit'' was recounted in every detail by Einschoten.®® No less 
fanciful is Tavernier's assertion that ‘‘at certain seasons the female elephant 
collects all kinds of leaves and grass, with which she makes for herself a 
bed with a kind of bolster, elevated 4 or 5 feet from the ground, where 
contrary to the nature of all other beasts, she lies to await the male,"®'^ 
Careri closely follows Thevenot in his account of the elephant but there 
is good reason to believe that he did not know all the animals he mentions. 
He seems to think that the Roz and the Meru are the same animal. 
“Rozes" he writes, “with the Body like a CoWj so call'd from a Rose they 
have on the Breast ; the Male of this Species is call'd Meru, and has Horns 
half a span long, and the Body and Tail like a Horse." The Sambhar 
is called Meru in the Bombay presidency and the Roz is the same animal 
as the Nilgau. While the former is a deer the latter is an antelope. There 
is no difference in the general build of the male and female nilgau though 
they differ in colour and the English rose has nothing to do with one of its 
names. Its tail no more resembles that of the horse than the elephant's is 
like the rat's. Curiously enough Peter Mundy mentions at one place the 
Roz and Nilgau as two different animals®® although earlier he had noted 
that they were but different names of the same antelope. Such instances 
of carelessness are however not rare among seventeenth century travellers. 

Careri gave one whole chapter to the “fruit and flowers of Indostan". 
His account of the common plants of India suffers from the same defects 
as his description of the animals. The most noticed plants were the cocoa 
palm, the toddy palm, the areca palm, the betel vine and the pepper vine and 
here Careri had excellent guides in earlier writers. It is not clear whether 
he knew Linschoten's Voyage to the East Indies where the Indian plants 
are described in great details with rare scientific accuracy nor does it appear 
that he had access to the first scientific treatise on medicinal plants and 
herbs published at Goa by Garcia da Orta more than a century earlier®® 
though Pietro della Valle refers to Orta and other botanists of repute.®^ It is 
however difficult to identify some of the plants of Careri's list without 
extraneous information. The omlam tree for instance bears according to him 
“a long Flower beautiful and fragrant enough." The flower is beautiful and 
fragrant no doubt but by no stretch of imagination can it be described 
as long. Similarly the tindolim flower is white and not red. Nor does 
one get a clear idea of papayas growing round the trunk of the tree near 
the top when Careri says that “they hang like clusters of Grapes about the 

62. Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 304. 

63. Voyage of LinscHoten to the East Indies, Vol. II, pp. 6-7. 

64. Tavernier’s Travels in India, Vol. I, p. 222. 

65. Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol. II, pp. 182 and 307. 

66. Coloquios dos Simples e drogas e cousas medicinais da India, Goa, 1563. 
07. Travels of Pietro della Valle, Vol. I, p. 37. 


top of the Trunk/’ Careri’s identification of the saffron plant with the 
Arbore Triste of Goa is as fantastic as Thevenot’s association of the musk 
deer with Ajmer. His grounds for appending his chapter on Indian plants 
to his account of Goa deserves more than a passing notice. '‘Because all 
those sorts, which are found in the several Parts of that Tract, being to be 
had about Goa, and even some that are not elsewhere ; it is proper we 
should give an account of them before we leave that city.” This is corro- 
borated by Peter Mundy when he said that 'T saw here Sundry sorts off 
Fruites which I had not seene in North India, butt For any thatt grew 
there, they Might here bee Found.”®® Careri could not possibly have any 
knowledge of Peter Mundy’s manuscript which was not published until 


Travellers do not always bring an unprejudiced mind to a foreign land. 
People apt to ignore the inconsistencies of their own faith may be keenly 
alive to the absurdities of others. Familiarity does not always breed con- 
tempt ; it often engenders tolerance as well. Unfamiliarity on the other hand 
may sometimes lead to misunderstanding. Unfortunately there is no in- 
fallible standard of social conduct and a foreigner may without fully com- 
prehending its inner significance ridicule a long established custom which 
the native finds perfectly innocuous. It is no wonder that most of the 
foreign travellers w^ere superficial if not perfunctory in their observation 
on the social customs and religious practices of India. Only the most 
striking features could have attracted their notice during their brief sojourn 
and they had neither the time nor the learning to examine them carefully. 
But it will be unfair to suggest that all of them approached the subject 
with superciliousness and contempt. Francois Pyard in fact paid the 
Indians he knew a very high compliment when he said ‘T have never 
seen men of wit so fine and polished as are these Indians : they have 
nothing barbarous or savage about them, as we are apt to suppose. They 
are unwilling indeed to adopt the manners and customs of the Portuguese ; 
yet do they readily learn their manufactures and workmanship, being all 
very curious and desirous of learning. In fact the Portuguese take and 
learn more from them than they from the Portuguese ; and they that come 
fresh to Goa are very simpletons till they have acquired the airs and grace 
of the Indies.”®® How far these encomiums were inspired by genuine 
admiration for South Indians and to what extent they reflected the bitter- 
ness caused by Pyrard’s sufferings at the hands of the Portuguese it is 
difficult to determine at this distance of time. But when he spoke highly 
of the manners and customs of Bengal where the people, both men and 
women were according to him, “more cultivated than elsewhere” we should 
not attach much importance to his testimony as he had not been to that 
province and had no personal knowledge of its people. 

68. The Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol. Ill, Pt. I, p. 59 

69. Voyage of Francois Pyrard of Laval, Vol. TI, Pt. I, pp. 248-249. 


The better educated travellers, among whom Thevenot and Careri 
should be counted, usually took the trouble of reading the earlier writers. 
This had its advantage and corresponding disadvantage as well, for if they 
were not absolutely uninformed about India and Indians their views were 
likely to be influenced by the author of their choice and they could not 
under the circumstances take an objective view of things. Students of 
classical literature on the other hand -were often prepared to find parallels 
between Hindu and Greek ideas and strove to discover evidence of Greek 
influence on Hindu thought and rites without pausing to find out which 
was earlier. Good Christians w’ere naturally unwilling to recognise any- 
thing commendable in other religions but it will be unfair to accuse the 
ecclesiastics of blind fanaticism. Terry for instance had nothing but praise 
for those Muslim divines who ‘‘spend their dayes in meditation or else in 
giving good morall precepts unto others.’’^® He further commended to his 
brothers in faith the example of those who, “what impediment soever they 
have either by pleasure or profit, pray five times everyday. He had also 
great admiration for those “Mahometans and Gentiles” who “will rather 
die (like the mother and her seven sonnes : 2 Mac. 7) then eate or drinke 
anything their law forbids. Such meate and drinke as their law allowes 
they use onely to satisfie nature, not appetite ; hating gluttonie, and 
esteeming drunkennesse (as indeed it is) a second madnesse, and therefore 
have but one word in their language (mest) for a dunkard and a mad 
man.”^^ But every one had not Terry broad-mindedness to appreciate the 
good points in misguided heathens. Downton had no doubt that the filthy 
fakirs were “really possesst with devils. Herbert thought that the 
'^Shaster of the Bannya.ns is a depraved story of the Bible” and in their 
customs and religious rites he perceived the “delusion Satan charms them 
wdth.”’’^ Roe found “no civil arts” at Ajmer “but such as straggling 
Christians have lately taught. The customs and manners of the country 
were, according to him, “either ordinary, or mingled with much 
barbarisme.” “The Gentile, not knoweing any religion” “worshipped 
after their sever all idolatry es all sorts of creatures.” “No herecye in the 
world show so strange examples, nor bragg of such voluntarie poverteyes, 
punishments, sufferings and chastisements” as Islam. The race of 
Muhammad, Roe unhesitatingly asserted, was “irnposturous.”^® But in 
comparison with one of his proteges Roe appears exceedingly mild and 
moderate. CoryaUs Christian zeal could not brook even the Muslim call 
to prayer in the Muslim metropolis and he boldly climbed up a turret and 
loudly sent forth a defiant cry — “No God but one God and Christ the son 
of God” thus contradicting the Muezzin^s proclamation that Muhammad 
was the prophet of God.^^ Nothing could conceivably outdo his denun- 

70. Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 316. 

71. Ibid, p. 317. 

72. Ibid, p. 317. 

73. The Voyage of Nicholas Downton, p. 137. 

74. Herbert, Some Years Travels, p. 49. . ■ ' 

75. Foster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, p. 116. 

76. Foster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, pp. 104, 274 and 612. 

77. Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 315. 



ciation of Islam in reckless bravado, blind extravagance and fanatic 
intolerance. Referring to the life of the prophet he told a Muslim : ‘The 
truth whereof if thou didst know as well, I am perswaded thou wouldest 
spit in the face of thy Alcaron {al Kuyclti) and trample it under thy feete, 
and bury it under a Jaxe (i.e. pYivy), a booke of that strange and weake 
matter that I my selfe (as meanely as thou dost see me attired now) have 

man with a mind so perverse could hardly be expected to take an impartial 
view of strange customs and novel faiths. But fortunately Coryat formed 
a class by himself and his record of complacent vanity and foolish fana- 
ticism remains unbeaten. 

By the middle of the seventeenth century the travellers^ accounts had 
been more or less stereotyped and every one of them sought to describe the 
social customs and the religious rites of the countries they visited, as well 
as the dress, the dwellings, the staple food and the common diversions^ 
of the people. Every traveller therefore referred to the early marriage, 
that prevailed among the Hindus and Muslims alike, the caste system that 
characterised the Hindus alone, the theory of transmigration in which the 
“Banias"’ or, as Roe preferred to call them, the Pythagorians, implicitly 
believed, the consequent Jain practice of strict vegetarianism or abstention 
from animal food, the absurd length to which respect for animal life was 
carried and its abuse and exploitation by less scrupulous persons of other 
communities and above all the Sati or the practice of self-immolation on the 
funeral p 3 nre of the deceased husband. Nor was the Hindu doctrine of 
trinity always overlooked and as it is easier to appreciate physical feats and 
acrobatic skill than to comprehend the philosophy of- the Hindus, no 
traveller failed to notice the exploits of the jugglers and tumblers and their 
roadside open air performances as well as the strange habits of and severe 
self-mortification to which both the Muslim and the Hindu mendicants 
were w^ont to subject themselves. 

The Indian habits, both Hindu and Muslim, have been described by 
Thevenot and Careri as well as many of their predecessors. Some of the 
travellers, Manucci, Thevenot and Tavernier, to mention only three of 
them, found the Indian or rather the Muslim garb quite suitable and, if 
Mandelslo is to be credited, many European merchants resident in the 
country dressed in the Indian fashion,^® Downton’s brief but picturesque 
lines will bear quotation: “This river wee past, and landed right before 
the Alfondica or custom house ; and so along through many streets 
(humming like bees in swarmes with multitudes of people in white coates, 
men and women, close bodied and full of gathering to the mid-leg, with 
breeches and stockings in one, ruffling like gootes and all of one single 
callico ; this being their generall or most neate or angelicall habite, which 
sparkles, of their kinde of starching, like silver spangles). Obviously 

78. Poster, Early Travels in India, p, 272. 

79. Mandelslo*s Travels, pp. 20-21, 

80. The Voyage of Nicholas Downton, p. 134. 



the newcomers landing at Swally did not find the country habits either 
disagreeable or unbecoming. 

The food varied from community to community, caste to caste and 
province to province. Mandelslo twice dined with the Governor of 
Ahmadabad, a native of Persia. When he wanted to take his leave of the 
Governor after the first visit Mandelslo w^as asked to stay for the dinner. 
^'He caused some Fruit to be brought, while his people were laying the 
cloath, which was of cotton, laid upon a large Carpet of red Twrfef ^-leather. 
The dinner was very noble, and serv’d up and drest according to the 
Persian way, the Meat being laid in dishes, all Porcelane, upon Rice of 
several colours, in the same manner as we had seen at the Court of 
Ispahan/^^^ On his second visit he found the governor smoking tobacco 
who later took some opium and hhang as w^ell. When the dinner began, 
‘^The Carver sate in the middle of the great Vessels wherein the meat w^as 
brought up, and with a great spoon put of it into little dishes, to be serv’d 
up to us. The Chan himself would needs also put in some, to assure us 
of his being pleasd’ with our company.”®^ 

It is interesting to note that both coffee and tea had gained favour 
with the Indians in the earlier part of the seventeenth century though the 
exact date of their advent cannot be ascertained. Coffee was importd from 
Yemen, for India had trade relations with Persia and Arabia from the 
earliest times. The Indian ships used to bring Kahwa or Coffee berries 
on their return journey from Aden if Mandelslo is to be credited.®^ Terry 
informs us that ''Many of the people who are strict in their religion drinke 
no wine at all. They use a liquor more healthful then pleasant, they call 
Cahha (Coffee : Arabic Kahwa) : a blacke seed boyled in water, which 
doth little alter the taste of the water. Notwithstanding, it is very good 
to helpe digestion to quicken the spirits, and to dense the blond. The 
coffee habit does not seem to have been very popular. Tavernier says 
"as for India, it is but little used there.”®® Fryer found this drink very 
popular in Persia and noticed that if the Muslims of the Deccan "invite a 
Christian, they order Dishes apart, and between meals Entertain with 
Coho, Tobacco, Pawn, which makes a fragrant Breath, and gives a rare 
Vermilion to the Tips.”®® But the custom was not confined to the Muslims 
alone. Ovington says "The Bannians are not restain’d from the liberal 
Draughts of Tea and Coffee to revive their wasted Spirits any part of the 
Day.” "Tea,” he adds, "is a common Drink with all the Inhabitants of 
India, as well Europeans as Natives.”®’’ Ovington came to Surat in 1689. 
An earlier traveller, Mandelslo, also claimed to have found tea in common 
use in this country. "At our ordinary meetings every day,” he wrote, 
"we took only The, which is commonly used all over tte Indies, not only 

81. Mandelslo's Travels ^ p. 28. 

82. Ibid, p. 29. 

83. Ibid, p. 69. ’ 

84. Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 300- 

85. Tavernier^s Travels in India, Vol. II, p. 20. 

86. Fryer’s East India and Persia, Vol. I, p. 234. 

87. Ovington, A Voyage to Surat, p. ISO. 


among those of the Country, but also among the Dutch and English, 
rvho take it as a Drug that cleanses the Stomach, and digest the superfluous 
humours, by a temperate heat particular thereto.”®* Mandelslo arrived 
at Surat in April 1638. The popularity of tea among the indigenous people 
seems to have declined since then to be revived again in more recenc times. 
As Tavernier informs us coffee was not grown in India. Indigenous wild 
tea plants w’ere discovered in the hills of Assam in the thirties of the nine- 
teenth century but it is doubtful whether they were cultivated in this 
country in the days of Thevenot and Careri. 

The poor man’s drink was toddy, but every poor man was not 
permitted this luxury, as the caste rules among the Hindus interdicted 
in many cases all alcoholic beverage. Thevenot devotes one chapter to this 
liquor which Terry found “as pleasing to the taste as any white wine, if 
drunke betimes in the morning.”®® But others refer to its pernicious effects. 
Nicholas Downton attributed the death of seven Pf his crew to “fluxe, 
which I conceave proceedeth of their inordynate drynkinge of a sorte of 
wine that distilleth out of the palmyto trees called Tadie;”®° Half a pint 
of tari (toddy) sufficed to cause Tavernier a terrible headache that lasted for 
two successive days.®^ 

Neither black coffee nor brown tea, not even white toddy was so popular 
as pan. It was a universal favourite and was commended by many European 
travellers for its beneficient quaUties. According to Roe, “it bytts in the 
mouth, , avoydes rume, cooles the head, strengthens the teeth, and is all 
their phisicke ; it makes one unused to it giddy, and makes a man’s spittle 
redd, and in tyme coullers the teeth which is esteemed a beawty.”®® Terry 
writes : “There is yet another helps to comfort the stomacke for such as 
forbeare wine, as herbe called Beetle or Pawne. It is in shape somewhat 
• like an ivie leafe, but more tender. They chew it with a hard nut some- 
what like a nut-megge, and a little pure white lime among the leaves ; 
and when they have sucked out the Juyce, put forth the rest. It hath 
many rare qualities ; for it preserves the teeth, comforts the braine, 
strengthens the stomacke, and ernes and prevents a tainted breath.”®® 
Obviously Terry had not seen the leaf in its natural state or he would not 
have likened it to an ivy leaf. It is equally certain that Eryer, had not 
seen it either when he wrote that “The Natives chew it (betelnuts) with 
chinam (Dime of calcined Oyster-Shells) and Arach, a Convolvulus, with 
a Deaf like the largest Ivy, for to preserve their Teeth and Errect an 
rmsavoury Breath: If swallowed, it inebriates as much as Tobacco.”®^ 
Mandelslo thought that the “leaves are like those of the Orange-tree.”®* 
According to Pietro della Valle, “leaves of Betle” are “to the sight not 

88. Mandelslo’s Travels, p. 13. 

89. Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 298. 

90. The Voyage of Nicholas Downton, p. 196. 

91. Tavernier’s Travels in India, Vol. 11, p. 242. 

92. Foster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, p. ll. 

93. Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 300. 

94. Fryer’s East India and Persia, Yoh I, p, 110, 

95. Mandelglo’s Travels, p, 33. 


unlike the leaves of Cedars.’^®® He also had not apparently seen the 
unprepared leaf but he referred to a ceremonial significance of presenting 
it to a visitor — ‘‘the custom being so in India for the person visited to 
give BeiZe-leaves to the visitant, wherewith the visit ends.”®* People 
of all castes, creeds and communities irrespective of their station in life, 
in all parts of India enjoyed the pan and it was freely distributed on festive 

If Mandelslo left us a picture of a governor’s dinner he did not forget 
to write of the poor man’s daily fare. “Tradesmen (he really means 
artisans) are in the saddest condition, in as much as the Children cannot 
be put to any other Trades then what their fathers are of, and there is 
this inconvenience withall, that a piece of work must pass through three 
or four hands before it is finished ; so that all that they can do is to get 
five or six pence a day. They must accordingly fare very poorly, their 
ordinary Diet being only Kitsery, which they make of Beans, pounded 
and Rice, which they boyl together in water till the ^vater be consumed. 
Then they put these to a little Butter melted, and this is their Supper, for all 
day they eat only Rice and Wheat in the grain.”®® Mandelslo could not 
claim an intimate knowledge of the poor artisans of Gujarat but his account 
is based, though without acknowledgement on that of a Dutch Factor who 
spent seven years at Agra. Francisco Palsaert said the same thing almost 
in identical words — “For their monotonous daily food, they have nothing 
but a little Khichri, made of ‘green pulse’ mixed with rice, which is cooked 
with water over a little fire until the moisture has evaporated, and eaten 
hot with butter in the evening ; in the day time they munch a little parched 
pulse or other grain, which they say sufi&ces for their lean stomachs.”®® 
Pelsaert left India before Mandelslo came, nor could the Dutch merchant’s 
Remonstiantie have been accessible to the German nobleman and the latter’s 
debt to the former was not therefore direct. . But De Laet was permitted to 
use Pelsaett’s work for his chapter on the character, customs, institutions 
and superstitions of the Indian people and Mandelslo extracted from De 
Taet’s Be Imperio Magni MogoUs the passage quoted above with such 
verbal changes as he considered necessary.^®® 

If the daily fare of the ill-paid artisans was extremely poor that 
of some Hindu castes and sects, by no means indigent, appeared very 
strange to newcomers from Europe. The “Baniyans” as they are collec- 
tively and indiscriminately called by the travellers, scrupulously refrained 
from all animal food and subsisted on vegetables and fruits. For people of 
the west meat and food were synon3mious but these Hindus would not on 
any account hurt the meanest of the living creatures and would if possible 
redeem them at great expense from' persons with scant respect for animal 
life. They built hospitals for ailing and old beasts and birds and as Fryer 
scofiingly remarked, “They have Hospitals here for Cows ; and are Charit- 

96. Travels of Pietro della Valle, Vol. II, p. 226. 

97. Ibid, p. 226. 

98. Mandelslo’s Travels, p. 64. 

99. Moreland and Geyl, Jahangir^ s India, pp. 60-61. 

100. De DaeUs Empire of the Great Mogol, pp. 88-80, 



able to Dogs, . . . , being more merciful to Beasts than Men/*’^®’’ This 
strange conduct was noticed by many writers and naturally ^.caused 
comments not always complimentary. Herbert writes of the Bania s strict 
abstinence from meat and fish. ‘‘Full of phlegmatick fear they be and 
superstition : They are indeed merciful, grieving to see other people so 
hard-hearted as to feed upon Fish, Flesh, Raddish, Onions, Garlick, and 
such things as either have life or resemblance of blood. They for their 
parts will not kill so much as a Louse, a Flea, a Eakaroch or the like ; 
No7i usus erat carnium ante dilumum, saith Comestor ; but contrariwise 
buy their liberty of such Sailors, and others, as of necessity must crush 
them ; Yea, they have Hospitals for old, lame, sick or starved Creatures, 
Birds, Beasts, Cats, Rats, or the like ; and have no worse men to over- 
see them than the PushelanSj the best respected sorts of Bramins 
Similarly Mandelslo observes, “the Benjans abstain from the killing of 
living creatures, even to the Insects, how dangerous or troublesome soever 
they may be. They also forbear keeping any Fire and lighting Candles 
in the night time out of a fear that Flies or Moths should burn themselves 
therein ; nay they make some diflSculty to make pits on the Ground, for 
fear of drowning the Fleas and other Insects, which might lie in the way. 
What is yet more superstitious, they do not only redeem the Birds, which 
Mahumetans had taken, but they also built Hospitals for Beasts that are 
hurt and wounded.”^°^ Linschoten who came earlier and knew the country 
better also testified that “They eate not any thing that hath life or blood 
in it, neither would they kil it for all the goods in ye worlde, how small 
or unnecessarie soever it were, for that they stedfastly bel4eve that every 
living thing hath a soule, and are next [after men to be accounted of] 
accordingly to Pythagoras law, and know it must die ; and sometimes they 
do buy certain fowles or other beastes of the Christians or Portingals, which 
they meant to have killed, and [when they have bought them], they let 
them fi6e and run away.**^®^ This weakness on the part of the Banians 
was sometimes exploited by unscrupulous knaves to their own advantage 
and Careri claims to have actually seen a “rogue’* at Surat who whenever 
he wanted to make some easy money went knife in hand with a hen to 
the Bania quarters so that some one might pay to save its life. Mundy 
heard of a bird hospital at Cambay^®® and Tavernier saw several such 
institutions for sick and disabled animals at Ahmadabad.^®® 

This unusual solicitude for mute animals demanded an explanation 
and the travellers found an easy one in the Hindu belief in the immortality 
and transmigration of soul. Very few of them ever realised that this 
creed, or to be more accurate, theory was not confined to any particular 
caste or sect and reverence for animal life prevailed in its most extreme 
form among the Jainas, Mandelslo would include even the Rajputs among 

101. Fryer*s East htdia and Persia, Vol. I, p. 138. 

102. Herbert, Some Yeares Travels, p. 52, 

103. Mandelslo’s Travels, pp. 53-54. 

104. Voyage of Linschoten, Vol. I, p. 253. 

105. The Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol. II, p. 310. 

106. Tavernier’s Travels in India, Vol, I, p|>. 03-64, 



the Banias^®' but all the seventeenth century travellers agreed that these 
tender hearted superstition was derived from the teachings of Pythagoras. 
‘‘These are of Pythagoras his doctrinating, believing the Metempsychosis 
or transanimation or passage of Souls into Beasts/* said Herbert and others 
concurred."'*® Roe repeats “The severest sect of these are Pythagorians for 
the opinion of the soules transmigration, and will not kyll any living 
creature, no, not the virmine that bites them, for feare of disseising* the 
speiritt of some frend departed.**"-®® None of them even suspected that the 
theory might have originated in India in an age much earlier than that 
of the Greek philosopher and Pietro della Valle informs us that one of 
his acquaintances actually went so far as to suggest that Hindu superstition 
had made a god of Pythagoras and he and Brahma were identical.""® But 
no one would credit the shrewd businessmen that the Banias were with any 
philanthropic or humanitarian motive. They were merely inspired by con- 
siderations of self interest in their unreasoning care for beasts, birds and 
insects. It was insinuated that they would not kill anything in fear of 
causing inconvenience to one of their own departed relatives whose soul 
might have found accommodation in the body of that particular creature. 
Mandelslo says that the Rajputs “believe in particular that the Souls of 
Men go into Birds, who afterwards give their Friends notice of the good 
and evil which is to befall them : upon which account it is, that they so 
superstitiously observe the flight and singing of those Creatures.** “They 
have no compassion but what they have towards irrational creatures, 
especially Birds, which they take the pains to keep and feed, out of a 
perswati'on, that one day when their Souls shall be lodg*d in Creatures 
of that kind, some or other will have the same charity towards them. 
And this is their employment particularly on Holy-dayes, as also for ten 
or twelve dayes after the decease of their nearest kindred, and upon the 
anniversary dayes of their death.’*""" Yet Mandelslo had their grounds for 
extraordinary abhorrence for blood shed and slaughter from the Banias 
themselves. While travelling from Agra to Lahore — “one day with a 
Pistol shot I kill’d a great Serpent, which I met with in the way and after- 
wards a Leopard and a Roebuck: but the Bmjans, of whom there were 
many in our Company, took it very ill at my hands, and reproach’d me 
with my cruelty, in that I deprived those Creatures of a life which it was 
not in my power to give them, and which God had not bestow’d on them, 
but that he might be thereby glorified.”""^ Here was a rational sentiment 
easily intelligible which Mandelslo and his fellow travellers found difficult 
to reconcile with the’ notorious superstition of the Hindus and ascribed 
their solicitude for helpless animals to their anxiety for their departed 
kindreds* welfare, not knowing that one of the precepts of Hinduism was 
to look upon all living beings as one’s ownself. 

107. Mandelslo’s Travels, p. 57. 

108. Herbert, Some Years Travels, p. 52. 

109. Foster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, p. 271. 

110. Travels of Pietro della Valle, Vol. I, p. 76. 

111. Mandelslo’s Travels, pp. 57-58. 

112. Ibid, p. 45. 



Early marriage was a notorious social evil which did not escape the 
notice of foreign travellers, but here also their account often suffered, from 
absurd exaggeration. Herbert observed, “Marriage is here so honoured 
that most times they contract at seven, and at ten years old are often 
Parents ; which puts me in mind of that which Pliny in his 6 and 8 lihj 
ch, 17 and 14 writes concerning the Calinge whom he places hereabouts, 
and would have us believe that the women are pregnant at five and seldome 
live above eight i but this is certain, that if an infant dye ere he be married 
his Parents procure a Virgin (to whom they give some Dynaes of Gold) 
to be his Bed-fellow or Wife for one Night, to avoid the reproachful 
Proverb, He dyed unmarried/^^^^ In fairy tales we hear of such weddings 
and the selfless devotion of the saintly bride which miraculously restores 
the princely groom deceased before his time once again to life and health 
but in sober history we do not come across any such instance. Yet a more 
rational explanation was not wanting. Fitch was told — “they marry their 
children so young, because it is an order that when the man dieth, the 
woman must be burned with him, so that if the father die, yet they may 
have a father in lawe to helpe to bring up the children which bee 
married. Withington says: “The reason whye they marrye them so 
younge, they say, is in regard they would not leave their children wiveless ; 
if yt should please God to take the parents away of either of the children, 
yet (say they) they have other parents to ayde them till they come to 
yeares of discretion/^^^® However Herbert was not the only person to give 
credence to stories of early conception. Mandelslo also writes, “they 
marry their Children very young, which is the less to be wondered at, in 
as much as it is very certain that the Indians of both Sexes are capable of 
engendring much sooner than any other Nation : so that there are not any 
but are fit for the work of generation at ten or twelve years of age.^^ In 
confirmation of his statement he cites the story of a child of three giving 
birth to a boy and '‘Sheich Choram sent for both Mother and Child, and 
ordered them to be brought up at the Court.^^^^® He also thought “the 
climate which derives to the Bodies living in it no great disposition to 

If Indian girls conceived long before they attained puberty, some of 
the travellers were of opinion that nature compensated them with very 
easy labour, Terry writes “The women in those parts have a great happi- 
ness above all I know, in their easie bringing forth of children ; for it is a 
thing common there, for women great with childe one day to ride, carrying 
their infants in their bodies, the next day to ride againe, carrying them in 
their armes/’^^® This blessing was not denied to the fair ladies of the 
Deccan if Methwold is to be believed, “They (the children) come into the 

113. Herbert, Some Yeares Travels, p, 45. 

114. Foster, Early Travels in India, pp. 16-17. 

115. Ibid, p. 221. 

116. Handelslo^s Travels, p. 58. 

117. Ibid, p. 51, 

118. Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 309. 



world without much trouble to their mothers, for they are up agaiiie about 
their business m three or four dayes, some the same day/»''" 

Every one of the travellers claims to have witnessed at least one case 
of voluntary Sati. Roe writes of ^^Gentills of sundry idolatr 3 ’es, theyr 
wives ^adorning the pyle, and entring the funerall fyres with great joy and 
^nor but his evidence rests on common report. The testimony of 
Hawkins is more authoritative though he does not seem to have attended 
any such funeral. He says “I have seene many proper women brought 
before the King, whom (by his commandment) none may burn without his 
leave and sight of them ; I meane those of Agra. When any of these 
commeth, hee doth perswade them with many promises of gifts and living 
if they will live, but in my time no perswasion could prevaile, but burn they 
would. The King, seeing that all would not serve, giveth his leave for her 
to be carried to the fire, where she burneth herselfe alive with her dead 
husband/^^^^ The most lamentable case is the one cited by Nicholas 
Withington for the girl widow was “not above ten yeares of age,’*^^^ Her 
husband, a soldier, died in action and she burnt herself with his clothes and 
turban and the Governor’s orders prohibiting the Sati could not influence 
her decision, Pietro della Valle in his romantic chivalry resolved, when he 
saw at Ikkeri a woman who had decided to burn herself with her husband’s 
dead body, to honour by his presence her funeral “with that compassionate 
affection which so great Conjugal Fidelity and Eove seem to me to 
deserve. The Italian traveller carried with li itn the coffin of his dead 
wife until he returned home and the resolution was quite in keeping with 
his own temperament. Mandelslo relates a case which occurred at Cambay 
during his visit to that city. “The next day, the English Merchants came 
to my lyodging, whence we went together to the River side, without the 
City, where this voluntary execution was to be done. The Womans Hus- 
band was a Rasboute, and had been kill’d near Lahor, 200 leagues from 
Cambaya. As soon as she had heard of his death, she would needs do his 
Obsequies, by causing her self to be burnt alive ; but whereas the Mogul 
and his Officers are Mahumetans, who endeavour by degrees to abolish this 
heathenish and barbarous Custom, the Governour had a long time oppos’d 
her desires, under pretence that the news of her Husbands death being 
uncertain, he could not consent to the doing of an inhumane action, 
whereof there would afterwards haply be cause to repent. The Governours 
design was to see, whether time would abate anything of her passion, and 
the earnestness she was in to follow her husband into the other World : 
but seeing she was daily more and more instant to do it, he permitted her to 
comply with the Taws of her own Religion. She was not above twenty 
years of age, yet we saw her come up to the place of her execution with 
so much confidence, and a chearfulness so extraordinary to those who go 
to present and inevitable death, that I was much inclin’d to believe, that 

119. Moreland, Relations 0 } Golconda, p. 26. 

120. Foster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, p. 105, 

121. Foster, Early Travels in India, p, 119. 

122. Ibid, p. 219. 

123. Travels of Pietro della Valle, VoL II’, p. 267. 


she had dulTd her senses with a dose of Opiunij which is as commonly used 
in the Indies as in Persia ,^ It is needless to add further instances of 
this well-known practice. Fryer also suspected that the widow’s own people 
drugged her with Datura, ‘‘when half mad she throws herself into the Fire, 
and they ready with great Dogs keep her in his Funeral Pile.”^^^ Although 
Fryer does not speak from his personal experience there must have been 
many cases of such inhumanity and one wishes that Withington had been 
as observant as Mandelslo for it is very unlikely for a child of ten to persist 
in her mad resolution to burn herself to death though women of maturer 
years might have willingly gone to the pyre. Manucci claims to have rescued 
with the aid of an Armenian friend a widow about to be burnt, the mute 
appeal of whose pathetic eyes beseeching help had not gone unnoticed. The 
Armenian afterwards married the lady and had a son by her.^^® It is to be 
noted that the Moghul emperor and his officers viewed this practice with 
unconcealed disfavour and tried their best to prevent it by persuasion if 
possible. If they did not forbid it altogether they must have been 
influenced by the same considerations as actuated the early Governors- 
General of the East India Company, who hesitated to interfere with a social 
evil sanctified by old tradition and longstanding custom. The Muslim 
rulers of the Deccan were not less averse to this practice than their brethren 
of the north. Methwold mentions a Masulipatam case where the Kotwal 
definitely refused to give his consent and the woman afterwards circum- 
vented the law by hanging herself.^^^ An anonymous writer asserts that 
the Sati “is not permitted in places where Moslems are numerous, being 
against their rule ; and I have myself seen on two occasions that it was 
prevented when the women were practically ready to jump into the fire,”^^® 

It will not be irrelevant to refer here to the religious tolerance that 
ordinarily prevailed in the country. Commenting on Coryat’s foolhardy 
attack on Islam and its prophet, Terry observes “which bold attempt in 
many other places of Asia, wffiere Mahomet is more zealously professed, had 
forfeited his life with as much torture as tyrannic could invent. But here 
every man hath libertie to professe his owne religion freely and, for any 
restriction I ever observed, to dispute against theirs with impunitie.”^^® 
Fox such blasphemy as Coryat uttered against the religion of the state he 
might have been pilloried and burnt in his own country and in other parts 
of Europe. In the seventeenth century India, however, if we leave out of 
account some of the deplorable lapses of Aurangzeb, everybody was at 
liberty to profess his own faith -without any let or hindrance from the state 
for the sovereign was expected, irrespective of his own religion, to give an 
unbiassed verdict on any disputed point relating to social customs or 
religious practices. 

124. Mandelslo*s Travels, p. 31. 

125. Fryer*s East India and Persia, Vol. I, p. 96. 

126. Manned, Storia do Mogor, Vol. 11, p. 97. 

127. Moreland, Relations of Golconda, p 29. 

128. im, p. 75. 

129. Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 315. 



The travellers need not be blamed if in the interminable mazes of 
the polytheistic practices and primitive cults of popular Hinduism they 
failed to discover its higher teachings. Terry was told that the Brahmans 
^^acknowledge one God, 'whom they describe with a thousand hands, with 
a thousand feete, and as many eyes, thereby expressing his power 
The real significance of the imagery was entirely lost upon him for neither 
could he comprehend nor could the ignorant Brahman whom he consulted 
explain the philosophy of the Gita and its conception of the Supreme Being 
pervading the entire universe and guiding the course of countless lives that 
emanated from and ultimately terminated in Him. Both Herbert and 
Mandelslo learnt, not from their Hindu acquaintances but from the 
treatises written by previous European scholars that the Hindus believed 
in the unity of godhead^^^ but the myths and legends in which Hindu 
theology is intricately enveloped reached them in a garbled version. Here 
is the fable of the elephant-headed Ganesha, the god of success as Pietro 
della Valle heard it. ^^He is the son of Mahadeu, who finding him one 
day with Parveti his wife, but his own Mother, and not knowing who he 
was, kilPd him out of jealousie, cutting off his Head ; but afterwards 
understanding that he was his own Son, he repented him of his error, and 
resolv’d to bring him to life again. Wherefore meeting with an Elephant, 
(as he had purpos’d to do with what he first happen’d upon) he cut off 
his Head, and placed it on his dead Son’s shoulders. Such stories were 
not calculated to bring the denizens of the Hindu Olympus into repute 
though Pietro della Valle was prepared to concede that some truth may 
lie behind these apparent absurdities. He writes : ''Some of these Idolets 
sat upon Sundry Animals, as Tygers and the like, and even upon Rats ; 
of which things the foolish and ignorant Indians relate ridiculous stories. 
But I doubt not that, under the veil of these Fables, their ancient Sages 
(most parsimonious of the Sciences, as all Barbarians ever were) had hid 
from the vulgar many secrets, either of Natural or Moral Philosophy, and 
perhaps also of History : and I hold for certain that all these so monstrous 
figures have secretly some more rational significations, though express’d 
in this uncouth manner. But everyone was not prepared to take such 
tolerant views of "pagan” gods and "heathenish” mummeries. Roe writes 
of "sundry idolatryes and worshipping the creators of heaven and earth 
promiscuously” and scoJEngly refers to the pilgrimage to the Ganges to 
which "all ascribe a kinde of divinity. It was easier to admire the 
cunning of the jugglers and the "tumbling tricks of Men that use 
dauncinge, tumblinge etts. Feats.” In the world of sports all races and 
creeds meet on a common ground and willingly pay homage to exceptional 
skill and uncommon courage. 

The concept of caste is so alien to Christian society that this novel 
feature of Hinduism could not possibly escape the notice of any of our 

130. Foster, Early Travels in India, p, 321. 

131. Herbert, Some Yeares Travels, p. 47; Mandelslo^s Travels, p. 52. 

132. Travels of Pietro della Valle, Vol. I, p. 73. 

133. md, Vol. I, pp. 73-74. 

}34. Foster^ The Embassy of Sir Thomas pp. 270-27h 



travellers. They were aware of its rigidity and restrictions and both Theve- 
not and Careri attempted to give exhaustive inventories of existing castes 
and their subdivisions. Iferbert knew that originally there were only four 
principal castes and he associated the later subdivisions with crafts thus 
indicating their professional character. He says “these never marry out of 
their own Casts ; Bramins marry the Daughters of Bramins ; Cuttery^s the 
Daughters of Cuttery^s ; Shuddery's Shuddery^s ; and Wyses not only so,, 
but also compere in their own Trades, as Taylors, the Daughters of Taylors ; 
Barbers^ Barbers Daughters, etc. And contrary to the custome of Mahome- 
tansj their Wives live not under such subjection. The last observation 
applied to West and South India alone where the Hindu women were not 
expected to put on the veil. According to Herbert the Brahmans were 
divided into eight3;two and the Vaishyas into thirtysix sub-castes^^® and 
he was- under the impression that none but the '‘Rajaes*^ (Kshatriyas, i.e., 
Rajputs) and the ** Wyses** cared to contract more than one marriage. 
“Polygamy here is odious,** says he, “in which respect they cease not to 
vilifie the Mahometans as people of an impure soul.**^®® Terry says “These 
Gentiles take but one wife ; of which they are not so fearefull as the 
Mahometans of their multitude, for they suffer their to goe abroad.**^®® 
Mandelslo was better 'informed and definitely asserts that the Hindu was 
not debarred from polygamy. “The Benjan Taw permits men, not only to 
marry a second or third time, in case of death, but also to wed a second or 
third Wife, if the first and second proves barren ; the first retaining 
nevertheless a certain pre-eminence, as being Mother of the Family.**^^® 
This indicates the general practice rather than the legal restriction to 
matrimony, for while the Muslim is by law limited to four wives at a time, 
the Hindu may, if he likes, marry as many wives as he can comfortably 
maintain. Hamilton who came much later knew that “there are ho Taws 
against Polygamy’*^ among “the Gentiles.**'^" Aware as he was of the 
exclusiveness and rigidity of the caste system Mandelslo still suggests that 
the Banias could sometimes convert Muslims, but on what authority we 
do not know. 

A small community that inhabited the sea coast of Gujarat was specially 
mentioned by many foreign writers because they “neither burne nor'interre 
their dead** but “incircle pieces of ground with high stone walls, remote 
from houses or roadewayes, and therein lay their carkasses wrapped iri 
sheetes ; thus having no other tombes but the gorges of ravenous fowles.**^^® 
The Parsees form but an infinitesimal fraction of the teeming population 

135. Herbert, Sofne Yeares Travels, p. 51. 

135. Terry^s total of four score and four is probably based on the ntnnber of species 
through which the soul according to popular belief migrate before attaining' 
salvation. - ® 

137. Herbert, Some Yeares Travels p 46 

138. Ibid, p. 46. 

139. Foster, BarVy Travels in India, p. 322. 

140. Maadelslo’s Travels, p, S2. 

141. Hamilton, A New Account of the East Indies, Vol 1 t> 94 ’ 

142. Mandelslo’s Travels, p. 57. ’ 

143. Foster, Early Travels .in. India, p. 323. . 



of India but they can rightly claim to be the most progressive and wealthy 
community in the country. To-day they are well-known for their industrial 
enterprise and commercial ventures but early in the seventeenth century 
they still eked out an honest livelihood as agriculturists, skilled artisans 
and small tradesmen. Mandelslo writes : ‘‘Their habitations are for the 
most part along the Sea-Coast, and they live very peaceably, sustaining 
themselves by the advantage they make out of the Tobacco they plant, 
and the Terry they get out of the Palms of those parts, and whereof they 
make Arak, in regard they are permitted to drink Wine. They inter- 
meddle also with Merchandise, and the exchange of Money and keep Shops, 
and are of all Trades, except those of Farriers, Blacksmiths and Lock- 
smiths ; in regard it is an unpardonable sin among them to put out the 
fire.”^^^ When Fryer came to India towards the close of the century they 
still continued to rely mainly on agricultural pursuits. “They are rather 
Husbandmen than Merchants’’ testifies the sailor physician, “not caring 
to stir abroad. Early the next century came another sailor, Captain 
Alexander Hamilton and he found more craftsmen among the Parsees than 
peasants. “They are very industrious and diligent in their Vocation, and 
are bred to Trades and manuring Ground. They are good Carpenters or 
Shipbuilders, exquisite in Weaver’s Trade and Embroidery, which may 
be seen in the rich Atlasses, Bottadaars and Jemewars made by them, as 
well as fine Baroach and Nunsaree Bastas that come from their Manu- 
factories. They work well in Ivory and Agate, and are excellent Cabinet- 
makers. They distil strong Waters, but that they do clandestinely, because 
that Trade is prohibited by the Government they live under ; yet some 
of them get a good Livelyhood by-it.”^^® Still later Grose found that “The 
manufactures peculiar to that province of Guzarat are chiefly carried on 
by the industry of the Parsees, When Bishop Heber came to Bombay 
in the first quarter of the nineteenth century the Parsees had already become 
the foremost Indian mercantile class in Western India. The gradual 
emergence of this enterprising people from agriculture to industry makes 
an extremely interesting story. Compelled to abandon their ancestral home 
by religious persecution the Parsees found a happy asylum in the hospitable 
shores of India and contributed in no small degree to the wealth and 
welfare of the land of their adoption. While standing steadfastly by their 
ancient faith they did not falter for a moment in their fidelity to the new 


Travellers’ accounts often suffer from historical inaccuracy for obvious 
reasons. , They had no access to authentic chronicles of the country and 
for current events they had to depend mainly, if not solely, on bazar 

144. Mandelslo's Travels, p. 59. 

145. Fryer^s East Indies and Persia, Vol. I, p. 295. 

146. Hamilton, A New Account of the East Indies, Vol. I, p. 95. 

147. Grose, A Voyage to the East Indies, Vol. .1, p. 123, 

148. Heberts Journal,^ Vol. II, pp. 175, 194* 



gossip. Moreover they were apt to get confused with unfamiliar foreign 
names and the seventeenth century corruption of Indian nomenclature 
probably made confusion worse confounded. Herbert makes Taj Mahal 
Jahangir’s ‘^best beloved wife” and Malik Ambar ‘‘a son of Nezam 
Shah,’”^® According to Mandelslo ^^Schach Achohar^^ (Shah Akbar) was 
great-grandfather of ^^Schach Choram” (Khuram=Shah Jahan) and 
''Schach Choram, who was living at my being in those parts was a younger 
Son of Scach But all such errors were not due to ignorance, 

sometimes they must be attributed to lack of elementary care. While 
relating the story of the Moghul conquest of Gujarat Mandelslo confidently 
asserts that the last reigning monarch of that kingdom was Mahmud 
Begara (Sulthan Mahomed Begeran)^®^ but later correctly says that 
Madosfher (Muzaffar)^^^ was the name of the last sultan who was carried 
prisoner by Akbar but he later managed to effect his escape and caused 
the emperor no little trouble. But even the hazar gossip preserved by con- 
temporary travellers is not always without its value. The obscene story 
of the incestuous father^®^ which Mandelslo relates in all its revolting 
details seems to have been the origin of the scandal to which Bernier gave 
wide currency in the reign of Aurangzeb. Only the builder of the Taj was 
substituted for a nameless sinner entombed at Ahmadabad and an accom- 
plished princess was made to personate for a young lady unknown to 
history. Travellers had neither the time nor the training for testing 
historical evidence or checking doubtful chronology and accepted for sober 
truth many of the entertaining tales that went round the sarais and market 
places. That contemporary history also suffered badly at their hands will 
be evident from a cursory scrutiny of Thevenot’s account of Shivaji and 
Carry’s History of Shivaji and Sequel to the History of Shivaji}^^ Yet we 
cannot ignore the information they have unconsciously left about the 
economic condition of the country. Many of them noted the prices current 
at the time of their visit of food grains and other necessities of life. All 
of them are not silent about the prevailing wage rates at industrial centres. 
And it is not altogether impossible to prepare a schedule of prices and 
wages for different parts of India at different dates from the materials left 
by foreign travellers and resident merchants in the employment of the 
European trading companies. But this is hardly the place for an enquiry 
into the economic conditions of India during the seventeenth century. 


The most valuable part of Thevenot and Careri’s travels, as indeed of 
all other travellers, is where they record their personal experiences and 
write of the roads they traversed, the towns they visited, the men they 

149. Herbert, Some Yeares Travels, pp. 65 and 68. 

150. Mandelslo’s Travels, pp. 37 and 42. 

151. Ibid, p, 25. 

152. Ibid, p. 48. 

153. Ibid, p. 25. 

154. Sen, Foreign Biographies, pp. 187-258; also The Travel? of dm Carre Vol I 

pp. 229-30 and Vol. 11, pp. 319-23, yoi, i, 



met, the things they saw, the amenities they enjoyed, the discomforts thej^ 
suffered and the difficulties they encountered. In those days there was 
no swift transport, the road was not always good and the country did not 
afford all the comforts and conveniences that the foreigner could expect 
in his own home land. The sea had its corsairs, the land its highwa^mien 
and few travellers could afford to carry with them the much-needed cash ; 
the utility of letters of credit depended on contingencies no one could 
foresee. But despite all these difficulties the lure of the unknown proved 
too strong for many adventurous spirits and in the far-off lands of the east 
they were warmly welcomed not only by their own countrymen but by all 
Europeans in general and even by their dusky brethren in faith. Careri 
was befriended by Portuguese officials and clergymen, Mandelslo was 
received with open arms by the English and the Dutch merchants, Pietro 
della Valle found never-failing friends in the Dutch and even Carre, 
employed on a political mission, was not infreciuently helped by the enemies 
of his country, A white man travelling in the MoghuTs country could 
normally count on the friendship and assistance of other white men. 

The first annoyance that awaited the traveller at the port of dis* 
embarkation was the customs officer, not a popular figure in any country 
at any time. The duties were not high but the search was in some places 
exceptionally strict. Surat had a bad name among strangers on this 
account. Roe heard of 'Hhe custome of the Kings officers to search everie 
thing that came ashoare, even to the pocketts of mens cloathes on their 
backs, for custome.’’^®® His • ambassadorial rank spared him all indignity 
and discourtesy but the average stranger could not expect any special con- 
sideration. Pietro della Valle, however, testifies that an exception was 
made in the case of his lady companion, doubtless on account of her sex. 
''Near the place where the boats land,’' he informs us, "stands the Doganaj 
or Custom-house, and it took us up some time to dispatch there, because 
they observe very narrowly, all goods that are brought in, (although they 
be but Clothes for change) to see whether there be anything coming to 
the Customes ; nor will they suffer strangers to enter till they be first 
known, and have license as 'tis also practis’d in Venice,. In all things they 
proceed with so great wariness, and good order, that it being knowm that 
I conducted with me Sigra Mariuccia although a girl very young, the 
Capo or President of the Dogana, requir’d likewise to be informed of her 
quality and gave order that she should not be conducted with any violence, 
or other disorder : otherwise in lawful things, there is no difficulty, either 
through diversity of Religion, or upon any other account,”^®® Pietro della 
Valle had no merchandise with him, but Nicholas Downton who had, had 
less pleasant experience at the customs house of Surat. Mandelslo says 
that a duty of 2% was levied on bullion and 3i% on everything else^®^ 
but he had no compliments to pay to the men of the customs. "We came 
ashore near the SuUhiin/s (governor’s) Palace,” says he, "and went imme- 
diately to the Custom-house to have our things search’d by the Officers 

155. Poster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, pp. 28-29. 

156. Travels of Pietro della Valle, Vol, I, pp. 23-24. 

157. Mandelslo’s Travels, p. 18. 


there ; which is done with such exactness in this place that they think 
it not enough to open Chests and Portmantles, but examine peoples clothes 
and pockets. The Sulthan or Governour, nay the Customers themselves, 
oblige Merchants and Passengers to part with, at the price they shall think 
fit to put upon them, those Goods and Commodities which they had brought 
for their own private use.’’ Thus Mandelslo had to part with a pair of 
yellow amber bracelets for the time being at least. Obviously the 
merchants were more rigorously searched than ordinary passengers. But 
the customs house people had to be very much on the alert as pearls were 
often smuggled through the port of Surat. It is needless to say that despite 
all vigilant scrutiny the professional smugglers and the more respectable 
merchants did not always find it difficult to pass unnoticed articles of high 
value and small dimensions like pearls. Roe admits that Richard Steele 
and Mr Jackson brought with them *^the pearle and some other small 
matters stollen ashoare, according to my order, which I received and gave 
quittance for.”^^® Tavernier mentions the case of an English captain who 
smuggled gold on several occasions and observes that ‘'the merchants who 
import it (gold) use so much cunning in order to conceal it, that but little 
of it comes to the knowledge of the customs officers. The former do all 
they can to evade paying the customs, especially as they do not, run so 
much risk as in the custom-houses of Europe,”^®® 

Different countries have different ways of catering to the travellers’ 
needs. The lack of inns in India was a subject of common complaint among 
newcomers from the west. Nicholas Downton says that “they have not 
the use of innes, as in Christendome” and travellers had to lodge in Serais 
instead.^®^ Terry elaborates the inconveniences in more explicit terms. 
“In this kingdome there are no innes to entertaine strangers. Onely in 
great townes and cities are faire houses built for their receit (which they 
call Sarray) not inhabited ; where any passengers may have roome freely, 
but must bringe with him his bedding, his cooke, and other neces- 
saries wherein to dresse his meate ; which are usually carried on 
camels, or else in carts drawne with oxen, wherein they have 
tents to pitch when they meate with no Serras,’’^®^ Mandelslo also 
found that “There are no common Inns in all the Kingdom of 
Guzuratta, nor indeed in all the Mogul’s countrey, but instead 
thereof in Cities, as also in some Villages, there are certain publick 
Buildings, called Sarai, built by some persons out of Charity, for the con- 
venience of Strangers and Travellers, who were it not for those, would be 
forc’d to lie in the open Air. These are the Cara/vanseraSj which have only 
the four walls, and a covering overhead ; so that to be accommodated 
therein, a Man must bring along with him what is not to be had there.’’^®® 
But all serais were not of this type as we learn from Nicholas Withington. 

158. Handelslo’s Travels, p. 12. 

ISa. Foster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, p. 405. 

160. Tavernier’s Travels in India, Vol. I, p. 9, 

161. The Voyage of Nicholas Downton, p. 138. 

162. Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 311. 

163. Mandelslo’s Travels, p. 65. 



^Between Adgemere and Agra’*, lie says, ‘'at everye ten courses (which 
is an ordinarye days jotirneye) there is a serralia or place o£ lodging boothe 
for man and horse, and hostesses to dresse our victuals if we please, paying 
a matter of 3d. both, for horse and meate dressinge.”^®'^ Peter ]\Iundy also 
confirms that "Metrannes or Betearees are certen Women in all Saraes, 
that looke to the little roomes there and dresse the Servants meate, accomo- 
dateinge them with Cottes etts. needful to bee had ; of these some have 2, 
some 3 or 4 roomes a peece, for vrhich in the morninge wee pay 1 pice or 
2 pice each.”^®“ Tavernier describes another type of Serais. "The w*ord 
sera”, says he, "signifies a great enclosure of walls or hedges, within which 
50 or 60 thatched huts are arranged all round. Here there are some men 
and women who sell flour, rice, butter, and vegetables who make it their 
business to prepare bread and cook rice. If by chance any IMusalman 
arrives, he goes into the village to seek for a piece of mutton or a fowl, 
when those who supply the food to the traveller clean out for him the 
room which he wishes to occupy, and they place in it a small bed of girths, 
upon which he spreads the mattress which he carries with him on his 
journey.”^®® But even the best equipped serai compared but ill with the 
village inns of Europe where a traveller could expect a comfortable bed, a 
cheery fire, a jug of ale and a roast joint of meat. Bernier complains, "The 
Eastern Kamvans-Serrah resemble large barns, raised and paved all round, 
in the same manner as our Pont-neuf. Hundreds of human beings are seen 
in them, mingled with their horses, mules, and camels. In summer these 
buildings are hot and suffocating, and in winter nothing but the breath of 
so many animals prevents the inmates from dying of cold.”^®^ The picture 
is doubtless overdrawn, for the good Frenchman was pining for the excel- 
lent inns between Paris and Lyons. The inn and the serai were the inevit- 
able products of the social customs prevailing in their respective regions 
and the oriental more accustomed to the open-air life did not find it incon- 
venient to sleep in the uncovered courtyard and the Hindu had necessarily 
to cook his own food, for in most cases the caste rules w^ould not permit 
him to sit at a common table and be served by a common cook. But even 
such comforts as the serais afforded were not to be had everywhere. Peter 
Mundy says there was no serai between Agra and Ahmadabad^®® and at 
Mandu Sir Thomas Roe had to lodge in a ruined tomb w^here his peace and 
rest were nightly disturbed by a lion and a wolf.^®® In the Deccan, mosques 
and temples often offered shelter to the passing strangers. 

In these days of high speed and quick transport an ox-drawn coach 
’may be contemptuously dismissed as an antediluvian contrivance, slow, 
inconvenient and uncomfortable. In the seventeenth century the Indian 
ox was a noble animal fleet of foot, strong of limbs and inured to long 

164. Poster, Early Travels in India, p. 225. 

165. The Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol. n, p. 321. 

166. Tavernier’s Travels in India, Vol. I, p. 45. 

167. Bernier, Travels in the Mogul Empire, p, 233. 

168. The Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol. II, p. 264. 

169. Poster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, p. 365. 

170. Tavernier’s Travels in India, Vol. I, p. 123, 


jouraeys^’^^ and tlie ox chariot was not deemed unworthy of royalty. The 
merry monarch Jahangir once had a joyride with his beloved Nurmahal 
'^in open waggon,^ ‘‘drawne by bullocks, himselfe carter and no man 
neare’*,^’^® as Roe tells us. It may be argued that the cart was selected on 
this occasion more for fun than for comfort but Mundy once saw twenty 
‘‘Coaches for the kinge’s owne use, whereof 2 only were drawne by 2 
horses’’ and “the rest by Oxen some of Extraordinarie greatnes, and some 
againe as little, chosen of purpose. The English President at Surat 
sent an '^Indian Coach, drawn by two white Oxen” to bring Mandelslo to 
his house^’'^ and when the German aristocrat visited Ahmadabad, Benjamin 
Roberts, the chief of the English factory there, came to receive him with 
his coach. “His Coach made after the Indian fashion, was gilt all over, 
covered with several pieces of Persian Tapistry, and drawn by two white 
Oxen, which express’d as much metal as we could have expected from the 
best Horses in Germany. At another place Mandelslo writes, “In 
travelling through the Countrey, they make use of Camels, Mules, Horses 
and Oxen. They have also a kind of Coaches, for two or three persons, 
which are drawn by Oxen, whereto they are so accustomed, that they easily 
get ten or twelve leagues a day. The upper part of covering of these 
Coaches is of Cloath or Velvet ; but those which carry Women are close of 
all sides. Herbert mentions chariots drawn by buffaloes^’’’' and poorer 
people not infrequently rode buffaloes and oxen which Mandelslo found 
exceedingly uncomfortable.^^® But Tavernier thought otherwise. “Oxen,” 
he says, “take the place of horses, and there are some of them whose paces 
are as easy as those of our hacks.”^’’® Wealthy people had of course more 
stately conveyances. They could travel in Palanquins and Chaudalas with 
greater ease and ride the elephant if they liked, but for the common folk 
and the ordinary traveller the homely cart was the coach par excellence. 
Pietro della Valle and his Mariucca travelled from Surat to Cambay in 
two of these country chariots and crossed a shallow part of the Gulf of 
Cambay at low tide without even wetting the floor, for the water did 
not come above the belly of the big oxen. Pietro and the lady squatted 
inside their chariots in good Indian fashion but Downton’s lack of care 
“in letting one legge hang out of the coach, and (in talke) moving it to 
and fro” almost cost him that limb.^®^ Coach oxen were not at all in- 

171. According to the Ain4-Akhari the Gujarat breed was the best "Though every 
part of the empire produces cattle of various kinds, those of Gujarat are the 
best. Sometimes a pair of them are sold at 100 muhurs.. They will travel 
80 kos in 24 hours and surpass even swift horses.” Blochman, Ain^i-AkbarL 
Vol. I, p. 149. 

172. Foster, The Embassy cf Sir Thomas Rce, p. 426. 

173. The Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol. II, p. 193. 

174. Mandelslo's Travels, p. 12. 

175. Ibid, p. 22. 

176. Ibid, p. 65. 

177. Herbert, Some Yeare*s Travels, p. 42. 

178. Mandelslb*s Travels, p. 45. 

179. Tavernier’s Travels in India, Vol, I, pp. 35-36. 

180. Travels of Pietro della Valle, Vol, I, p. 65. 

181. The Voyage of Nicholas Downton, p, 141. 



expensive, a pair cost Tavernier nearly 600 rupees but he warns the reader 
not to be surprised for some of them ‘^make journeys lasting sixty days, 
at 12 or 15 leagues a day, and always at the trot/'^"- Bullock jhatkas or 
covered carts are still in common use in South India. One of the mural 
paintings in a building adjoining the great Shiva temple of Tanjore depicts 
a queen of the place seated on a chariot drawn by a pair of oxen. 

The coaches naturally lead us to the roads some of 'which at least 
received high appreciation from foreign travellers. The highway from 
Agra to Lahore was by common consent the best in the country. Coryat 
was not a blind admirer of things Indian and he could claim to be a 
competent judge of roads as he had hiked through many countries of 
Europe and Asia. His admiration of this long avenue extending over 
hundreds of miles was as unbounded as genuine. '‘From the famous citie 
of Lahore I have tw’'entie daies journey to another goodly citie, called 
Agra, through such a delicate and even tract of ground as I never saw 
before, and doubt whether the like bee to be found within the whole 
circumference of the habitable world. Another thing also in this way 
being no lesse memorable than the plainenesse of the ground ; a row of 
trees on each side of this way where people doe travell, extending it selfe 
from the townes end of Lahore to the townes end of Agra ; the most in- 
comparable shew of that kinde that even my eies survaied.^’^®^ Herbert, 
while recording the distance from Agra to Lahore, does not forget to add 
"most of the way being through a shade of Trees.’^^®^ Mandelslo found 
travelling from Agra to Lahore "so much the more pleasant, in that our 
way was but one continued Alley, drawn in a streight line, and planted 
on both sides with Date-trees, Palm-trees, Cocos-trees, and other kind of 
Fruit-trees, which gave us a continued refreshing shade against the heat 
of the Sun.^’^®® But other roads were not probably so good or so pleasant. 
In every likelihood the road from Agra to Lahore was better looked after 
for it was the king^s highway par excellence, being frequently used by the 
Emperor himself and his principal nobles. At the other extreme were 
rough tracks hardly deserving the name of public thoroughfares. Roe 
writes to Sir Thomas Smythe while in the entourage of the Emperor, "I 
am yet follow.eing this wandering King over mounta 3 mes and through 
woods, so strange and unused wayes that his owne people, who almost know 
no other god, blaspheame his name and hers that (it is said) conducts all 
his actions/^^®® Sometimes they had to "cutt the way through the woods, 
but with soe much trouble and inconvenience to the baggage that it was 
left behind.'’^®’’ But Jahangir was obviously travelling by unfrequented 
byeways or his nobles would not be cursing and grumbling. 

In those days people had to travel in company and with guards, for 
the roads were not safe. Sometimes, the qafilla or caravan would grow in 

182. Tavernier’s Travels in India, Vol. I, p. 37. 

183. Poster, Early Travels in India, p. 244. 

184. Herbert, Some Yeares Travels, p. 62. 

185. Mandelslo’s Travels, p. 45. 

186. Poster, The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, p. 337. 

187. Ibid, p. 338. 



size as it progressed, for fresh, people would join it at different points for 
the security it offered. Peter Mundy says that a qafilla of moderate size 
that left Surat with fifteen to twenty coaches gradually swelled into a 
crowd of 250 to 300 carts by the time it reached Nandurbar and became 
all the more vulnerable as the rear had hardly any effective contact with 
the van.^®® . The region from Surat to Cambay which Thevenot and Pietro 
della Valle covered at different dates was far from safe in the earlier decades 
of the seventeenth century, Downton heard of robbery and murder in 
the near neighbourhood of Broach. He describes the road from Broach 
to Chormondo as ‘*the most theveshest waie in those partes’^ and his party 
was provided with a guard of twenty five horsemen.^®® Downton was 
detained at Ahmadabad after obtaining the Governor’s leave to depart, 
‘‘but that night, divers beinge robbed and murdred close by the cittie gates, 
order againe was given we should not departe untill such time as a sufficient 
guarde was provided. Mandelslo says : “The Rasboutes make the way 
between Amadahath and Cambay a very dangerous, which made me take 
for my Convoy eight foot-souldiers arm’d with pikes and Bucklers. This 
kind of Souldiers do also the office of Tacqueys, running just before the 
Horses’, and may be hired for a small matter ; for I gave them but eight 
Crowns for the whole journey, though I had them three dayes in which 
time I travel!’ d thirteen of the Country Leagues. Once the highway- 
men extorted one hundred rupees from a qafilla that Mandelslo^®^ met and on 
another occasion he encountered a party of Rajput robbers near Anklesar.^®^- 
Peter Mundy describes the country between Agxa and Ahmadabad as 
“Theivish” and heard of a number of robberies near Abu.^®® Three wit- 
nesses therefore agree that the country near about Ahmadabad was rather 

Downton and Mandelslo had armed men to protect them and their 
goods against the predatory Rajputs and Kolis. Thevenot mentions another 
class of guards, the Charans, whose novel method of defence was 'quite as 
effective and could be purchased at two rupees a day. But the armed 
guards were not expensive either, as Mandelslo points out. As for their 
fidelity, Terry’s testimony is quite conclusive. “I must needes commend 
the Mahumetans and Gentils for their good and faithfull service ; amongst 
whom a stranger may travell alone, with a great charge of money or goods, 
quite through the countrey and take them for his guard, yet never be 
neglected or injured by them. They follow their masters on foote carrying 
swords and bucklers or bowes and arrows for their defence ; and by 
reason of great plentie of provision in that kingdome, a man may 
hire them upon easie conditions, for they will not desire above five shillings 

188. The Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol. II, p. 45. 

189. The Voyage of Nicholas Downton, pp, 25-26. 

190. Ibid, p. 103. 

191. Ibid. p. 113. 

192. Mandelslo’s Travels, p. 30. 

193. Ibid, p. 35. 

194. Ibid, p. 46. 

195. The Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol. II, pp. 264 and 246. 



the moone, paide the next day after the change, to provide themselves all 
necessaries, and for it doe most diligent service/^^®*^ 

Bnt the Rajputs who extorted money from travellers in Gujarat and 
in the neighbouring regions were not necessarily common robbers. Many 
petty chieftains had their traditional right of levying tolls or transit duties 
on goods and men passing through their territories. Thevenot mentions 
the Grassia Raja who in lieu of the duties he received extended free 
hospitality to the caravan. The Rajputs of Champanir who infested the 
Broach-Baroda road owed no allegiance to the Emperor, as Mandelslo was 
told,^^"^ and were more like the bold barons of medieval Europe than the 
armed rufSans who stopped coaches on the King's highway. The garrison 
of an old castle near Baroda used to levy an impost of a Rupee and half 
per wagon and those who resisted the claim would no doubt be despoiled 
of their belongings. Mandelslo also relates how a second band of the 
so called robbers lightly let off a Bania caravan when they w’'ere told that 
earlier a sum of one hundred rupees had been paid to another party of 
armed men/®® In certain cases rebel leaders regularly collected Zakat or 
taxes from all passersby and Mundy tells us how near Sirohi his party 
had to halt one day ‘To pay our custome to Chanda."^®® Similarly when 
customs were demanded of Mundy and his friends by Raja Shiv Das's men 
near Allahabad they vainly invoked the authority of the Emperor and 
his Viceroy on whom the most filthy abuses were showered.^®^ Tavernier 
definitely states that “there are Rajas, or petty tributary Princes, who inter- 
fere with trade, each claiming that the goods ought to traverse his territory 
and pay him custom. "^®^ The powerful Zemindars, far away from the seat 
of imperial authority were at liberty to exercise their customary right of 
exacting tolls and transit duties and those who had the temerity of refusing 
their claims would naturally be relieved of all their earthly goods. But 
if the highways of India were not quite safe for lonely travellers in the 
seventeenth century conditions in other countries were not much better. 
About the same time Mundy found the country between Phillipopolis and 
Sophia particularly robber ridden^®^ and Des Hayes observes that in most 
parts of Serbia and Bulgaria villages had strong enclosures where people 
took shelter when robbers were about.^®^ About six miles from Chamb^ry 
Coryat passed a castle where all strangers had to pay a small sum. The 
city of Venice according to him was infested by armed ruffians at night. 
Similarly Coryat heard on his way to Abbeville in France that the forest 
of Veronne through which he had to travel had lurking in it “false knaves'* 
who “suddenly set upon travellers."®®^ The town of Mirandula in Italy 

196. Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 313. 

197. Mandelslo’s Travels, p. 19. 

198. Mandelslo’s Travels, p. 21. 

199. Ibid, p. 35. 

200. The Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol. H, pp. 258-259. 

201. Ibid, p. 118. 

202. Tavernier’s Travels in India, Vol. I, p. 31. 

203. The Travels of Peter Mundy, Vol. I, p. 61. 

204. Ibid, pp. 205-206. 

205. CoryaVs Crudities^ Vol. I, p. 160. 




was ^ Very desolate and' unpeopled : the reason is, because the Bandits 
which are the murdering robbers upon the Alps, and many places of Italy, 
make their aboad in it as it were their safe sanctuary and refuge, where 
they live in the castle of the Towne, who because they doe often times 
violently break out upon the townsmen and other passengers, depriving 
them both of life and goods, they minister such occasion of feare to the 
inhabitants, that there dwell but few people in the towne.'^^®® Coryat 
further states that it was not wise to take more than a specified sum of 
money to some parts of Italy. ‘‘At the townes end certain searchers 
examined us for money, according to a custome that is used in many other 
townes and cities in Italy. For if a man carry more money about him 
then is warranted or allowed in the country, it is ipso facto confiscated 
to the Priace or Magistrate, in whose territory a man is taken/'^®^ 

The seventeenth was a century of war and turmoil both in Europe and 
in India, law and order could not be as strictly enforced then as in later 
times, and that sense of citizenship which alone ensures social security 
was yet to be developed. The arm of the state was nowhere long enough 
to reach every corner of the country. The Rajputs and Kolis who have 
been indiscriminately classed as robbers or highwaymen really took 
advantage of the weakness of the administration. They fall under three 
categories, chieftains exercising hereditary rights of levying tolls, rebels 
blackmailing the defenceless travellers, and petty princes in the role of the 
guardians of peace, like the Grassias and the KoH‘ rajas, forcing merchants 
and travellers to purchase their protection and forbearance. Besides them 
there was the ordinary highwayman who terrorised the countryside. But 
on the whole conditions in many parts of India permitted organised bands 
of merchants and travellers to move about in comparative safety. We must 
not forget that Thevenot traversed the Deccan when the Maratha menace 
was still unabated and Careri passed through the southern Maratha country 
when the Moghul and the Marathas were engaged in a life and death 
struggle. It also appears that the highroads of Gujarat had become safer 
since the days of Downton and Mandelslo for Pietro della Valle and 
Thevenot hardly encountered any danger on their journey from Surat to 
Cambay. Oaten’s remarks are not unworthy of consideration when he 
says; “From one point of view there is nothing that gives us such an 
insight into the comparatively high state of civilisation in India during 
the medieval period as the immunity with which strangers from a foreign 
country were able to take their' women-folk with them on their travels in 
India. In the fifteenth century we saw Conti doing so with perfect safety ; 
at the beginning of the seventeenth Pietro della Valle supplies us with a 
second example. Had the positions been reversed and an Indian traveller 
attempted to travel with his family through any of the more civilised 
countries of Europe between the beginning of the fifteenth and the close 
of the sixteenth century, it is doubtful whether the treatment he would 
have received would have been in any way comparable to that which the 

206. CoryaVs Crudities, Vol. I, p. 26J, 

207 . im, p. 227. 



natives of India, Hindu and Mohammedan alike, meted out to their 
‘Feringhi’ visitors.”®®* 

Terry also testifies to the civility of the common people and the general 
security of the road. “The truth is,” he says, “that the people there in 
general are very civil, and we never had any affronts or ill usage from them, 
if we did not first provoke them.” Unfortunately such provocations were 
not always wanting though ruffled tempers did not ordinarily lead to any 
untoward result if amends were made in time. Terry cites three such cases. 
Sir Thomas Roe had brought with him an Fnglish cook to Surat. The 
day he arrived at the port the cook found his way to an Armenian’s house 
and got drunk. While “staggering homeward” he met the governor’s 
brother and reviled him as a “heathen dog.” That gentleman not under- 
standing the language enquired what he said. “The cook answered him 
with his swprd and scabbard, with which he struck at him.” He was 
immediately seized, disarmed and lodged in the local gaol but was seat 
home unpunished when the ambassador “sent word unto the governor’s 
brother that he was not come hither to patronise any disorderly person, 
and therefore desired him to do with him what he pleased.” On another 
occasion an Englishman who claimed to know the country and its people 
better had brought troubles on Terry’s party by his unwarranted rudeness. 
“In our journey towards the Court (after we had been in our way about 
seven days from Surat) we rested at a place called Ditat, where many of 
the inhabitants offered to guard us and our goods, though we (observing 
there was no danger) desired it not, but they would do it, and in the 
morning expected and asked something of us by way of recompense. One 
of our company (who had been in East-India a year or two before) told 
them, that what they had done they did without our desire, and therefore 
they should have nothing from us, but some ill language, which he then 
gave them. We set forward in the morning, according to our wonted 
custom ; .they followed after us, to the number at the least of three hundred 
men, (for the place was great and populous) and when we were gone about 
a mile from that town, stopped our carriages ; he of our company who told 
them they should have no recompence, was presently ready to shoot at them 
with his musket, which made them all to bend their bows at us.” The 
impending disaster was however averted by Terry’s intervention, and a few 
kind words with a paltry present (worth three shillings of English money) 
sufficed to put the angry mob in a better mood and they left with mutual 
good wishes. The third trouble was caused by a yormg man of aristocratic 
birth who had proved a disgrace to his family and had been sent to the 
east to die of drink or hardwork. He whipped a servant of Prince Ehurram 
for refusing to hold his horse and again “with a little money, and great 
many good words, we so quieted this man, that we never after heard any 
more complaining from him. So that, as I before observed, we were not 
at any ti-mp in any dangers of suffering by that people, but some of our 
own nation was the procuring cause of it.” It is pr^umed that too many 

2()8. Oaten, Travels in India, pp. 137-138. 

ixiv iNbiAN Travels of thevenot ano careei 

scapegraces were not sent abroad to save troubles at home and such 
instances as Terry recorded were by no means common..^®^ 


Everything taken into consideration the foreign travellers had one 
great advantage over the chroniclers of the court. Having nothing to fear 
or to expect from the powers that were they could fearlessly tell the un- 
varnished truth regardless of official frowns and favours. Having come 
from other lands they recorded with meticulous care matters seemingly 
unimportant which a native of India would have ordinarily dismissed as 
commonplace. But they had their limitations as well. Their knowledge 
of the country and its people was in most cases superficial and the value 
of their accounts necessarily depended upon the sources of their informa- 
tion. They suffered from the common credulity of their age and they were 
not always in a position to verify or test the accuracy of what they were 
told. Their veracity is not to be questioned but we need not accept any- 
thing on trust. No authority can be more reliable than his sources and 
in assessing the historical merit of Thevenot and Careri’s travels we should 
always bear this salutary principle in mind. Their learning, their integrity, 
their sincerity are not suspected. Yet we may not be able to accept all 
their statements as equally authentic without a sifting enquiry as to their 
sources that may not always be equally irreproachable. This is however 
not to minimise the value of foreign travellers* accounts of India. As a 
contemporary source of Indian history they will always remain indis- 
pensable, but what cannot be dispensed with is not necessarily infallible. 

209. Terry, Voyage to East India (London 163S), pp, 160-09. 







Mr. de Thevenot, 


The Relation of Indostan, the New Moguls, 
and of other People and Countries 
of the Indies. 

M. DC. 

Avu Prh 


kge d» %. 








The Relation of Indosiwn, the New Moguls, and of 
other People and Countries of the 




I set out from Balsora'- in the Ship Ho^ewel,^ the sixth of 
November, 1665, six Days before® the beginning of the Monson,* 
and the tenth of January 1666, arrived at the Bar of Stirrat Bar of 
so that I had above two Months Voyage of it. That place which 
is about six French Leagues from Surrat, is called, the Bar, 
because of the many Sand-banks that hinder great Ships from 
entring the River, before they be unloaded ; and the proper 
season for Sailing on the Indian-Sea, is called Mousson or 
Monson, by corruption of Moussem, I have mention’d in the Monson. 
Second Part of my Travels, that that season wherein there is a 
constant Trade-Wind upon that Sea, begins commonly at the 
end of October ; that it lasts to the end of April, and that that 
is the time to go from Persia to the Indies, if one would avoid 
the Tempests. 

Next Day, being the Eleventh, about half an hour after 
two a Clock® in the Morning, I went with the rest of the 
Passengers into a Boat, and at Eight at Night we arrived before 
Surrat, near to the Custom-house, where coming to an Anchor, 

I past the Night in the Boat ; and next Day, the twelfth of 
January, about ten of the Clock in the Morning the Custom- 
house being open, our Boat upon the signal given, put in to 




A strict 

The Bar is 
six Leagues 
from the 

Ahassy 18 
Half a 
(Roupie 15 


Land as near as it could : From thence we were carried ashore 
upon Mens backs, who came up to the middle’^ in the Water to 
take us up, and immediately® we were led into a large Court ; 
having crossed it, we entred into a Hall, where the Customer 
waited for us, to have us searched. 

Visited® we were ; but in so severe and vexatious a manner, 
that tho’ I did expect it, and had prepared my self for it before 
hand, yet I had hardly patience enough to suffer the Searchers 
to do whatsoever they had a mind to, tho’ I had nothing about 
me but my Cloaths ; and indeed, it is incredible what caution 
and circumspection those People use to prevent being cheated. 
And in this manner they proceed.^® 

So soon as a Ship comes to an Anchor at the Bar, the 
Master is oblig’d to to go ashore in his Boat, and acquaint the 
Custom-house with his arrival, and presently^^ he is search’d 
from Head to Foot, at the same time a Waiter^^ is sent on board 
the Vessel, to hinder them- from breaking bulk, running any 
thing ashore, or on board another Ship that hath been ahready 
searched ; and in the mean time, if they have still time enough, 
they send off several Barks to bring the Men and Goods ashore 
to the Custom-house. The Waiter^® has for his dues from every 
Passenger an Abassy^^ which is worth about eighteen Pence ; 
and the Bark has half a Roupie a Head, that is, about fifteen 
Pence for the passage. If when the Passengers come to the 
Town, the Custom-house be not as yet shut, they presently^® 
come ashore ; but if it be, they must tarry in the Bark : In 
the mean while it is never open but from ten in the Morning 
till Noon,^® and it requires a whole Tide to come from the Bar 
to the Town, unless by good luck one have the Wind and Tide 
with him. 

Seeing the rest of the Day and all the following Night are 
to be spent in the Bark, Waiters are set over it. Who keep 
constant Watch to see that none enter in or go out. When the 
Custom-house is opened, and the Passengers suffered to come 
ashore, then double diligence is used, and the number of 
Waiters encreased. One^^ Bark advances at a time, and the^® 
lands just against the Custom-house Gate which is upon the 

There is a Kiochk/^ or covered Pavillion, where Sentinels 
are placed to observe and view all that goes in or comes out 
of the Bark ; and the Custom-house Porters go into the Water, 
and bring the Men and Goods ashore upon their Backs. 

In the mean time, there are upon the River-side, a great 
number of Pions , who are Men ready to be employ’d in any 
kind of Service, and to be hired by the Day, if one pleases, 
as the in Italy are. These Pions of the Custom-house 

have great Canes in their Hands to keep off the People with^ 



that those who come ashore may not have the least communi- 
cation with any body ; and for the greater security, they draw 
up in both sides, and make a Lane for the Passengers. This 
is no inconsiderable service to new comers, for if any body came 
near them, they would certainly be accused of smuggling Goods ; 
and then besides the Caning they would be expos’d to, they 
must also expect to be roundly fined, and some have been fined 
in above Ten thousand Livres,^^ though, in reality they had 
not saved a bit of Goods. And, indeed, they who have a mind 
to conceal any thing, and defraud the Custom-house, order their 
Affairs more truly They stay not^® till they come to Surrat, 
there to beg the assistance of their Friends. I have known some 
bring in a great many precious Stones, and other rich Jewels, 
which the Officers of the Custom-house never saw, nor got one 
Farthing by, because the Dutch Commander was their Friend, 
and had assisted them. 

From that Court of the Custom-house, one is led into the 
Hall, wdiere the chief Customer sits on his Divan/^ after the 
manner of the Orientals, and his Clerks underneath him. I 
shall say nothing of the Indian Divans in this place, because 
they are like to those of Turhy and Persia, The Passengers 
enter into that place one after another, and but one at a time. 
Presently^’’ they write down in a Register the name of him that 
enters, and then he is searched. He must take off his Cap or 
Turban, his Girdle, Shoes, Stockins, and all the rest of his 
Cloaths, if the Searchers think fit. They feel his Body all 
over ; and handle every the least inch of stuff about him with 
all exactness if they perceive any thing hard in it, they imme- 
diately rip it up, and all that can be done, is to suffer patiently. 
That search is long, and takes up above a quarter of an Hour 
for every Person severally, though at that time they only 
examine what they have about them. If they find Gold or 
Silver, they take two and a half per cent, and give back the 
rest then the partie is let go, but must leave his Goods and 
Baggage. He that hath been searched marches out by the 
Wicket of a Gate that opens into the Street, where there is a 
Guard that suffers him not to pass without Orders from the 

Next Day, all who have left their Goods or Baggage, fall 
not to come to the same Gate. The Customer comes also about 
ten of the Clock in the Morning, and having considered whether 
the Seal which the Day before he put upon two great Padlocks 
that hold the great Gate and Wicket shut, be whole or not, 
he causes both to be opened. He and his Men go in ; the Gate 
is shut again, and the Wicket only left open. So all wait with- 
out till they be called in ; and it was my good fortune to be 
introduc’d with the first. 



What is 
pay’d at 
the Custom- 

The limits 
of India. 

The Divi- 
sion of the 
Limits of 

The Source 
of Ganges. 

They presently^® bid me own what belong’d to me, and my 
Cloakbags being brought into the middle of the Hall, they were 
opened and emptied ; every thing was examined one after 
another : Though I had no Merchant-goods, yet all was searched; 
my Quilt was ript up, they undid the Pommel of one of my 
Pistols, with Pegs of Iron felt in the Holsters ; and the Clerks 
at length, being satisfied with the view of my things, I was 
let go, and pay’d only Custom for my Money. It was no small 
fortune for me to be so soon dispatched ; for Men may wait 
sometimes a Month before they can get out their Baggage, and 
especially they who have Merchants-goods, for which at that 
Custom-house they pay Pour in the Hundred, if they be 
Christians, and Five in the Hundred if they be Banians.^^ 



Before I enter into a particular Description of what I have 
seen in the Indies, it is necessary for the understanding of the 
Countrey, that I describe the Limits thereof, and say somewhat 
of their Extent. If one would comprehend in the Indies all the 
Countries which to the West border on the Provinces of 
Macran,^ or Sinde/ Candahar and Kahoul ;® to the North j or^ 
Tartary ; to the East, on China and the Sea ; and to the South, 
on the Ocean, there is no doubt but that so great a number of 
Kingdoms and Provinces must make a very vast Countrey : 
But it may be truly said, that to the East the extent of it, 
(which is very large) is not as yet well known, seeing the 
Traders of Indostan, who traffick in China, spend above a Year 
in Travelling from their own Countrey into that ; and that 
long Journey is a good Argument that there are several King- 
doms betwixt the Great MoguVs Countrey, and that of the 
Emperour of China, 

In the usual Division of the Indies, that Eastern part is 
called India beyond the Ganges^, as the Western is named 
India on this side of Ganges, This latter part is best known, 
and is called Indostan^, having for its natural Limits to the 
W est and East, the Ganges and Indus, which have their 
Sources^ in the Mountains of Zagatay^ and Turquestan, These 
two last Countries border Indostan on the North-side, as the 
Indian-Sea limits it on the South, round the Cape of Comory^, 
from the Mouths of Ganges to those of Indus, 

The Empire of the Great Mogul which in particular is 
called Mogulisian is the largest and most powerful Kingdom 



of the Indies ; and the Forces of the othcT Kings of Indostan 
ought the less to be compared to his, that most of them are in 
some dependance on that Prince. I shall write what I know 
of their Kingdoms, when I have treated of his and of himself. 



The Great MoguE descends in direct line from Tamerlaji/ 
whose Successours that setled in the Indies, took to themselves 
the Name of Moguls, that they might be distinguished from 
those to whom that Prince left Zagatay, CorassanJ^ Persia, and 
other Countries to be Governed after him. They thought that 
that Name might contribute much to the Glory of their Family, 
because by taking it they would more easily perswade Men, 
that they are of the Race of Ginguis Can^ the First Exnperour Gingiiis 
of the Ancient Moguls, who had carried it above Twelve Ages® 
before them, and who under that Title began the Greatest and 
most Powerful Empire in the World. 

Mogul was heretofore the Name of a mighty People, who Mogul 
inhabited a vast Country at the extremity of East Tartary, 
towards the North, which some have called Mogul, others 
Mongul and Mongal, and others Mogulistan, where Ginguis 
Can was Born. That Emperour or Great Chan, reduced it 
wholly under his Obedience, before he undertook the Conquest 
of the rest of Asia ; and his Subjects, as well as he, were called 
Moguls. This gave occasion to those of India, to take the 
same Name, thereby to signifie that they are descended from 

As for the Genealogy of Tamerlan, it must be examined Tamerlan. 
some where else than in the relation of Travels, if one would 
know the truth of it, because of the diversity of opinions that 
are to be found amongst the Oriental writers upon that subject. 

Tamerlan had already given great jealousie to the Indians, Gazna. 
by Conquering the Province of Gazna, ^ which had been some- 
times in their dependance, though lying a great deal on this 
side of the Indies, and which in his own lifetime was Possessed 
by Pir Muhemmed,'^ Son of his Eldest Son Gayeieddin but Pir-Muhem- 
when Mirza Baber, who descended from the Third Son of that 
Emperour,® retreated thither after the loss of Maurenahor^^ or Mirza BabTr. 
Zagatay, he bestirred himself so well in setling his Dominion 
there, as he did in some other Countries of the Indies that lay 
next to him, and were,“ according to the Lebeliaric,^^ {he 
Reigned Fpurty three Years,) that his Son Humayon had no Humayon. 

lNi>IAN travels of thevenot 

great difficulty to get Footing in Indostan after the death of 
his Father, which happened in the Year 1530. and who had 
already made some unsuccessful attempts in that Country. 

This young Prince made himself Master of Candahar, 
Cahoul, and many other Towns, the greatest part whereof he 
lost sometime after by the Valour of Chaalem^^ King of Bengcde 
and Deran but he recovered them in process of time by the 
means of Tahmas^^ Kings of Persia, whose Sister he Married, 
and having carried his Conquest farther on, he made 
the Capital of his Kingdom. 

Ecbar. His Son Ecbar^'^ Succeeded him ; and having joyned a great 

many Provinces of Indostan to those which his Father left him, 
died in the Year 1604,^® 






The death 
of Chage- 

Selim his Eldest Son, was immediately Crowned by the 
Name of Gehanguir .oxid having Reigned Three and twenty 
Years, and enlarged, the Conquest, he died in the Year 1627. 

After his death, his Grandson Boulloquoy^^ Reigned about 
Three Months, but he was strangled by Order of Sultan 
Corom, a Rebel Son of Gehanguir, who having made sure of 
the Empire, took to himself the Name of Chagehan^^ in the 
Year 1628. 

Seeing Blood and Rebellion raised him to the Throne, he 
had experience of the same disorders amongst his Children,^® 
which he had caused to his Father ; for through their jealousie 
his Empire was almost always in confusion, and at length fell 
into the hands of Auranzeb^^ the Third of his Four Sons, who 
Reigns at present. ' 

In mounting to the Throne, this Prince imitated the crimes 
of his Father ; for he put to death Dara his Eldest Brother, 
imprisoned Mourad^^ his other Brother who confided in him, 
and clapt up his own Father in Prison, who died Five or Six 
Years after, about the end of the Year 1666. 

The Power 
of the 

The Regis- 

The Great Mogul is certainly a most Powerful Prince, as 
vve may Judge by his Riches, Armies, and the number of 
People that are within the extent of his Empire. His yearly 
Revenues, they say, mount to above Three hundred and thirty 
French Millions.^® The Canon Name,^"^ which is a Register 

tered Forces containing a List of his Forces, makes it appear, that that 
Mo^^ul Prince entertains Three hundred thousand Horse, of which 
betwixt Thirty and Thirty five thousand, with ten thousand 
Foot are for a Guard to his Person both in time of Peace and 
War, and are commonly quartered in those places where he 
keeps his Court. This Empire extends from East to West 
above Four hundred Leagues, and from North to South above 
Five hundred, and that vast space, (excepting some Mountains 
and Deserts,) is so’ full of Towns, Castles, Burroughs and 
Villages, -and by consequence of Inhabitants who tilUthe Land, 



or emprove it by manufactures, and the commerce which that 
Country affords, that it is easie to judge of the Power of the 
King who is Master thereof. 

The true bounds of his Empire are to the West, Macran The hounds 
or Sinde and Candahar ; to the East, it reaches beyond the . 

Ganges ; to the South it is limited by Decan, the great Sea and ' 
the Gulf of Bengale ; and to the North by the Tartars, The 
exageration of many Travellers, concerning the extent of the 
Countries of this great King of the Indies, was the cause that 
I made it my business to consult the most knowing IMen, that 
I might learn what they thought of the greatness of it, and 
what now I write is their Opinion. 

They affirm not as some do, that when the Mogul makes The true 
War, he sends Three hundred thousand Horse into the field. 

They say, indeed, that 'he pays so many ; but seeing the chief " ‘ 

Revenues, or to say better, the rewards of the Great Men, 
consist particularly in the pay which they have for more or 
fewer Troopers, it is certain that they hardly keep on Foot one 
half of the Men they are appointed to have ; so that when the 
Great Mogul marches upon any expedition of War, his Army 
exceeds not an Hundred and ‘fifty thousand Horse, with very 
few Foot, though he have betwixt Three and four hundred 
thousand Mouths in the Arhiy. 

Besides, I was informed by any Indian who pretends to 
know the Map of his Country, that they reckon no more but 
twenty Provinces^^ within the extent of Mogulistan in the 
Indies, and that they who have reckoned more, have not been 
well informed of their number, since of one Province they 
have made two or three. 

This Indian had a list of the Princes Revenues calculated Twenty Pro- 
for the twenty Provinces, and I made no doubt of the .truth of yinces or 
his System ; but I had rather call them Governments, and say 
that every Government contains several Provinces. I shall tan. 
observe the Revenues of the Governments, in the Discription 
I give of them, and shall call each Government a Province, 
that I may not vary from the memoires which I have ; and as 
I entered the Indies by the Province of Guzerat, so I shall 
describe it before the others. 





Guzerat, The Province of GuzeratJ- which was heretofore a King- 

dom, fell into the Possession of the Great Mogul Echar, about 
the year 1565.^ He was called into it by a great Lord,^ to 
whom the King of Guzeratj Sultan Mamoet^ gave the general 
Government thereof, when being near his death, he trusted 
him with the tuition and regency of his only Son, in the Year 
1545, or 1546 during the Reign of Humayon the Father of 

Government. The ambition of that Governour who was envied by all the 
great Men® of the Kingdom of Guzerat, that were his declared 
Enemies, and against whom he resolved to maintain himself 
at the cost of his own lawful Prince, made him betake himself 
to the King Moguls under pretext of soliciting his protection 
Mudafer for his Pupil named Mudafer/ who was already of Age,’' but 
Girfrat suflScient Authority to maintain his Guardian against 

the faction of the great Men whom he had provoked. 

SSchar seizes 

kills him- 

Guzerat a 



Ecbar entered Guzerat with an Army, and subdued all 
those who offered to make head against him, and whom the 
Governour accused of being Enemies to his King : But instead 
of being satisfied with one Town® which with its Territories 
had been promised hitn, he seized the whole Kingdom, and 
made the King and Governour Prisoners. That unfortunate 
Prince being never after able to recover it again ; not but that 
having made his escape, he attempted once again to have 
reestablished himself,® but his efforts were in vain, for he was 
overcome, and made Prisoner a second time, so that despair at 
length made him destroy himself. 

This is the pleasantest Province of Indosian, though it be 
not the largest. The Nardaha, Tapiy,^^ and many other Rivers 
that water it, render it very fertile, and the Fields of Guzerat 
look green in all the seasons of the Year, because of the Corn 
and Rice that cover them, and the various kinds of Trees, 
which continually bear Fruit, 

The Ports The most considerable part of Guzerat is towards the Sea, 

oil which the Towns of Surrat and Camhaye^^ stand, whose 
’ Ports are the best of all MoguUstan. But seeing Amedahad is 
the Capital Town of the Province, it is but reasonable we 
should treat of it before we speak of the rest. 

Departure February the First I parted from Surrat to go to that 

Town, and going out at Baroche I marched streight 

to^Ameda- j^Torth. Two hours after I crossed the River Tapty, in a Boat 
The Boats enough, but very incommodious for taking in of Chariots, 

on the because the sides of it^were two foot high. Eight Men were 



forced to carry mine, after they had taken out the Oxen, in* 

and I was about half an hour in crossing that River. I con- 
tinned my journey by the Town of BeriaOj^^ the River of Town^ ^ 

which I crossed with the same trouble that I had done the Kim a River. 
Tapiy, by the Town Onclisscr/^ the River of Nerdabaj and at Ouclisscr 
length I arrived at the Town of Baroche, which is distant from 
Surrat and the Sea, Twenty Cossss which makes about Ten River. 
French Leagues, because a Cosse^^ which is a Measure amongst Cossc, 
the Indians for the distance of places, is about half a League. 

Baroche^'^ lies in 21 degrees 55 minutes North Latitude, ^^rochc. 
The fortress of Baroche is large and square, standing on a 
Hill, which makes it to be seen at a great distance. It is one 
of the chief strengths of the Kingdom, and had heretofore a 
very large Jurisdiction. The Towm lies upon the side,^® and 
at the foot of the Hill, looking tow'ards the River of Nerdaba, 

It is environed with Stone-Walls about three Fathom high, 
which are flanked by large round Towers at Thirty or Thirty 
five Paces distance one from another. The Bazards^^ or 
Market-places are in a great Street at the foot of the Hill ; and 
there it is that those Cotten-Stufls are made, which are called 
Baftas/^ and which are sold in so great plenty in the Indies. Baft as. 

The Hill being high and hard to be mounted, it might be 
a very easie matter to put the fortress in a condition not to 
fear any Attack, but at present it is so much slighted, that 
there are several great breaches in the Walls^^ to the Land side, 
which no body thinks of repairing.. In that Town there are 
Mosques and Pagodes/^ that’s to say. Temples of the Heathen, 
as well above as below. The River-water is excellent for 
whitening of Cloaths, and they are brought from all parts to 
be whitened there. There is little or no other Trade there, but 
of Agates ; but most of those are Sold at Cambay e. There is 
great abundance of Peacocks in the Country about Baroche.^^ Peacocks at 
The Dutch have a Factor^^ there for the quick dispatch and 
clearing at the Custom-house, the other sorts of Cloaths that 
come from Amedabad and elsewhere, because since all Goods 
must pay duties“^ as they enter and come out of Baroche, there 
would always happen confusion, if the care of that were 
referred to the carriers who transport them. 

Leaving Baroche, I continued my Journey Northwards, to 
the little Town of Soiirhan,^^ which is seven Leagues distant Sourban. 
from Baroche, and then having crossed the Brook JDader,^'^ and 
several Villages, I arrived at Debca^^ which lies on the side of Debca. 
a Wood seven Leagues from Sourban. The inhabitants of this 
Town were formerly such as are called Merdi-Coura or Anthro- 
pophagi,^^ Man-eaters, and it is not very many Years since 
Mans flesh was there publickly sold in the Markets. That pkagL 
place seems to be a nest of Robbers ; the Inhabitants who are 




for the most pairt Armed with Swotds, are a most impudent 
sort of People: In what posture soever you be, they con- 
tinually stare you in the Face, and with So much boldness,, that 
let one say what he pleases to them, there is no making of 
them to Vrithdraw ; Passengers that know them, are always 
upon their Guard, nay, and are obliged to carry a Lance with 
them, when they go to do* their needs. 

Petnad, Next day we parted from thence and went to Petnad/^ a 

little Town seven Leagues and a half from Dehca, and arrived 
there, having first past the Gulf or River of Mai/^ where there 
is a Watch to secure the Rode.®^ We found in our way two 
great Tanquiez^^ and a great number of Monkies of an extra- 

Tanquiez, ordinary bigness. These Tanquiez are standing Ponds or 
reservations^^ of Rain-water ; there are many of them in the 
Indies, and commonly there is great care taken in looking after 
them, because Wells being rare in that Country, there is an 
extream need of these publick reservatories, by reason of the 
continual thirst which the heat causes in all Animals there, 
and some of them are as big as Lakes or large Ponds. 

An account Next we came to the Town of Sousenira,^^ where we say 
ofthe^Road a very lovely Well, which I shall not describe in this place, 
because it is almost like to that of Amedabad, whereof I shall 
Speak in its proper place. From thence we went to Mader®® 
which is six Leagues and a half from Petnad, Upon the Road 
we saw an infinite number of Apes of all sorts, not only upon 
the Trees in the Fields, but even those also by the way side. 
Which were not in the least afraid of any body. I sever all 
times endeavoured to make them flie with my Arms, but they 
stirr’d not, and cried their pou pou like mad, which is, as I 
think, the koup koup of which Monsieur de la Boulaye^'^ 

^here is a great Wartree®* four leagues from Snrrat where one may 
repose. Kim a River, OucUsser a Town. Nerdaba a River are to be 
past, and tfien one conies to Bccroche, 10 leagues from Surrat, Sourban 
a Town 7 leagues from Earache. Dader a River or Brook. Debca 7 
leagues from Southern. Mai a River. Petnad 7 leagues and a half from 
Debca. Sousentra a Town. Mader 0 leagues and a half from Petnad. 
McCirous a River. 

We went next teJ Githag,^^ five Leagues from Mader, we 
met a great many CoUes,^^ which are a People of a Caste or 
from ^ader. Gentiles, who have no fixed Habitation, but wander 

from Village to Village, and carry all they have about with 
them. Their chief business is to pick and clean the Gotten, 
and when they have no more to do in one Village they go to 
another. In this Village of Gitbag, there is a pretty handsome 
Garden of the Kings : I walked in it ; it lies along the side 
of a reservatory, and I saw a great many Hankies and Peacocks 
therein. The dwelling which remains appears to have beeh 

irom ourrai 
to Ameda- 

One must 
go out by 
gate and 
cross the 
River of 
Tapty a 
league and 
a half from 

Gitbag 5 

pH| I JHpiill I ^ 

The sepulchre of Shah Alam at Sarkhej 



handsome, but it is let run to ruin ; and a Royal-house, 
fax off, is in very bad repair also. It is but two leagues 
a half from Githag to Amedabad. 

not Amedabad 


gues from 



A medabad is distant from Surrai fourscore and six Cossess, 
which make about fourty three French Leagues. It is not 
improbable but that this Capital of Guzerat is the Amadavisiis 
of Arian,^ though modern Writers say, That it hath its name 
from a King called Ahmed or Amed/ who caused it to be 
rebuilt, and that it was called Guzerai^^ as well as the Province, Gnerdahad. 
before that King reigned. King Chagehan named it Guerda- 
bad/ the Habitation of Dust, because there is always a great 
deal there. This Governour of the Province has his residence 
in it, and he is commonly a Son of the Great Mogul ; but at 
present a great Omra called Muhabbat-Cau'^ is the Governour ; 
and the Kings of Guzerat resided there also, before King Ecbar 
seized it. 

This Town lies in twenty three Degrees and some Minutes The Scitua- 
North-Latitude.® It is built in a lovely Plain, and Watered 
by a little River called Sabrenietty/ not very deep, but which Sabremetty 
in the time of the Rains prodigiously overflows the Plains.®’ ^ River. 
There you may see many large Gardens, enclosed with Brick- 
walls, and which have all a kind of Pavillion at the entry. 

After that I saw a very spacious Reservatory,® that hath in the A. Reserva- 
middle a lovely Garden fourscore Paces square, into which one 
enters by a Bridge four hundred Paces long, and at the end of a Garden in 
the Garden there are pretty convenient Lodgings. the middle. 

Then you. see several Houses here and there, which makes, 
as it were, a great Village, and a great many Tombs® 
indifferently well built. This might be called an Out Suburbs, 
because, from thence one enters by a Postern into a Street with 
Houses on each side, which leads straight into the Town, and 
is on that side the true Suburbs of Amedabad. 

The Town is enclosed with Stone and Brick-walls, which The Walls 
at certain distances are flanked with great round Towers and 
Battlements all over. It hath twelve Gates, and about a League bad. 
and a half in its greatest length, if you take in the Suburbs. 

It is one of the places of Guzerat that is most carefully kept 
in order, both as to its Walls and Garrison, because it lies most 
conveniently for resisting the. incursions of some neighbouring 
Rajas. They are afraid particularly of the Inrodes of the Raja 



Raja of 

Dutch in 

The Meidan 
of Ameda-^ 

The Castle 
of Ameda^ 

The fair 
seray of the 
Meidan of 

of wlio is powerful by reason of the Towns and Castles 

which he hath in the Mountains, and which are not accessible 
but by narrow passes that can be most easily defended. King 
Ecbar used all endeavours during the space of seven Years to 
ruin that Raja ; but he could not accomplish it, and was forced 
to make Peace with him. However his People are always 
making Incursions, and he comes off by disowning them. His 
usual Residence is in the Province of Candich.^^ 

So soon as I arrived at Amedabad, I went to lodge in 
Quewanseray,^^ where I found the Monument of the Wife of 
a King of Guzerat : After I had taken a little repose there, 
I went to see the Dutch Factors, for whom I had Letters from 
the Commander of Surrat, They detained me, and no excuse 
would serve, but that I must needs lodge with them ; nay, they 
were so kind, as to accompany me by turns to all the places 
of Amedabad, wither my Curiosity led me : They are lodged 
in the fairest and longest Street of the Town. All the Streets 
of Amedabad are wide, but this is at least thirty Paces over, 
and at the West end of it there are three large Arches that take 
up its whole breadth. 

Going from their Lodgings, one enters by these high Arches 
into the Meidan-Chah,^^ which signifies the Kings Square. It 
is a long Square having four hundred Paces in breadth, and 
seven hundred in length, with Trees planted on all sides. The 
Gate of the Castle is on the West side, opposite to the three 
Arches,^® and the Gate of the Quervanseray on the South, On 
the same side there ate six or seven pieces of Canon mounted, 
and on the other, some more great Gates which are at the Head 
of pretty fair Streets. In this Meidan there are several little 
square Buildings about three Fathom high, which are Tribunals 
for the Cotoual,^^ who is the Criminal Judge. In the middle 
of the place there is a very high Tree, purposely planted for 
the exercise of those who learn to shoot with the Bow, and who 
with their Arrows strive to hit a Ball which for that end is 
placed on the top of the Tree. 

Having viewed the Meidan, we entered the Castle by a 
very high Gate, which is betwixt two large round Towers about 
eight fathom high. All the Appartments of it signifie but 
little,^^ though the Castle be walled about with good Walls of 
Freestone, and is as spacious as a little Town. 

The Quervanseray in the Meidan, contributes much to the 
beautifying of that place. Its Front is adorned with several 
Lodges and Balcony's supported by Pillars, and all these 
Balcony's which are of Stone, are delicately cut to let in the 
Light. The entry is a large eight-square^® Porch arched over 
like a Dome, where you may find four Gates, and see a great 
many Balcony's: These Gates open into the body of the 



Building, whicli is a Square of Freestone two Stories high, and 
varnished over like Marble, with Chambers on all sides, -where 
Strangers may lodge. 

Near the MeidaUj is a Palace belonging to the King, which The Kings 
hath over the Gate a large Balcony for the Musicians, who 
with their Pipes, Trumpets, and Hoboys, come and play there, ^ 
in the Morning, at Noon, in the Evening, and at Midnight. 

In the Appartments thereof there are several Ornaments of 
Folliages, where Gold is not spared. The English Factory is 
in the middle of the Towm. They are very well lodged, and 
have fair Courts. Their Ware-houses commonly are full of the 
Cloaths of Labors and Dehly, with w^hich they drive a great 

There are many Mosques great and small in Amedahad, junta- 
but that which is called Juma-mesgidj^^ Fridays Mosque,^® mesgid 
because the devout People of all the Town flock thither on that 
Day, is the chief and fairest of all. It hath its entry from the 
same Street where the Dutch-house is built, and they go up to 
it by several large Steps. The first thing that appears is a 
square Cloyster of about an hundred and forty Paces in length, 
and an hundred and twenty in breadth, the Roof whereof is 
supported by four and thirty Pillasters. The Circuit of it 
is adorned with tw^elve Domes, and the Square in the middle 
paved with great square Bricks. In the middle of the Front 
of the Temple, there are three great Arches, and at the sides 
two large square Gates that open into it, and each Gate is 
beautified with Pilasters, but without any order of Architecture. 

On the outside of each Gate there is a very high Steeple, which 
hath four lovely Balcony^s, from whence the Muezins^^ 
or Beadles of the Mosque, call the People to Prayers. Its chief 
Dome is pretty enough, and being accompanied with several 
little ones, and two Minarets, the whole together looks ver3^ 
pleasant ; all that pile is supported by forty four Pillars placed 
two and two, and the Pavement is of Marble. The Chair of the 
Imam^^ is there as in other Mosques, but besides that, in a corner 
to the Right hand there is large Jube^^ resting upon two and 
fourty Pillars eight Foot high apiece, which must only have 
been built to hide the Women that go to the Mosque, for that 
Jube is closed up as high as the Sealing with a kind of Pannels 
of Plaster with holes through ; and there I saw above two 
hundred Faquirs/^ who held their Arms cross ways behind 
their Head, without the least stirring. 

Amedahad being inhabited also by a great number of Santidas, 
Heathens, there are Pagods, or Idol-Temples it it. That which 
was called the Pagod of Santida^^ was the chief, before nie of King 
Auranzeh converted it into a Mosque. When he performed that Auranzeb, 
Ceremonie, he caused a Cow to be killed in the place, knowing fnga'^plg^ 
very well, that after such an Action, the Gentiles according to 

into a 

Chaalem a 



A spacious 


their Law, could worship no more therein. All round ^ the 
Temple there is a Cloyster furnished with lovely Cells, beautified 
with Figures of Marble in relief, representing naked Women 
sitting after the Oriental fashion. The inside Roof of the 
Mosque is pretty enough, and the Walls are full of the Figures 
of Men and Beasts ; but Auranzeb, who hath always made a 
show of an affected Devotion, which at length raised him to the 
Throne, caused the Noses of all these Figures w^hich added a 
great deal of Magnificence to that Mosque, to be beat off.^® 

The Chaalem^^ is still to be seen in Anteddbad ; it is the 
.Sepulchre of a vastly rich Man whom the Indians report to have 
been a Magician, and the Mahometans believe to be a great 
Saint ; so that it is daily visited by a great many out of 
Devotion : It is a square pile of Building, having on each side 
seven little Domes which set off a great one in the middle, 
and the entry into that place is by seven Ports which take up 
the whole front. Within this Building there is another in form 
of a Chappel, which is also square, when one is within the first 
which is paved with Marble, one may walk round the Chappel 
that hath two Doors of Marble, adorned with Mother of Pearl, 
and little pieces of Chrystal : The Windows are shut with 
Copper Lattices cut into various Figures. The Tomb of the 
Mock-Saint which is in the middle of the Chappel, is a kind of 
a Bed covered with Cloath of Gold, the Posts whereof are of 
the same materials as the Doors of the Chappel are, and have 
the same Ornament of Mother of Pearls ; and over all there are 
six or seven Silken Canopy^s, one over another, and all of 
different colours. The place is very much frequented, and 
is continually full of white Flowers brought thither by the 
Devout Mahometans, when they come to say their Prayers : A 
great many Estrige-Fggs^® and hanging Lamps are always to 
be seen there also. 

On the other side of the Court there is a like Building,^® 
where some other Saints of theirs are Interred, and not many 
steps farther, a Mosque^® with a large Porch supported by 
Pillars, with many Chambers and other Lodgings for the Poor ; 
and to compleat all, there is a spacious Garden at the backside 
of the Mosque. 

There are many Gardens in Amedabad ; and are so full 
of Trees, that when one looks upon that Town from a high 
place, it seems to be a Forrest of green Trees, most of the 
Houses being hid by them ; and the Kings Garden®^ which is 
without the Town and by the River-side, contains all the kinds 
that grow in the Indies, There are long Walks of Trees planted 
in a streight line, which resemble the Cours de la Reine at Paris, 
It is very spacious, or rather, it is made up of a great many 
Gardens raised Amphitheatre-wise ; and in the uppermost there 
is a Terrass-Walk, from whence one may see Villages at several 



Leagues distance. This Garden being of a very great extent, 
its long Walks yielded a very agreeable Prospect. They have 
in the middle Beds of Flowers, which are not above a Fathom 
and a half in breadth, but which reaches from one end of the 
Garden to the other. In the Centre of four Walks which 
makes a Cross, there is a Pavillion®^ covered with green Tiles. 

Thither go all the young People of the Town to take the fresh 
Air upon the Banks of a Bason^® Ml of water underneath. 

Going thither, we saw a pile of Building, where a King 
of Guzerat lies Interred.®^ It is a square Fabrick, and in the 
Opinion of the Indians, the Magicians and Sorcerers entertain Guzerat at 
the Devil there. It is covered with a great Dome, having five ^ * 

smaller ones on each side ; and on each front of the Building, 
there are Pillars which support these Domes. Some Streets 
from thence there is to be seen a Sepulchre, where a Cow is a 

interred under a Dome standing upon six Pillars. Cow. 

They would have me go next to Serqueeh,^^ which is a Serquech, 
small Town about a League and a half from the City. The 
Indians say, that in ancient times that place was the Capital 
of Guzerat/^ because of the vast number of Tombs of Kings 
and Princes^’' that are there ; hut it is far more probable, that 
that place was only destin’d for their Burying, and that 
Amedahad hath always been the Capital. I observ’d there a 
Building much of the same structure as that of Chaalcm. It 
hath the same Ornaments, and is dedicated also to one of their 
Saints and all the difference is, that this has thirteen Domes®® 
on each side, and the Dome which covers the Chappel, is 
painted and guilt in the inside. Opposite to this Fabrick, there 
is another like to it, and dedicated also to a Saint. 

Near to these Sepulchres, I saw a Mosque^® like to that 
which I viewed at Amedahad ^ and the only difference is, that 
it is less. It hath adjoyning to it^^ a great Tanquies^^^ or 
Keservatory ; in the Chappels on the sides whereof, are the 
Tombs of the Kings, Queens, Princes and Princesses of Guzerat, Sepulchre of 
to which they descend by several Steps of very lovely Stones.'^® PrS^es 
They are all of good solid work, whereby it sufficiently appears, ot Guzerat, 
that they have been made for Kings and Princes ; but they 
are framed^® according to the same Model. They consist com- 
monly of a large square Building that hath three great Arches 
on each Front, and over them a great many little ones. There 
is a large Dome in the middle, and a great many little ones 
in the sides, and in every corner, a Tower with a little pair 
of Stairs in the thickness of the Wall, to go up to Terras-Walks 
which are at certain distances upon the Building ; the Tomb 
being exactly under the great Dome. Most of these places are 
full of the marks of the Peoples Devotion, both Mahometans 
Indians, who on certain days flock: thither, of wffiom the 



Indigo at latter bewail the loss of their Princes. 'There are a great many 
Serquech* Pagods in those quarters, and from Serquech comes all the 
Indigo^^ which is sold at Amedahad. 

Anextraor- Without the City of Amedahad there is a lovely Well,^^ the 
dinary Well. Figure of it is an oblong square ; it is covered with seven 
Arches of Freestone, that much adorn it : There are six spaces 
betwixt the Arches to let light in, and they are called, the 
Mouths of the Well. It is four Fathom broad, and about four and 
twenty long. At each end there is a Stair-case two Foot broad 
to go down to it, with six Stories^® or landings supported by 
Pilasters eight Foot high : Each Storie hath a Gallerie, or 
place^^ of four Fathom extent, and these Galleries and Pilasters 
are of Freestone : Sixteen Pilasters support each Gallerie, and 
the Mouths of the Well are about the same length and breadth 
that the Galleries are : The Figure of the third Mouth differs 
from the rest, because it is an Octogone, and has near it a little 
turning"^® Stair-case that leads down to the Well ; the Water 
of it rises from a Spring, and it was up to the middle of the 
fourth Story when I went down, several little Boys at that 
time swiming in it from one end to the other amongst the 
Pillars. The Indians say, that this Well was made at the 
charges of a Nurse of a King of Guzerai, and that it cost thirty 
Millions but I could discover no work about it that required 
so great expences. 

111 this Town there is an Hospital for Birds.®® The Gentils 
lodge therein all the sick Birds they find, and feed them as 
long as they live if they be indisposed. Four-footed Beasts 
have theirs also : I saw in it several Oxen, Camels, Horses, 
and other wounded Beasts, who were look’d after, and well 
fed, and which these Idolaters buy from Christians and Moors, 
that they may deliver them, (as they say,) from the cruelty 
of Infidels ; and there they continue if they be incurable, but 
if they recover, they sell them to Gentils and to none else. 

Panthers for There are a great many Forrests about Amedahad, where 

Hunting. Panthers®’- for Hunting, and the Governour of the 

Town causes them to be taught, that he may send them to the 
King. The Governour suffers none to buy them but himself, 
and they whose care it is to tame them, keep them by them in 
the Meidan, where from time to time they stroak and make 
much of them, that they may accustom them to the sight of 

A rare Beast. q^he Dutch shewed me a Beast they had, which is much 
esteem’d in that Countrey. It hath the Head of a Conie, and 
the Ears, Eyes and Teeth of a Hare ; its Muzle is round and 
of a Flesh-colour, and hath a Tail like a Squirrel ; but it is 
a Foot and a half long : In the Fore-feet it hath four Fingers', 
and a Claw in place of the fifth ; its hind Feet have five Toes 
compleat, which are very long as well as the Claws; The 


Sole of its Feet is flat like an Apes, and of a Flesh-colour : Its 
Hair is long and course, and of a dark Red ; but that on its 
Belly and Fore-feet is gre3ri'sh like the Wooll of a Hare ; it 
will eat any thing but Flesh, and easily cracks the hardest 
Nuts : It is neither wild nor hurtful ; will play with a Cat, 
and shew tricks like a Squirrel : It rubs its Snout with the 
Feet and Tail as they do, and has the same cry, but much 
stronger. The Dutch bought it of an Abyss hi, who had it at 
Moca, though no body could tell the name of it, nor what kind 
of Beast it was. For my part, I make no doubt but that it is 
a particular kind of Squirril, though it be three times as big 
as those we have in Europe, 

The Commodities that are most traded in at Amedabad, 
are Satins, Velvets, Taffeta’s, and Tapistries with Gold, Silk AmTdahad, 
and Woollen Grounds : Cotten-Cloaths are sold there also ; but 
they come from Labors and JDehly : They export from thence 
great quantities of Indigo, dried and preserved Ginger, Sugar, 

Cumin, Tac, Mirabolans, Tamarins, Opium, Saltpetre and 
Honey. The chief trade of the Dutch at Amedabad consists in 
Schites,^^ which are painted Cloatlis ; but they are nothing 
near so fine as those of Masulipatan^^ and St. ThomasJ'^ 



Having seen what was curious and worth the seeing in Departure 
Amedabad, and having thanked my Eandlords for their Civili- 
ties, who at parting procured me an Officer of the Catoual to \oCambaye, 
see me safe out at the Gates. I departed the sixteenth of 
February for Cambaye which is but two days easie Journey, 
that is, about fifteen or sixteen French Leagues from Amedabad, 

I followed the same way I came after I had visited the little 
Town of Baredgia,^ which I left on the Left hand in coming. Barcdgia 
It is four Leagues from Amedabad ; but I saw nothing in it a Town, 
remarkable. When I was got as far as Souzenira I took to the 
Right hand,^ the way of Cambaye, and came to lodge all Night Cambaye, 
in the Village of Canara,^ a League and a half from Cambaye, 

Cambaye which some call Camhage is a Town of Guzerai,^ Cambaye, 
lying at the bottom of a Gulf of the same name which is to 
the South of it. It is as big again as Surrai but not neat so 
populous ; it hath very fair Brick-walls about four Fathom high, 
with Towers at certain distances. The Streets of it are large 
and have all Gates at the ends,® which are shut in the Night- 
time : The Houses are very high, and built of Bricks dried in 




the Sun, and the Shops are full of Aromatick Perfumes, Spices, 
Silken and other Stuffs. There are vast numbers of Ivory 
Bracelets, Agat-Cups, Chaplets and Pings made in this Town ; 
Agats, and these Agats are got out of Quarries of a Village called 
Nimodraj^ which are about four Teagues from Camhaye, upon 
the Road to Baroche ; but the pieces that are got there are no 
bigger than ones fist. 

The Castle Most part of the Inhabitants ore B anions and Raspoutes/ 

of CamMye. shall describe in the sequel. The Castle where the 

Governour Todges is large, but not at all beautiful. There 
are so msny Monkies in this Town, that sometimes the Houses 
are covered over with them, so that they never fail to hurt 
some body in the Streets when they can find any thing on the 
Roofs to throw at them. The out skirts of the Town are 
beautified with a great many fair publick Gardens. There is 
The a Sepulchre built of Marble,® which a King of Guzerat raised 

Sepulchre in Honour of his Governour, whom he loved exceedingly, 

Go^rnour repair. It contains three Courts, in one 

of the King of which are several Pillars of Porphyrie, that still remain of 
of Guzerat. ^ greater number. There are many Sepulchres of Princes there 
An Hospital also. Heretofore there was in Comhaye an Hospital for Sick 
Beasts, but it hath been neglected, and is now fallen to ruin.® 
The Suburbs are almost as big as the Town, and they make 
Indigo there.^® The Sea is half a Teague distant from it, though 
heretofore it came up to the Town and that has lessened the 
trade of the place, because great Ships can come no nearer than 
three or four Teagues. The Tides^^ are so swift to the North 
of the Gulph, that a Man on Horse-back at full speed, cannot 
keep pace with the first Waves ; and this violence of the Sea 
is one reason also why great Ships go but seldom thither. The 
Dutch come not there but about the end of September, because 
along the Coast of India that looks to^^ Arabia, and especially in 
this Gulf of Cambaye, it is so bad for Ships in the beginning 
of this Month, by reason of a violent West-wind^® that blows 
then, and which is always accompanied with thick Clouds which 
they call Elephants, because of their shape, that it is almost 
impossible to avoid being cast away.^® 

Having satisfied my curiosity as to what is remarkable in 
Cambaye, I took leave of my Friends ; and there being several 
ways to go from thence to Surrat, I advised^^ which I had best 
to take. One may go by Sea in four and twenty hours, in an 
Almadie'^^ which is a kind of Brigantine used by the Portuguese 
for Trading along that Coast: But these Vessels go not 
commonly but in the^® night-time, that they might not be 
The Gulf of discovered by the Malabars.^^ In the day-time they keep in 
dangerous, and in the evening the Master goes up to some height 

to discover if there be any Malabar Barks at Sea. The Almadies 
Sail so fast that the Malabars cannot come up with them, but 

for sick 

Indigo at 

Ways to 
return to 



they endeavour to surprise them, and when they discover any Malabar 
one in a Harbour, they skulk behind some Rock, and fall 
upon it in its passage. Many of these Almadies are lost in the 
Gulf of Camhaye, where the Tides are troublesome, and the 
Banks'^ numerous ; and that’s one reason why Men venture 
not to go to Surrat this way by Sea, unless extraordinary 
business press them. 

There is another way still by Sea, which is to pass through 
the bottom of the Gulf in a Chariot, over against Camhayej at 
low Water ; and one must go three Leagues and a half in 
Water, which then is betwixt two and three foot deep ; But I 
was told that the Waves beat so rudely someLimes against the 
Chariot, that it required a great many hands to keep it from 
falling, and that some mischance always happened ; which 
hindred me from undertaking that course, though I knew very 
well that when I was past it, I had no more but eight and 
twenty Leagues to Surrat . And therefore I chose rather to go 
by Land, what danger soever there might be of Robbers, as I was 
assured there was. 

When my Friends found I was resolved to go that way, Tcheron. 
they advised me for my security to take a Tcherorr^ with a 
Woman of his Caste or tribe, to wait upon me till I were out of 
danger ; but I refused to do it, and found by the success that I 
had reason to do as I did. These Tcherons are a Caste of 
Gentiles, who are highly esteemed amongst the Idolaters : They 
live, for most part at Baroche, Cambay e, and Amedabad: If 
one have any of these with him he thinks himself safe, because 
the Man acquaints the Robbers they meet, that the Traveller is 
under his guard, and that if they come near him, he will cut 
his own Throat, and the Woman threatens them that she’l cut 
off one of her Breasts with a Razor which she shews them ; and 
all the Heathen of those places look upon it to be a great 
misfortune, to be the cause of the death of a Teheran, because 
ever after the guilty person is an eye-sore^® to the whole tribe ; 
he is turned out of it, and for his whole life-time after up- 
braided with the death of that Gentil. Heretofore some Tcherons 
both Men and Women have killed themselves upon such occa- 
sions ; but that has not been seen of a long time, and at present, 
they say, they compound with the Robbers for a certain Sum 
which the Traveller gives them, and that many times they 
divide it with them. The Banians make use of these People ; 
and I was told that if I would employ them, I might be served 
for two Roupies a day: Nevertheless I would not do it, as 
looking upon it to be too low a kind of Protection. 

So then I ordered my Coach-man to drive me the same way 
I came, and to return to Souzentra that I might go to Surrat 
by the ordinary way, though the compass he fetched*^ made 
my Journey longer by seven Leagues and a half. For all the 




Maliy a 

The Raya 
of the 
makes good 

The Raja 
treats the 

caution I could use, my men lost their way beyond Petnad/"^ 
and we found ourselves at the Village of the inhabi- 

tants whereof who are called Gratiates,^^ are for the most part 
all Robbers. I met with one of them towards a little Town 
named Selly he was a fellow in very bad cloaths/® carrying 
a Sword upon his Shoulder ; he called to the Coach-man to stop, 
and a Boy about Nine or Ten years old that was with him, 
ran before the Oxen : My men presently offered them a Pecha?^ 
which is worth about ten French Deniers, and prayed the little 
Boy to be gone ; but he would not, till the Coach-man grow- 
ing more obstinate, obliged the Man to accept of the Pecha. 
These Blades go sometimes^** in whole troops, and one of them 
being satisfied, others come after upon the same Road, who 
must also be contented, though they seldom use violence for 
fear of offending their Raja. I wondered how that Gratiate 
being alone, durst venture to set upon so many ; but he Coach- 
man told me, that if the least injury had been offered to him, 
he would have given the alarm by knocking with his Fingers 
upon his Mouth, and that presently^^ he would have been 
assisted by his Neighbours : In the mean time this small ran- 
counter convinced me that there was not so great danger upon 
the Roads, as some would have made me believe. 

We found our way again shortly after : We then crossed 
the River of Mahy, and coming out of it I gave half a Roupie 
to the same Gratiates whom I payed as I went to A medabad. 
The tole^^ belongs to the Raja of the Country, who is to answer 
for the Robberies committed wdthin his Territories. And the 
truth is, he is as exact as possibly he can be to hinder them, 
and to cause restitution to be made of what is taken, especially 
if it be Merchants Goods, or other things of consequence : And 
my Coach-man told me, that one day having lost an Ox, he 
went to the Raja to demand his Ox ; The Raja sent for those 
•who he thought had stoln it, and causing them to be cudgelled, 
till one of them confessing he had it, he obliged him to bring 
it out, and restore it to the Coach-man, who was to give him 
only a Roupie for the blows he had received. But the Raja of 
the Gratiates do’s much more ; for if he that comes to com- 
plain, have not time to stay till what he hath lost be found, 
it is enough if he tell the place of his abode, and he fails not 
to send it him back by one of his People, though it be eight 
days Journey off. He is so much a Gentleman, that most 
commonly he sends Presents to People of fashion who pass by 
Bilpatj and do’s them all the good Offices they desire of him. 

Seeing the Caravans that pass by that place on their way to 
AgrUj pay him ten Roupies a Man, he treats the whole Caravan 
gratis, and sends Provisions and Victuals into the Camp ; which 
he orders his Cooks to dress. These do what they can to please 
the Caravan, and earn some Pechas from them, and they are 



reckoned the best Cooks in the Countrey ; but in truth, their 
Ragoes"^ are not at all good ; Nor do’s their Master forget to 
send Dancing Girls to divert the Company ; and when they 
are ready to go, he furnishes the Caravan with several Horse- 
men for their security, until they be out of his Jurisdiction. 
His Territories comprehend all the Villages from Cambay c to 
Barochej and all his Subjects are called Gratiatcs. 

Next Day I came to the Town of Bdrochc, and stayed only 
a few Hours to refresh my Men and Oxen. The Officers of 
the Custom-house asked me at parting, If I had any Islerchants- 
goods, and having answered them that I had none ; they took 
my word, and used me civily: So I crossed the River at 
OuclisseVj from whence next day I went to Surrai. 



The Town of Surrat lies in one and twenty Degrees and Snnat. 
some Minutes of North Latitude,^ and is watered by the River 
Tapty, When I came there, the Walls of it were only of Earth, 
and almost all ruinous ; but they were beginning to build them The h'orti- 
of Brick, a Fathom and a half thick ; they gave them but the 
same height ; and nevertheless they design’d to fortifie the place 
as strong as it could be made ; because of the Irruption that a 
Raja,^ (of whom I shall speak hereafter) had made into it some 
time before. However the Ingeneer hath committed a con- 
siderable fault in the setting out of his Walls : He hath built 
them so near the Fort, that the Town will be safe from the 
Canon of the Castle, and those who defend it may easily be 
galled by Musquet-shot from the Town. 

These new Walls^ render the Town much less than it was 
before ; for a great many Houses made of Canes that formerly 
were within its Precinct are. now left out, for which, those who 
are concerned pretend Reparation.^ Surrat is but of an in- The bigness 
different bigness,®, and it is hard to tell exactly the number of of Surrat, 
its Inhabitants,® because the seasons render it unequal: There 
are a great many all the Year round ; but in the time of the 
Monsson, that is to say, in the time when Ships can go and 
come to the Indies without danger, in the Months of January, 

February/ March, and even in April, the Town is so full of 
People, that Todgings® can hardly be had, and the three Suburbs 
are all full. 

It is inhabited by Indians, Persians, Arabians, Turks, The Inhabi- 
Franks,® Armenians, and other Christians: In the mean time^ntsof 
its usual Inhabitants are reduc’d to three Orders, amongst whom, * 



Moors at 

Gentils at 

Parsis at 

Rich Mer- 
chants in 

English and 
Dutch Fac- 
tories at 

The Castle 
of Sttrrat. 

The Houses 
of Surrat. 

indeed, neither the Franks nor other Christians are compre- 
hended, because they are but in a small number in comparison 
of those who profess another Religion. These three sorts of 
Inhabitants are either Moors,^*^ Heathens, or Parsis ; by the 
word Moors are understood all the Mahometans, Moguls, 
Persians, Arabians or Turks that are in the Indies, though they 
be not uniform in their Religion, the one being Sunnis and the 
other Chiais ; I have observed the difference betwi'xt them in 
my Second Part.^^ The Inhabitants of the Second Order are 
called Gentils or Heathens, and these adore Idols, of whom also 
there are several sorts. Those of the third rank are the Parsis, 
who are likewise called Gaures^^ or Atechperest/^ Adorers of 
the Fire : These profess the Religion of the Ancient Persians, 
and they retreated into the Indies,^^ when Calyfe Omar^'^ reduced 
the Kingdom of Persia under the power of the Mahometans. 
There are People vastly rich in Surrat, and a Banian a Friend 
of mine, called Vargivora,^^ is reckoned to be worth at least 
eight Millions. The English and Dutch have their Houses 
there, which are called Dodges and Factories : They have- 
very pretty Appartments, and the English have settled the 
general Staple of their trade there. There may be very well an 
hundred Catholick Families in Surrat, 

The Castle is built upon the side of the River at the South 
end of the Town, to defend the entry against those that would 
attack it, by the Tapiy, It is a Fort of a reasonable bigness, 
square and flanked at each corner by a large Tower. The 
Ditches on three sides are filled with Sea-water, and the fourth 
side which is to the West is washed by the River. Several 
pieces of Canon appear on it mounted ; and the Revenues of 
the King that are collected in the Province are kept there, which 
are never sent to Court but by express Orders. The entry to 
it is on the West side by a lovely Gate which is in the Bazar 
or Meidan: The Custom-house is hard by, and that Castle has 
a particular Governour, as the Town has another.^^^ 

The Houses of this Towm on which the Inhabitants have 
been willing to lay out Money, are flat^' as in Persia, and 
pretty well built ; but they cost dear,^^ because there is no 
Stone in the Countrey ; seeing they are forc’d to make use of 
Brick and Dime, a great deal of Timber is employ’d, which 
must be brought from Daman^^ by Sea, the Wood of the Countrey 
which is brought"^ a great way off, being much dearer because 
of the Dand-Carriage*. Brick and Dime are very dear also ; 
and one cannot build an ordinary House at less charge than five 
or six hundred Divres for Brick, and twice as much for Dime 
The Houses are covered with Tiles made half round, and half 
an Inch thick, but ill burnt ; so that they look still white when 
they are used, and do not last ; and it is for that reason that 
the Bricklayers lay them double, and make them to keep whole. 



Canes which they call Bamhous^^ serve for Laths to fasten the Bambous. 

Tiles to ; and the Carpenters work which supports all thiSj is 

only made of pieces of round Timber : Such Houses as these 

are for the Rich ; but those the meaner sort of People live in, 

are made of Canes, and covered with the branches of Palm- 


Now, it is better building in the Indies in the time of The liine to 
Rain,^^^ than in fair weather, because the heat is so great, and 
the force of the Sun so violent, when the Heavens are clear, 
that everj^ thing dries before it be consolidate,*’^ and cracks and 
chinks in a trice ; whereas Rain tempers that heat, and hindering 
the Operation of the Sun, the Mason-work has time to dry. 

When it rains the Work-men have no more to do, to cover 
their Work with Wax-cloath, but in dry weather there is no The Streets 
remedy ; all that can be done is to lay wet Tiles*® upon the Sturat. 

Work as fast as they have made an end of it ; but they dry 
so soon, that they give but little help. The Streets of Surrat 
are large and even, but they are not paved, and there is no 
considerable publick Buildings within the Precinct of the Town. 

The Christians and Mahometans there eat commonly Cow- 
beef, not only because it is better than the Flesh of Oxen, but * 

also because the Oxen are employed in Plowing the Land, and 
carrying all Loads. The Mutton that is eaten there, is pretty 
good ; but besides that, they have Pullets, Chickens, Pidgeons, 

Pigs, and all sorts of wild Fowd.^® They make use of the Oyl Oyles at 
of Cnicus sihesiris/^ or wild Saffron with their Food ; it is the 
best in the Indies, and that of Sesamum^^ which is common 
also, is not so good. 

They eat Graps in Surmi from the beginning of February, Grapes at 
to the end of April, but they have no very good taste. Some 
think that the reason of that is, because they suffer them not 
to ripen enough : Nevertheless the Dutch who let them hang 
on the Vine as long as they can, make a Wine of them which 
is so eager,®’^ that it cannot be drunk without Sugar, The white 
Grapes are big and fair to the Eye, and they are brought to 
Surrat, from a little Town called Naapoura,^^ in the Province 
of Balagate, and four days Journey from Surrat. 

The Strong-water®^ of this Country is no better than the 
Wine, that which is commonly drunk, is made of Jagre^^ or 
black Sugar put into Water with the bark of the tree Bahoid,^^ 
to give it some force ; and then all are Distilled together. They 
make a Strong-water also of Tary^^ which they Distil ; But 
these Strong-waters are nothing so good as our Brandy, no 
more than those they draw from Rice, Sugar and Dates. The 
Vinegar they use is also made of Jagre infused in Water, There 
are some that put Spoilt-raisins in it when they have any ; but ^ 
to make it better, they mingle Tary with it, and set it for 
several days in the Sun, 









Tary is a liquor that they drink with pleasure in the Indies, 
It is drawn from two sorts of Palm-trees, to wit, from that which 
they call CadgiouYj^ and from that which bears the Coco ; the 
best is got from the Cadgiour. They who draw it gird their 
Toyns with a thick Teather-girdle, wherewith they embrace the 
trunk of the Tree, that they may climb up without a Ladder ; 
and when they are come to that part of the Tree from which 
they would draw the Tary, they make an incision one Inch 
deep and three Inches wide, with a pretty heavy Iron-Chizel, 
so that the hole enters in to the pith of the Cadgiour, which is 
white : At the same time they fasten an earthen Pitcher half 
a Foot below the hole, and this Pot having the back part a 
little raised, receives the Liquor which continually drops into 
it ; whiPst they cover it wnth Briars or Palm branches, least the 
birds should come and drink it. Then they come down, and 
climb not up the Tree again till they perceive that the Pitcher 
is full, and then they empty the Tary into another Pot fastened 
to their girdle. That kind of Palm-tree bears no Dates, when 
they draw Tary from it ; but when they draw none, it yields 
wild Dates. 

They take another course in drawing that Liquor from the 
Cacc>-tree.^ They make no hole, but only cut the lower branches 
to a Foot length. They fasten Pots to the end of them, and 
the Tary Distils into the Vessels. Seeing the Operation I have 
been speaking of is but once a year performed on these Palm- 
tress, they whose Trade it is to sell Tary, have a prodigious 
number of these Trees, and there are a great many Merchants 
that Farm them. The best Tary is drawn in the Night-time ; 
and they who would use® it with pleasure, ought to drink of 
that, because not being heated by the Sun, it is of an acide 
sweetness, which leaves in the Mouth the flavour of a Chest- 
nut, which is very agreable. That which is drawn in the day- 
time is eager,^ and most commonly made Vinegar of, because 
it easily corrupts and decays. That kind of Palm, or Coco- 
tree, is fit for many other uses, for of its trunk they make 
Masts and Anchors, nay, and the hulks of Ships also ; and 
of its bark Sails and Cables. The Fruit that springs from its 
feathered branches, is as big as an ordinary Melon, and contains 
a very wholesome Juice, which hath the colour and taste of 
Whitewine. The Dutch have a great many of these Coco-trees 
in Batavia, which turn to great profit to them. The Revenue 
alone of those which belong to the Company near the Town, 
with the imposition on every Stand of those who sell any thing 
m the Market-place, is sufficient to pay theit Garison ; But 

Tapping toddy 


25 - 

they are so rigorous in exacting it, that if any one leave his 
Standi to take a minutes refreshment in the Rain, or for any 
other necessary occasion, though he immediately come back, 
yet must he pay a second time if he will challenge® the same 

At Surrat, are sold all sorts of Stuffs and Cotton-cloaths Commodi- 
that are made in the Indies, all the Commodities of Europe, hes of 
nay and of China also, as Purceline, Cabinets and Coffers * 
adorned with Torqueises, Agats, Cornelians, Ivory, and other 
sorts of embellishments. There are® Diamonds, Rubies, Pearls, 
and all the other pretious Stones which are found in the East 
to be sold there also : Musk, Amber, Myrrh,^^ Incense, Manna,® 
Sal-Armoniac,® Quick-Silver, Lac, Indigo, the Root Roenas^® 
for dying Red, and all sorts of Spices and Fruits which are got 
in the Indies and other Countries of the Levant, go off here in 
great plenty ; and in general all the Drogues that Foreign 
Merchants buy up to transport into all parts of the World. 



At Surrat as elsewhere, there are diverse kinds of Weights The weights 
and Measures. That which is called Candy, ^ is of twenty Mans, 
but the most common Weight used in Trade is the Man/ which measLe. 
contains fourty Serres^ or Pounds, and the Pound of Surrat con- The Man a 
tains fourteen Ounces, or five and thirty Tales, All Gold and ^urf-at 
Silver is weighed by the Tale/ and the Tale contains fourth’’ The Pound 
Mangeiis,^ which makes fifty six of our Caracts/ or thirty tw^o 
Vales,'^ or otherwise fourscore and sixteen Gongys.^ The Vale ]\ta7igelis, 
contains three Gongys, and two Tales a third and a half, answers Caracts, 
to an Ounce of Paris weight, and a Tale weighs as much as a 
Roupie,^ The man weighs fourty Pound weight all the Indies The dunce 
over, but these Pounds or Serres vary according to different P^ris, 
Countries : For instance, the Pounds of Surrat are greater than 
those of Golconda, and by consequence the Man is bigger also : 

The Serre or Pound of Surrat weighs no more but fourteen 
Ounces ; and that of Agra weighs twenty eight. 

Great sums of Money are reckoned by Leks,^^ Crouls or The Honey 
Courous/^ Padans,^^ and Nils, An hundred thousand Roupies ^ * 

make a Lek, an hundred thousand Leks a Courou, an hundred 
thousand Courous a Padan, and an hundred thousand Padans a 
Nil, The great Lords have Roupies of Gold,^® which are worth Roupies 
about one and twenty French Livres ; but since they pass not 
commonly in Trade, and that they are only Coined for the 




Abas sis. 



The Moguls 
Money Very 

Officers of 




most part, to be made presents of, I shall only speak of those 
of Silver. The Silver Roupie is as big as an Ahassy of Persia, 
but much thicker, it weighs a Tole ; It passes commonly for 
thirty French Sols/^ but it is not^^ worth above nine and 
twenty. They yearly Coin Roupies ; and the new ones during 
the year they are Coined in, are valued a Pecha more than 
those of the foregoing year, because the Coiners pretend that 
the Silver daily wears : The truth is, when I came to Surrat, 
the Roupies were worth thirty three Pechas and a half,^® and 
when I left it, the same were worth but thirty two and a half. 
They have Roupies and quarter pieces also. 

The Abassis that are brought from Persia, pass only for 
ninteen Pechas, which are about sixteen French Sols and a half. 
There is also a Mogole Silver-Coin, called Mahmoudy,^'^ which 
is worth about eleven Sols and a half. 

The Pecha is a piece of Copper-Money as big and thick 
as a Roupie, it is worth somewhat more than ten French 
Deniers,^^ and weighs six of our Drachms, 

They give threescore and eight Baden}^ or bitter Almonds 
for a Pecha, These Almonds that pass for Money at Surrat, 
come from Persia, and are the Fruit of a shrub that grows on 
the Rocks. There are also half Pechas, 

It is to be observed that the Silver Money of the Great Mogul 
is finer than any other, for whenever a Stranger enters the 
Empire, he is made to change the Silver he hath, whether 
Piastres^^ or Abassis, into the Money of the Country, and at the 
same time they are melted down, and the Silver refined for the 
Coyning of Roupies, 



There is a Mufty^ at Surrat, who has the inspection^ over 
all that concerns the Mahometan Religion, and a Cady^ esta- 
blished for the ', to whom recourse is had in case of con- 
test.'^ The Great Mogul entertains^ another great Officer there, 
whom the Franks call Secretary of , State, and whose duty much 
resembles that of the Intendant® of a Province in France. He 
is called Vaca-Nevis,"^ that is who writes and keeps a Register 
of all that happens within the extent of the Country where he is 
placed. The Ring keeps one in every Government, to give him 
notice of all that occurs, and he depends on no Minister of State, 
l3ut only on his Majesty. 

Of the officers of surrat 


There are two Governours or Nahad^ at Surraij who have Two Gov- 
no dependence one on another, and give an account of their 
actions only to the King. The one Commands the Castle, and 
the other the Town ; and they encroach not upon one anothers ^ 
rights and duties. The Governour of the Town Judges in Civil 
matters, and commonly renders speedy Justice : If a Man sue The way of 
another for a Debt, he must either shew an obligation, produce 
two witnesses, or take an Oath : If he be a Christian, he swears Indies. ^ 
upon the Gospel ; if a Moor, upon the Alcoran, ° and a Heathen 
swears upon the Cow : The Gentils Oath consists only in laying 
his hand upon the Cow, and saying, that he wdshes he may eat 
of the Flesh of that Beast, if what he says be not true ; but 
most of them clause rather to lose their cause than to swear, 
because they who swear are reckoned infamous among the 

The first time one goes to wait upon the Governour, as 
soon as they come they lay before him,^® five, six, or ten Roupies, 
every one according to his Quality ; and in the Indies the same 
thing is done to all for whom they would shew great respect. 

This Governour meddles not at all in Criminal Affaires ; an 
Officer named Cotoual takes cognisance of them. -In Turkey xiie Crinii- 
he is called Soushassa,^^ and in Persia Deroga}^ He orders the Judge 
Criminals to be punished in his presence, either by Whipping 
or Cudgelling, and that correction is inflicted many times in 
his House, and sometimes in the Street at the same place where 
they have commited the fault. When he goes abroad through 
the, Town, he is on Horse-back, attended by several OflScers on 
Foot, some carrying Batons and great Whips, others Dances, 

Svrords, Targets, and Maces of Iron like the great Pestles of 
a Morter ; but all have a dagger at their sides. Nevertheless 
neither the Civil nor Criminal Judge can put any one to death. 

The King reserves that Powder to himself; and therefore when 
any Man deserves death, a Courier is dispatched to know his 
pleasure, and they fail not to put his Orders in execution, so 
soon as the Courier is come back.^^ 

The Cotoual is obliged to go about the Street in the Night- 
time, to prevent disorders ; and sets guards in several places. 

If he find any Man abroad in the Streets, he commits him to 
Prison, and very rarely does he let him go out again, without 
being Bastonadoed or Whipt, Two of the Officers that wait 
on him, about nine of the Clock beat two little Drums, whilst 
a third sounds two or three times a long Copper-Trumpet, 
which I have described in my Voyage into Persia}^ Then the ^j.y q£ 
Officers or Serjeants cry as loud as they can, Caberdar,^^ that*s Caberdar. 
to say, take heed ; and they who are in the Neighbouring 
Streets, answer with another^^ cry, to shew that they are not 
asleep. After that they continue their round, and begin to 
cry again afresh until they have finished it. This round is 



The Cotoual 
answers for 

The punish- 
ment of 
those who 
are sus- 
pected of 



performed thrice a Night, to wit, at nine of the Clock, Midnight, 
and three in the Morning/^^ 

The Cotoual is to Answer for all the Robberies committed 
in the Town but as generally all that are put into that 
Office, are very cunning, so they find always evasions^^ to come 
off without paying. WhiPst I was at Surrat, an Armenian 
Merchant was Robbed of two thousand four hundred Chequins/^ 
his name was Cogea Minas Two of his Slaves absconding 
about the time of the Robbery, he failed not to accuse them of 
it ; all imaginary^^ enquiry was made after them, but seeing 
there was no news to be had neither of them nor of the Money, 
the report run that these Slaves had committed the Theft ; and 
that they were concealed by^^ some Moor that was in intelli- 
gence with them, who perhaps, to get all the Money had killed 
and buryed them, as it had already happened at Surrat. 

In the mean time the Governour told the Cotoual, that he 
must forthwith pay the Money, because if the Emperour came 
to know of the matter, all the fault would be laid at their door, 
that perhaps they might be served worse than to be made pay 
the Money that had been stollen from Cogea Minas, and that 
therefore they had best send for the Armenian, and learn from 
him how much he had really lost. The Cotoual said nothing 
to the contrary, but at the same time asked leave to commit 
him to Prison, and to put him and his servants to the Rack, 
that so by torture he might discover whether or not he had 
really lost the Money, and if so, whether or not one of his 
own Men had Robbed him. The Governour granted what he 
demanded ; but no sooner was the news brought to the 
Armenian, but he desisted from pursuing the Cotoual, and 
chose rather to lose all than to suffer the torments that were 
designed for him. In this manner commonly the Cotoual comes 

When any one is Robbed, this Officer apprehends all the 
People of the House both Young and Old where the Robbery 
hath been committed, and causes them to be beaten severely. 
They are stretched out upon the Belly, and four Men hold him 
that is to be punished by the Tegs and Arms, and two others 
have each a long Whip of twisted thongs of Leather made thick 
and round, wherewith they lash the Patient one after another, 
like Smiths striking on an Anvil, till he have received tw^o or 
three hundred lashes, and be in a gore of Blood. If at first he 
confess not the Theft, they whip him again next day, and so 
for several days more, until he hath confessed all, or the thing 
stolen be recovered again ; and what is strange, the Cotoual 
neither searches his House or Goods, but after five or six days, 
if he do not confess he is dismissed. 

• At Surrat there is 'a Prevost who is called Foursdar, and 
he is obliged to, secure the Country about,^® and to Answer 

French company at surrat 2^ 

for all the Robberies that are committed there ; but I cannot 
tell if he be so crafty as the CotouaL When they would stop 
any Person, they only cry Doa-padecha/^ which hath greater poa- 
force than a Hue-and-cry ; and if they forbid a Man to stir Padccha. 
out of the place where he is, by saying doa-padechay he cannot 
go, without rendering himself Criminal, and is obliged to api^ear 
before the Justice.^^ This cry is used all over the Indies : After 
all, there are but Fines^* imposed at Surrat, the People live 
there with freedome enough. 



The Governour of Surrat was making strict enquiry into Bad Offices 
the French Company, when I came to the Indies. ‘Seeing 
first he applyed^ himself to the other Franks, and particularly Company 
to those whose interest it was not to have it^ established at at Surrah 
Surrat, they told him a great deal of evil of the French ; so that 
by the Artifice of their Enemies he had conceiv’d a bad Opinion 
of them. He was thinking to sollicite their exclusion at Court, 
when Father Ambrose/ Superior of the Capucins/ being 
enform’d of it, w’ent to undeceive him, telling him that he 
ought not to give credit to the Enemies of that Company, for 
that they were combin’d to ruin it if they could. He loved that 
Father because of his Probity, and therefore did not reject 
him ; only adjur’d him to tell him the truth without dissimula- 
tion concerning the matter, and whether the French, who were 
to come, were not pirates, as it was reported all over the 
Countrey, and as many Franks had assured him they were. 

This thought was suggested in Surrat, so soon as it was Lambert 
known that there was a Design in France of sending Ships 
to trade in the Ectst-Indies / and the Calumny was easily 
believ’d, because one Lambert Hugo,^ a Dutch-man, who had 
had French on Board of him,^ and whom they brought fresh 
into the Peoples Minds, had been two Years before at Moca^ 
with French Colours, and a Commission from the Duke of 
Vendosme^ then Admiral of France, and had taken some 
Vessels : But that which offended most, was the story of the 
Ship that carried the Goods of the ^een of Visiapour,^^ 
and was stranded about an Isle lying in eleven 

Degrees forty Minutes Latitude, at the entry of the Red-Sea. Socotra. 
That Queen who was going to Mecha,^^ was out of the reach 
of the Corsar, for luckily she had gone on Board of Dutch 



Ship but being satisfied with a Ship belonging to her self 
for transporting her EQriipage ; Hugo met that Ship, and per sued 
her so briskly, that the Master w^as forced to run aground. It 
being difficult for the Corsar to approach the Ship in the place 
where, she lay, he lost no courage, but patiently expected^® 
what might be the issue of her stranding : His expectation was 
not in vain ; for the Indians wanting Water for a long time, 
and finding none where they were, suffered great extremity ; 
and therefore having hid in the Sea what Gold, Silver, and 
pretious Stones they could, they resolved to have recourse 
to the Corsar himself to save their lives, hopeing that he would 
be satisfied with what remained in the Ship. 

The Cun- Hugo being come up with them, cunningly found out that 

ning of they had sunk somewhat in the Sea ; and a false Brother told 
Hugo, Carpenter and his Son knew where the 

Queens. Treasure was, (for she had carried with her a great 
deal of Money, Jewels -and rich Stuffs to make Presents at 
Mecha, Medina^ Grand Cheik,'^’^ and other places,^® resolving 
to be very magnificent.) In fine, Hugo having sufficiently 
tortured the Master, Carpenter, and the Carpenters Son, whom 
he threatened to kill in his Fathers presence, made them bring 
out what was in the Sea, and seized it, as he did the rest of the 
Cargoe. This Action had made so much noise in the Indies, 
that HugOj who was there taken for a French-man, was abomi- 
nated, and by consequence all French-men for his sake. 

The Governour talked high of^® that Corsar to Father 
Ambrosoj who had much adoe to persw'ade him, that he was 
not a French-man, because he came with French Colours, and 
for certain had a great many French-men on Board. However, 
after much Discourse he believed him ; but^® for all that excused 
not the French from the Action wherein they had assisted him, 
and still maintained, that nothing but a design of Robbing had 
brought them into that Countrey : The Father denied that it 
was their design, but that they only came with Lambert Hugo to 
Aden, ■ revenge an affront done to some French, in Aden^^ a Town of 
Arabia the Happy, lying in the eleventh Degree of latitude ; and 
thereupon he told him what was done in that Town to the 
French, some years before ; How that a Pinnace of Monsieur de 
la Meilleraye/^ being obliged in a storm to separate from her 
Man of War, and to put into Aden, The Sunnis by force and 
unparaleird impietie, had caused all those that came ashore to 
be Circumcised, though at first they received them well, and 
promised. to treat them as Friends. That notwithstanding that, 
the King of France as well as the Indians had disapproved the 
Action of the. Corsar and French who were on Board of him, 
because they had put his Subjects into bad Reputation, by the 
Artifice of the Enemies of France ; but that he was resolved 
to dispell that bad Reputation, by settling a Company to trade 



to the Indies^ with express Orders to exercise no Acts of Hostility 

The Governour being satisfied with the Answer of Father pie French 
Ambrose, prayed him to write iown in the Persian Language 
all that he had told him ; and so soon as he had done so, he Ambrose. 
sent it to Court. The Great Mogul having had it read to him 
in the Divan, was fully satisfied therewith, as well as his 
Ministers of State, and then all desired the coming of the French 
Ships. The truth is, that Governour shewed extraordinary 
kindness to the Sieurs de la Boullaye and Beher,^^ the Com- 
panics Envoys, and told them, that on the Testimony of Father p^rench 
Ambrose, he would do them all the service he could. The Company. 
English President, an old Friend of that Fathers, shew^ed them 
also all the Honour he could, having sent his Coach and Servants 
to receive them, and he assured the Father, that they might 
command any thing he had. Thus the Capucin by the Credit 
that he had acquired in the Indies, dispersed the bad reports 
which the Enemies of France, had raised against the French. 



Whil’st I was at Surrai, the Governour of the Town^ a 

married his Daughter to the Son of an Omra,^ who came thither gr^t Eord 
for that end. That young Lord made his Trumpets, Tymbals’ at Surrat. 
and Drums play publickly during the space of twelve or four- 
teen days,^ to entertain the People, and publish his marriage 
upon a Wednesday which was appointed for the Ceremony of The Cere- 
the Wedding ; he made the usual Cavalcade about eight of the ^e^ved^ 
Clock at Night, first marched his Standards which were followed ding, 
by several hundreds of Men carrying Torches, and these 
Torches were made of Bambous or Canes, at the end whereof 
there was an Iron Candlestick, containing Rolls of oyled Cloath 
made like Sausages. Amongst these Torch-lights there were 
two hundred Men and Women, little Boys, and little Girls, 
yvho had each of them upon their Head a little Hurdle of Ozier- The Cavai- 
Twigs, on which were five little Earthen Cruces that served for 
Candlesticks to so many Wax-Candles, and all these People were ^ 
accompanied with a great many others, some carrying in Baskets, 

Rolls of Cloath and Oyl to supply the Flamboys, and others 

• The Trumpets came after the Flamboy-carriers, and these 
were followed by publick Dancing-women, sitting in two 




Renelle a 

Machins made like Bedstids without Posts, iii the manner of 
Palanquins, which several Men carried on their Shoulders. 
They sung and play’d on their Cymbals, intermingled with 
Plates and flat thin pieces of Copper, which they struck one 
against another, and® made a very clear sound, but unpleasant, 
if compared with the sound of our Instruments. Next came six 
pretty handsome led Horses, with Cloath-Saddles wrought® with 

The BridegTOom having his Face covered with a Gold- 
Fringe, which hung down from a kind of Mitre that he wore 
on his Head followed on Horse-back, and after came twelve 
Horse-men, who had behind them two great Elephants, and 
two Camels which carried each two Men playing on Tymbals ; 
and besides these Men each Elephant had his Guide sitting 
upon his Neck, This Cavalcade having for the space of two 
hours marched through the Town, passed at length before the 
Governours House, where they continued, as they had done 
all along the Streets where the Cavalcade went, to throw Fire- 
Works for some time, and then the Bridegroom retired. 

Sometime after, Bonefires prepared on the River-side 
before the Governours House were kindled ; and on the Water, 
before the Castle there were six Barks full of Lamps burning 
in tires ; about half an hour after ten these Barks drew near the 
House, the better to light the River : And at the same time, 
on the side of Renelle,’^ there were Men that put Candles upon 
the Water, which floating gently without going out, were by an 
Ebbing-Tide carried towards the Sea. Renelle is an old Town 
about a quarter of a League distant from Surrai : It stands on 
the other side of the Tapty, and though it daily fall into ruin, 
yet the Dutch have a very good Magazin there. 

There were five little artificial Towers upon the Water-side 
full of Fire-lances and Squibs, which were set on fire one after 
another ; but seeing the Indian Squibs make no noise no more 
than their Fire-lances, all they did, was to turn violently about, 
and dart a great many streaks of Fire into the Air, some streight 
up like Water-works,® and others obliquely, representing the 
branches of a Tree of Fire : They put fire next to a Machine 
which seemed to be a blew® Tree when it was on fire, because 
there was a great deal of Brimstone in the Fire-work : After that, 
upon a long Bar of Iron fixed in the ground they placed a great 
many artificial Wheels, which play’d one after another and 
spread abundance of Fire : They also burnt divers Pots full 
of Powder, from which large flakes of Artificial Lightning 
glanced^® up in the Air ; and all this while. Squibs and Serpents 
flew about in vast numbers ; and with them many Fire-lances, 
in . which was a great deal of Camphire, that yielded a whitish 
dazling flame. 


These Fire-works playhl almost an hour ; and when thc}' 
were over, the main business was performed. The Inlaid was 
married in her Fathers House by a Moula,^^ and about two of 
the Clock in the Morning was conducted upon an Elephant to 
her Husbands Lodgings. Wedding. 

There were a great many Dancers, Tumblers, and players 
at sleight of Hand in the open places ; hut they acted nothing, 
as I could sec, but what was dull, and yet I was advantageous^" 
placed in Windows to examin their plaj^ being desirous to see, 
if what was told of their dexterity was true ; but I found nothing 
extraordinary^^ in it, and I should have had a bad Opinion of 
the Indian Dances, if I had not met with nimbler^® afterwards in 
my Travels there. 

The first time I saw Hermaphrodites was there. It was Hennaphro- 
easie to distinguish them, for seeing there is a great number in 
that Town, and all over the Indies^ I was enforniM before hand, 
that for a mark to know them by, they were obliged under pain 
of Correction, to wear upon their Heads a Turban like Men, 
though they go in the habit of Women. 



The Burying-places of Surrdt are ■without the Town, about Burying 
three or four hundred Paces from Barocke-Gate. The Catholicks 
have their own apart ; and so have the English and Dutch, The Sepul- 
as well as some Religious Indians. The English and Dutch 
adorn^ their Graves with P^Tamids of Brick wLitened over with 
Lime ; and ^vhilst I was there, there was one a building for a 
Dutch Commander, which was to cost eight thousand Livres.^ The Sepul- 
Amongst the rest, there is one of a great drinker,* wdio had ^ 

been banished to the Indies by the States General, and who is 
said to have been a Kinsman of the Prince of Ora^igc : They 
have raised a Monument for him, as for other Persons of note ; 
but to let the World see that he could drink stoutly, on the top 
of his Pyramid there is a large Stone-cup, and one below at each 
corner of his Tomb ; and hard by each Cup there is the Figure 
of a Sugar-loaf, When the Dutch have a mind to divert them- 
selves at that IMonument, they make, God knows, how many 
Ragoes in these Cups, and with other less Cups drink or eat 
what they have prepared in the great ones. 

The Religious Gentils have their Tombs about two thousand The Tombs 
Paces beyond the Dutch Burying-place. They are square, and 






The place 
are burnt. 


made of Plaister ; they are about two or three Foot high, and 
two Foot broad, covered some with a Dome, and others with a 
Pyramid of Plaister somewhat more than three Foot high ; on 
the one side there is a little Window, through which one may 
see the top of the Grave ; and because there are two Soles of 
Feet cut upon them, some have believ’d that the Vartias^ were 
interred with the Head down and the Feet upwards, but having 
enform’d my self as to that, I learnt, that there was no such 
thing, and that the Bodies are laid in their Graves after the 
ordinary manner. 

The place where the Banians burn their dead Bodies, is by 
the River-side, beyond the Burying-places ; and when they are 
consumed, the Ashes are left there, on design,® that they may be 
carried away by the Tapty, because they look upon it as a Sacred 
River.® They believe that it contributes much to the Salvation 
of the Soul of the deceased, to burn his Body immediately after 
his Death, because, (as they say,) his Soul suffers after the 
separation from the Body till it be burnt : It is true, that if 
they are in a place where there is no Wood, they tye a Stone to 
the dead Body, and throw it into the Water, and their Religion 
allows them to bury it if there be neither Water nor Wood ; 
but they are still perswaded that the Soul is much happier when 
the Body hath been burnt. 

They burn not the Bodies of Children that die before they 
are two Years old, because they are as yet innocent ; nor do 
they burn the Bodies of the Vartias nor Jogues/ who are a kind 
of Dervishes,® because they follow the rite of Madeo,^ who is 
one of their great Saints, and who ordered the Bodies to be 



A fair Well. Towards the English Burying-place there is a great Well ; 

a Banian made iP for the convenience of Travellers, and it is 
of an oblong square Figure, like the Well of Amedahad, which 
I have described. There are over it diverse thin Brick-Arches, 
at some Feet distance one from another: Several Stairs go 
down to it, and the Eight enters by the spaces that are between 
the Arches ; so that one may see very clearly from the top to the 
bottom. On the outside there is the Figure of a Red-face, but 
the Features are not to be distinguished. The Indians say, that 
it is the Pagod of Madeo jf and the Gentils pay a great Devotion 
to it. 



Towards Damaji-gatCj where the loveliest Walk in all the Daman^ 
Countrey begins, there is a Reservatory" much esteemed. That 
Gate is covered and encompassed with the branches of a lovely 
War, which the Portuguese call the Tree of Roots, that fur- 
nishes the pleasantest Resting-place imaginable to all that go 
to the Tanquie. This great Reservatory of Water hath six“^ A lovely 
Angles ; the side of every Angle is an hundred paces long, and 
the Avhole at least a Musket-shot in diametre. The bottom is 
paved with large Free-stone, and there are Steps almost all 
round in form of an Amphitheatre, reaching from the brim to 
the bottom of the Bason ; they are each of them half a Foot 
high, and are of lovely Free-stone that hath been brought from 
about Camhaye ; where there arc no Steps there is a sloaping 
descent to the Bason ; and there are three places made for 
Beasts to water at. 

In the middle of this Reservatory there is a Stone-Building f Building 
about three Fathom every way,^ to which they go up by two the^' 
little Stair-cases. In this place they go to divert themselves, Tanquie. 
and take the fresh Air ; but they must go to it in Boat. The 
great Bason is filled with Rain-water in the season when the 
Rains fall, for after it hath run through the fields, where it 
makes a kind of a great Chanal, over which they have been 
obliged to make Bridges, it stops in a place enclosed within 
Walls, from whence it passes into the Tanquie through three 
round holes, which are above four Foot Diametre, and hard by 
there is a kind of Mahometan Cliappel.'*' 

This Tanquie was made at the charges of a rich Banian Copy. 
named Gopy/ who built it for the pubiick ; and heretofore alD‘- 
the Water that was drank in Surrat came from this Reservatory, 
for the five Wells which at present supply the wdiole Town, 
were not found out till long after it was built. It was begun 
at the same time the Castle was, and they say, that the one 
cost as much as the other. It is certainly a Work worthy of a 
King, and it may be compared to the fairest that the Romans 
ever made for pubiick benefit. But seeing the Levantines let 
all things go to mine for w-ant of repair, it was above six Foot 
filled with Earth when I saw it, and in danger sometime or 
other to be wholly choaked up, if some Charitable Banian be 
not at the charge of having it cleansed® 

Having viewed that lovely Reservatory, we went a quarter The 
of a League farther to see the Princesses Garden, so called, 
because it belongs to the Great Moguls Sister.^ It is a great 
Plot of Trees of several kinds ; as Mangttiers/ Palms/ Mira- 
bolans/^ Wars^ Maisa-trees/^ and many other planted in a 
streight line. Amongst the Shrubs I saw the Querzehcre^^ or 
Aacla, of which I have treated at large in my Second Part, 
and also the Accaria of Egypt. There are in it a great many 



A. Sacred 







very fair str eight Walks, and especially the four which make 
a Cross over the Garden, and have in the middle a small Canal 
of Water that is drawn by Oxen out of a Well. In the middle 
of the Garden there is a Building with four Fronts, each 
whereof hath its Divan, with a Closet at each corner ; and 
before every one of these Divans there is a square Bason full of 
Water, from whence flow the little Brooks which run through 
the chief Walks. After all, though that Garden be well con- 
triv’d, it is nothing to the gallantry^^ of ours. There is nothing 
to be seen of our Arbours, Borders of Flowers, nor of the exact- 
ness of their Compartments, and far less of their^^ Water-works. 

About an hundred, or an hundred and fifty Paces from that 
Garden, we saw the War-tree^^ in its full extent. It is likewise 
called jBcr, and the Tree of Banims, as also the Tree of Roots, 
because of the facility wherewith the branches that bear large 
Filaments, take Rooting, and by consequence produce other 
branches ; insomuch that one single Tree is sufficient to fill a 
great spoP® of Ground ; and this I speak of, is very large and 
high, affording a most spacious shade. Its circuit is round, 
and is fourscore Paces in Diametre, which make above^^ thitthy 
Fathom. The Branches that had irregularly taken Root, have 
been so skilfully cut, that ^t present one may without any 
trouble walk about every where under it. 

The Gentils of India look upon that Tree as Sacred ; and 
we might easily perceive that at a distance, by the Banners 
which the Banians had planted on the top and highest Branches 
of it. It hath by it a Pagod dedicated to an Idol which they 
call Mameva and they who are not of their Religion, believe 
it to be a representation of Eve. We found a Bramen sitting 
there, who put some Red Colour upon the Foreheads of those 
who come to pay their Devotions, and received the Presents 
of Rice or Cocos that they offered him. That Pagod is built 
under the Tree in form of a Grot ; the outside is painted with 
diverse Figures representing the Fables of their false Gods, and 
in the Grot there is a Head all over Red.^® 

In that place I saw a Man very charitable towards the 
Ants : He carried Flower in a Sack to be distributed amongst 
them, and left a handful every where where he met with any 

Whilst we were abroad in the Fields, we considered the 
Soyl of Surrat, it is of a very brown Earth ; and they assured 
us, that it was so very rich, that they never dunged it. After 
the Rains they sow their Corn, that is, after the Month of 
September, and they cut it down after February. They plant 
Sugar-Canes there also ; and the way of planting them, is to 
make great Furrows, wherein, before they lay the Canes, they 
put a great many of the little Fish called Gudgeons Whether 



these Fish serve to fatten the Earth, or that they add some 
qualitie to the Cane, the Indians ijreteiid, that ^vithout that 
Manure the Canes would produce nothing that’s good. They 
lay their pieces of Canes over these Fish, end to end, and from 
every joint of Cane so interred, their" ^ Springs a Sugar-cane, 
which they reap in their season. 

The Soyl about Surrat is good for Rice also, and there is 
a great deal sown. Mmiguiers and Palm-trees of all kinds, and 
other sorts of Trees thrive well there, and yield great profit. 

The Dutch water their Ground with Well-Water, which is 
drawn by Oxen after the manner described in my Second Part ; 
but the Corn-land is never watered, because the Dew that falls 
plentifully in the Mornings, is sufficient for it. 

The River of Tapty is always brackish at Surrat, and there- The 
fore the Inhabitants make no use of it, neither for Drink nor 
Watering of their Grounds, but only for washing their Bodies, 
which they do every Morning as all the other Indians do. They 
make use of Well-water to drink, and it is brought in Borra- 
choes^" upon Oxen, This River of it self is but little, for at 
High-water it is no broader than half of the River of Seine at 
Paris : Nevertheless it swells so in the Winter-time”® by the 
Rain-water, that it furiously overflows, and makes gi*eat havock : 

It has its source in a place called Gchar-Condc/'^ in the Moun- 
tains of Decan, ten Leagues from Brampoiirr^ It passes by 
that Town, and before it discharge it self into the Sea, it 
Waters several Countries, and washes many Towns, as last of 
all it does Surrat, At low Water, it runs to the Bar ; but when 
it flows®® the Sea commonly advances two Leagues over that 
Bar, and so receives the Water of the Tapty, 



The Bar of Surrat, where Ships come at present, is not The Port 
its true Port ; at be*st it can be called but a Road ; and I had 
reason to say in the beginning of this Book, that it is called 
the Bar because of the Banks of Sand which hinder Ships from 
coming farther in. The truth is, there is so little W'ater there, 
that though the Vessels be unloaded, the ordinary Tides are 
not sufficient to bring them up, and they are obliged to wait 
for a Spring tide ; but then they come up^ to Surrat, especially 
wffien they want to be careen'd. Small Barks come easily up to 
the Town with the least Tides. 

The true Port of Surrat is Soualy,^ two Leagues from the soualy. 
Bar. It is distant from the Town four Leagues and a half ; 




The Historj^ 
of Raja 

and to go to it by I^and, they cross the River at the Town. 
All Vessels heretofore came to an Anchor in this Port, where 
the Ground is good ; but because the Customs were often 
stolen there, it is prohibited, and no Ship hath gone thither 
since the Year One thousand six hundred and sixty, but the 
English and Dutch who are suffered to Anchor there still, and 
have their several Magazins in that place. That Port affords 
them a fair opportunity of getting* ashore what they please 
Custom-free ; and the Coaches of the Governours, Commanders, 
or Presidents of these two Nations, who often take the Air 
thereabouts, might easily carry off any thing of small bulk 
from on board their Ships. They have even Gardens at Soualy 
by the Sea-side, and each a small Harbour, where they put 
their Boats or Barks ; so that it is their own fault if they save 
not a great many things without paying Custom. 

Since the Prohibition made to other Nations of coming 
to Anchor at Soualy j there are always a great many vessels at 
the Bar, though it be an incommodious Road for them ; for 
ships come from Persia, Arabia Faelix, and generally from all 
Countries of the Indies as formerly ; so that the Prohibition of 
putting into Soualy hath nothing lessened the Customs which 
yield the King yearly twelve Leeks of Roupies, each Leek 
being worth about an hundred thousand French Eivres.® The 
Master of the Custom-House is a Moor, and has his Commission 
from the Governour of Surrat, The Clerks are Banians, and the 
rest of the Officers of the Custom-House, as Waiters,^ Porters, 
and others, are also Moors, and they are called the Pions of the 



In January 1664. Raja Sivagy put the Customers and their 
Governour to a strange plunge^; and seeing he is become famous 
by his actions, it will not be amiss, I think, to give a short 
History of him. This Sivagy is the Son of a Captain of the 
King of Visiapours,^ and born at Bassaim^ being of a restless 
and turbulent Spirit, he rebelled in his Fathers life-time, and 
putting himself at the Head of several Banditi, and a great 
many debauched Young-Men, he made his part good in the 
Mountains of Visiapour against those that came to attack him,^ 
and could not be reduced. The King thinking that his Father 
kept intelligence® with him, caused him to be arrested ;® and 
he dying in Prison, Sivagy conceived so great a hatred against 
the King, that he used all endeavours to be revenged on him. 



111 a very short time he plundered part of Visiapour, and with 
the Booty he took made himself so strong* in Men, Anns and 
Horses, that he found himself able® enough to seize some Towns, 
and to form a little State in spight of the King, who died at 
that time. The Queen,® who was Regent having other Affairs 
in hand, did all she could to reduce Sivagy to duty ; but her 
endeavours being unsuccessful, she accepted of the Peace he 
proposed to her, after which she lived in quiet. chLut'iCr i 

In the mean while, the Raja, who could not rest, plundered 
some places belonging to the Great Mogul ; which obliged that the 
Emperour to send Forces against him, under the conduct of 
Chasta-CcLv}^ his Uncle, Governour of Aurangeabad, Chasta- 
Can having far more Forces than Sivagy had, vigorously pursued 
him, but the Raja having his retreat always in the Mountains, 
and being extreamly cunning the Mogul could make nothing 
of him. 

However that old Captain, at length, thinking that the 
turbulent Spirit of Sivagy might make him make some false 
step, judged it best to temporize, and lay a long while upon 
the Eands of the Raja, This Patience of Chasta-Can being very 
troublesome to Sivagy, he had his recourse to a Stratagem. He 
ordered one of his Captains to write to that Mogul, and to 
perswade him that he wT'Ould come over to the service of the 
Great Mogul, and bring wdth him five hundred I^Ien whom he 
had under his Command. Chasta-Caii having receiv’d the 
Eetters, durst not trust them at first ; but receiving continually 
more and more, and the Captain giving him such reasons for 
his discontent as looked very probable, he sent him word that 
he might come and bring his Men with him. No sooner was 
he come into the Camp of the Moguls, but he desired a Pass- 
port to go to the King that he might put himself into his 
Service : But Chasta-Can thought it enough to put him in 
hopes of it, and kept him wdth him. 

Sivagy had ordered him to do w^hat he could to insinuate 
himself into the favour of Chasta-Can, and to spare no means 
that could bring that about, to shew upon all occasions the 
greatest rancour and animosity imaginable ; and in a particular 
manner to be the first in Action against him or his Subjects. 

He fail’d not to obey him : He put all to Fire and Sword in 
the Raja'^s Eands, and did much more mischief than all the rest 
besides ; which gained him full credit in the Mind of Chasta- 
Ca7i, who at length made him Captain of his Guards. But he 
guarded him very ill, for having one Day sent word to Sivagy, 
that on a certain Night^^ he- should be upon Guard at the 
General’s Teat the Raja came there with his Men, and being 
introduced by his Captain, came to Chasta-Can, wdio awaking Sivagy 
flew to his Arms, and was wounded in the Hand ; however he 
made a shift to escape, but a Son of his was killed, and 

retires for 
fear of 


first Camp 



The other 



Sivagy at 
Surrat in 
the habit of 
a Faquir. 

returns to 
his Camp. 

And comes 
back to 
wath four 


Sivagy thinking that he had killed the General himself, gave 
the signal to retreat : He marched off with his Captain and all 
his Horse in good order. He carried off the Generals Treastire, 
and took his Danghter,^^ to whom he rendered all the Honour 
he could. He commanded his Men under rigorous paihs, not 
to do her the least hurt, but on the contrary, to serve her with 
all respect ; and being informed that her Father was alive, he 
sent him word. That if he would send the Summ which he 
demanded for her Ransom, he would send him back his 
Daughter safe and sound ; which was punctually performed. 

He wrote afterwards to C/iasta- Can praying him to with- 
draw, and owned that the stratagem that had been practised was 
of his own contrivance ; that he hatched^® a great inatiy Others 
for his mine, and that if he drew not off^® out of his Lands, he 
should certainly lose his life. Chasta-Can slighted not the 
Advice : He informed the King, that it was impossible to force 
Sivagy in the Mountains ; that he could not undertake it, unless 
he resolved to mine his Troops ; and he received Orders from 
Court to draw off under pretext of a new Enterprize.^^ Sivagy, 
in the mean time, was resolved to be revenged on the Mogul by 
any means whatsoever, provided it might be to his advantage , 
and knowing very well that the Town of Surrat was full of 
Riches, he took measures how he might plunder it : But that 
no body might suspect his Design, he divided tbe Forces he had 
into two Camps ; and seeing his Territories lie chiefly in the 
Mountains, upon the Road betwixt Bassaim}^ and Chaoul,^^ he 
pitched one Camp towards Chaoul, where he planted oiie of his 
Pavillions, and posted another at the same time towards 
Bassaim ; and having ordered his Commanders not to plunder, 
but on the contrary, to pay for all they had, he secretly disguised 
himself in the habit of a Paquir.^^ Thus he went to discover 
the most cominodious ways that might lead him speedily to 
Surrat : He entred the Towm to examine the places of it, and 
by that means had as much time as he pleased to view it all 

Being come back to his Chief Caliipi he ordered foUr 
thousand of his Men to follow him without noise, and the 
rest to remain encamped, and to make during his absence as 
much noise as if all were there, to the end Hone might suspect 
the enterprise he w’as about, but think he was still in one of his 
Camps. Every thing was put in execution according to his 
orders. His march was secret enough, though he hastened 
it to surprise Surrat ; and he came and Encamped near 
Brampour^gate. To amuse®^ the Governour who setit to him, 
he demanded guides under pretence of marching to another 
place ; but the Governour without sending him any Answer, 
retired into the Fort with what he had of the greatest value, 
and sent for assistance on all hands. Most of the Inhabitants 



in consternation forsook tlieir Houses and fled into the Countrj^, 

Sivagy^s Men entered the Town and plundered it^“ for the space xhe 
of four days burning several Houses. None but the Eyiglish Plundering 
and Dutch saved their quarters from the pillage, by the vigorous •Snrrai. 
defence they made, and by means of the Cannon they planted, 
which Sivagy would not venture upon, having none of his own. 

Nor durst he venture to attack the Castle neither, though 
he knew very well that the richest things they had were con- 
veighed thither, and especially a great deal of ready Money. 

He w^as affraid that attack might cost him too much time, and 
that assistance coming in might make him leave the plunder 
he had got in the Town ; besides, the Castle being in a condi- 
tion to make defence, he would not have come ofl so easily as 
he had done elsewhere. So that he marched off“^ with the 
Wealth he got:“'* And it is believed at Surrat that this Raja 
Carried away in Jewels, Gold and Silver, to the value of above 
thirty French Millions for in the House of one Banian he 22 lbs. of 

found twenty two Pound weight of strung Pearls, besides 
great quantity of others that were not as yet pierced. 

a Pearls in 
the house of 
one Banian, 

One may^® indeed wonder that so populous a Town should 
so patiently suffer it self to be Plundered by a handful of j\Ien ; 
but^^ the Indians for the most part are cowards."® No sooner 
did Sivagy appear with his small body of Men, but all fled, some 
to the Country to save themselves at Baroche, and others to the 
Castle, whither the Governour^® retreated \vith the first. And 
none but the Christians of Europe made good®® their Post and 
preserved themselves. All the rest of the Town was Plundered, 
except the Monastery of the Capucins. When the Plunderers The 
came to their Convent, they past it by ; and had Orders from Christians 
their General to do so, because the first day in the Evening, 

Father A^nbroscy who w^as Superiour of it, being moved with themselves 
compassion for the poor Christians living in Siirraty went to against 
the Raja and spake in their favour, pra3dng him at least not to The^^’ 
suffer any violence to be done to their Persons. Sivagy had a Capucins 
respect for him, took him into his protection, and granted 
what he had desired in favour of the Christians.®^ 

The Great Mogul was sensibly affected with the Pillage of 
that Town, and the boldness of Sivagy ; but his Affairs not 
suffering®® him to pursue his revenge at that time, he dissembled 
his resentment and delayed it till another opportunity. 

In the Year One thousand six hundred sixty six, Auran^Zch Anran-Zeb 
resolved to dispatch him, and that he might accompisli his 
design, made as if®® he approved what he had done, and praised ^ 

it as the action of a brave Man, rejecting®^ the blame upon the allure him 
Governour of Surrat, who had not the courage to oppose him. to his Court. 
He expressed himself thus to the other Rajas of Court, amongst 
w-hom he knew Sivagy had a great man}’’ Friends ; and told 



coming to 

The bold- 
ness of 
Sivagy in 
speaking to 
the King. 



His escape. 

them that he esteemed that Raja for his Valour, and wished 
he might come to Court ; saying openly that he would take 
it as a pleasure if any would let him know so much. Nay he 
bid one of them write to him, and gave his Royal word that 
he should receive no hurt ; that he might come with all security, 
that he forgot what was past, and that his Troops should be so 
well treated, that he should have no cause to complain. Several 
Rajas wrote what the King had said, and made themselves in a 
manner sureties for the performance of his word ; so that he 
made no difficulty to come to Court, and to bring his Son with 
him, having first ordered his Forces to be always upon their 
Guard, under the Command of an able Officer whom he left to 
head them.®® 

At first he met wdth all imaginable caresses, but some 
Months after, perceiving a dryness®® in the King, he openly 
complained of it, and boldly told him, that he believed he had 
a mind to put him to death, though he was come on his Royal 
word to wait upon him, without any constraint or necessity 
that obliged him to it ; but that his Majesty might know what 
Man he was, from Chasta-Can and the Governour of Surrat: 
That after all if he Perished, there were those who would 
revenge his death ; and that hopeing they would do so,®^ he was 
resolved to die with his own hands, and drawing his Dagger, 
made an attempt to kill himself, but was hindered and had 
Guards set upon him.®® 

The King would have willingly put him to death, but he 
feared an insurrection of the Rajas, They already murmured 
at this usage notwithstanding the promise made to him ; and 
all of them were so much the more concerned for him, that most 
part came only to Court upon the Kings word.®® , That consi- 
deration obliged Auran-Zeh to treat him well, and to make 
much of his Son. He told him that it was never in his thoughts 
to have him put to death, and flattered him with the hopes of 
a good^ Government®®'' which he promised him, if he would go 
with him to Candahar/'^ which then he designed to Besiege. 
Sivagy pretended to consent, provided he might Command his 
own Forces. The King having granted him that, he desired 
a Pass-port for their coming, and having got it, resolved to make 
use of it for withdrawing from Court. He therefore gave Orders 
to those whom he entrusted with that Pass-port, and whom 
he sent before under pretence of calling his Forces, to provide 
him Horses in certain places which he named to them, and 
they failed not to do it. When he thought it time* to go meet 
them, he got himself and his Son both to be. carried privately 
in Panniers to the River-side. So soon as they were* over, 
they mounted Horses that were ready for them, and then he 
told the Water-man,^® that he might go and acquaint the King, 
that he had carried over Raja Sivagy, They Posted it^® day 



and night, finding always fresh Horses in the places he had 
appointed them to be brought to ; and they passed ewery where 
by vertue of the Kings Pass-port : But the Son unable to bear 
the fatigue of so hard Riding, died upon the Road/*^ The 
Raja left Money to have his body honourably Burnt, and arrived 
afterwards in good health in his own territories. 

Auran-Zeb was extremly vext at that escape. Many Sivagy^s 
believed that it was but a false report, and that he was put to shape and 
death ; but the truth soon was known. This Raja is short and 
tawny, with quick eyes that shew a great deal of wit. He eats 
but once a day commonly, and is in good health ; and when he 
Plundered Surrat in the Year One thousand six hundred and 
sixty four, he was but thirty five years of Age. 



Father Ambrose^ of whom I have spoken hath by his vertue father 
and good services acquired a great Reputation in the Countries Ambrose a 
of the Mogul, and is equally esteemed of Christians and Gentils : 

And indeed, he hath a great deal of Charity for all. He com- 
monly takes up^ the difference that happen amongst Christians, 
and especially the Catliolicks ; and he is so much Authorized by 
the Mogul Officers, that if one of the parties be so headstrong 
as not to be willing to come to an accommodation, by his own 
Authority he can make him consent to what is just. He makes The 
no difficulty to cause a scandalous Christian to be put in Prison, 
and if complaint be made of it to the Governour or Cotoual, ^^nbrose. 
desiring that the Prisoner may be set at liberty, they both send 
the Petitioner to the Father, telling him that it is a matter 
they are not to meddle with. If the Supplicant find favour 
with them, they only offer their Intercession with the Capiicln ; 
and one day I saw a Man whom he had let out of Prison at the 
entreaty of the Cotoual severely chid by that Officer, because he 
had incurred the indignation of Father Ambrose, Those whose 
lives are too irregular he banishes the Town, and the Cotoual 
himself gives him Pio7is to force them out, with Orders to con- 
duct them to the place the Capucin shall appoint. 

He employs his interest pretty often for the Heathen ,* and 
I saw a Pagan whom they carried to Prison for a slight ffiult, 
delivered at his request. He disputes boldly concerning the 
Faith in the Governours presence ; and one day he reclaimed a 
Christian Woman debauched by one of the Queens Secretaries, 
who that she might live licentiously, had renounced her Religion 
and embraced the Mahometan ; and one Morning he himself 


Indian travels oe thevenoT 

went and rescued her out of the hands of that Gentil. Indeed, 
his life hath been always without reproach, which is no small 
praise for a Man who lives in a Country where there are so 
many different Nations that live in so great disorders, and with 
whom his charge obliges him to keep company. 


.1 thought I had observed in my Book of Persia all the 
Festivals which the Moors or Mahometans celebrate, but they 
had one in this Town which I had never seen before. They call 
The Feast of it the Feast of Choubrei,^ and believe that on that day the good 
Choubret. Angels examine the Souls of the departed, and write down all 
the good that they have done in their life-times, and that the 
bad Angels sum up all their evil actions the same day. So that 
every one employs that day wherein they believe that God 
takes an account of the Actions of Men, in Praying to him, 
doing Alms-deeds,^ and sending one another Presents. They 
end the Festival with Eights and Bon-fires kindled in the Streets 
and publick places, and a great many Fire- works which flie 
about on all hands, whiFst the Rich mutually treat one another 
with Collations and Feasts which they make in the very Streets 
or Shops, 



Besides the Towns of the Province of Guzerat whereof I 
have spoken, there are above thirty others, on which depend a 
great many Bourgs and Villages ; but those which lie near the 
Sea, are the most considerable. Broudra^ is one of the best, 
Broudra a lying betwixt Baroche and Cambay e^ but more towards the East, 
Town. ^ fertile though sandy Country : it is a large modern 

Town, and retains the Name of another ruined Town, which 
is but three quarters of a Eeague from it, and has been called 
R^ea-pour Broudra and Rageapour It hath pretty good Walls and 
a own. Towers, is inhabited by a great many Banians ; and seeing the 
finest Stuffs in Guzerat are made in this Town, it is full of 
Artizans who are continually employed in making of them. It 
hath above two hundred Bourgs and Villages within its Juris- 
diction, and there is store^ of Lacca^ to be found therein, because 
it is gathered in abundance in the territory of one of its Bourgs 
called Sindiguera,^ 



The little Town of Gog(i^ is on the other side of the Gulf, Coga a 
about eight and twenty or thirty Leagues from Cambay e. It Town, 
abounds with Banians and Sea-men. 

Patan‘ lies more to the South, tow'ards the great Sea ; it is Patan a 
a great Town, heretofore of much Trade, and affords still Town, 
abundance of Silk-stuff s that are made there. It hath a Fort 
and very beautiful Temple wherein are many Marble-pillars. 

Idoles w’ere Worshipped there, but at present it serves for a 

The Town of Dm® belongs to the Portuguese, and lies also 
in the Province of Guzerai, fortified with three Castles. It stands 
at the entr^^ of the Gulf of Cambayc to the right hand, in 
twenty two degrees eighteen minutes Latitude, and two hundred 
Leagues from Cape Comorin, Before Surrat and Cambaye came 
into reputation, it had the advantage of most of the Commerce 
that at present is made in those two Towns. Its first Castle Campson 
was built in the Year fifteen hundred and fifteen/*^ by 
Albaquerque^^^ a Portuguese, Campson^^ the last but one of 
the Mammelukes of Egypt, set by the King of Guzerat Mammc^ 
sent an Army against the Portuguese, which perished there. 

They were not then Masters of the Town, and had no more 
but the Castle. 

Sultan Soliman^^ Emperour of the Turks, sent and besieged Sultan 
it in the year One thousand five hundred and thirty eight, Solmmi, 
at the desire of the same King of Guzerat, named Badur^® (for King of 
that Country belonged not then to the Moguls) and his success Guzerat, 
was no better than that of the Sultan of Egypt, Solimans Fleet Solmmns 
consisted of threescore and two Gallies, six Gallions, and a great 
many otlier smaller Vessels fitted out at Suez in the Ked Sea, 
which had on board four thousand Janisaries/^ and sixteen 
thousand other Soldiers, not to reckon Gunners, Sea-men, and 
Pilotes. It parted from Suez in June, and a Basha^® called 
Soliman^^ wdio commanded it, in his passage Seized the Town 
of Jiden, by horrible ti'eachery, and hanged the King of it.®® Aden, 

When this Fleet came before Din, it \vas jo\’ned by four- 
score Sail of Ships of the Comitry, and so soon as the Forces 
were put a-shore, they landed fifty pieces of Cannon,®^ where- 
with they battered the Citadel, which on the other side was 
besieged by a Land-army of the King of Guzerat, Many brave 
Actions happened during that Siege. The Governour of the 
Citadel called Silveircp^ a Portuguese, shew’d so much YClow: silveirasi 
and Prudence, in resisting the several assaults and attacks of the Portitgucsc, 
Turks and Indians, that he forced them to raise the Siege 
shamefully, and to forsake their Pavillions,®® Ammunition and 
Artillery, to leave above a thousand wounded Men in their 
Camp, above a thousand more that were out a forraging, and 
fifty pieces of Cannon besides, which were Seized by the 

Stones of 

Stingings of 



Nariad and 




Revenue of 
the Province 
of Gttzerat. 


Gemna a 

The course 
of G^mna. 


46 Indian travels of thevenot 

In this Town of Diu the so much famed Stones of Cohra^^ 
are made, they are composed of the Ashes of burnt roots, mingled 
with a kind of Earth they have, and once again burnt with that 
Earth, which afterwards is made up into a Paste, of which 
these Stones are formed. They are used against the stingings 
of Serpents and other venemous Creatures, or when one is 
wounded with a Poysonous Weapon. A little Blood is to be 
let out of the Wound with the prick of a Needle, and the Stone 
applied thereto which must be left till it drop off of it self. 
Then it must be put into Womans milk ; or if none can be had, 
into that of a Cow, and there it leaves all the Venom it hath 
imbibed ; for if it be not so used, it will burst. 

Betwixt Broudra and Amedabad^ there are two Towns more, 
of indifferent bigness, the one called Nariad/^'' and the other 
Mamadebad/^ where many Stuffs are made, and the latter fur- 
nishes the greatest part of Guzerat, and other Neighbouring 
Countries with Cotton-thread. I shall treat no more here of 
the other Towns of this Kingdom, because there being but 
little worth remarking in them, the discription would be tedious. 
It pays commonly to the Great Mogul Twenty Millions five 
hundred thousand French Eivres a Year. 



Agra is one of the largest Provinces of Mogulistan,^ and 
its Capital Towm which bears the same Name, is the greatest 
Town of the Indies. It is distant from Surrat about two hundred 
and ten Teagues, which they make commonly in five and thirty 
or six and thirty days Journey of Caravan, and it lies in the 
Latitude of twenty eight degrees and half on the River Gemna/ 
which some call Geminy, and Pliny Jomanes. This River hath 
its source in the Mountains to the North of Dehly, from whence 
descending towards this Town, and receiving several rivulets in 
its course, it makes a very considerable River. It runs by 
Agra, and having traversed several Countries, falls into the 
Ganges at the great Town of Halbas/ 

There is no need of taking the pains that some have done, 
to have recourse to Bacchus for illustrating Agra by an ancient 
Name.^ Before King Echar, it was no more but a Bourg which 
had a little Castle of Earth, and pretended to no privilege over 
its Neighbours upon account of Antiquity ; and indeed, there 
were never any marks of that to be found. 

That Prince being pleased with the seat of it, joyned 
several Villages thereunto : He gave them the form of a Town 



by other buildings which he raised, and called it after his own 

Name Echar-Ahad,^ the habitation of Ecbar, where he estab- called 

lished the seat of his Empire, in the year One thousand five Ecbar-Abad. 

hundred threescore and six. His declaration of that w-as 

enough to People it ; for when the Merchants came to under- Merchants 

stand that the Court was there, they came from all parts, and 

not onl3^ the Banian Traders flocked thither, but Christians also 

of all Perswasions, as well as Mahometans, who strove in 

emulation who should furnish it with greatest variety of 

Goods ; and seeing that Prince called the JestiUs thither, and Jesuits at 

gave them a Pension to subsist on, Catholick Merchants made 

no scruple to come and live there, and to this day these Fathers 

take the care of Spirituals, and teach their Children. 

Though this Prince pretended^ to make Agra a place of 
consequence, yet he Fortified it not neither with ramparts, 

Walls, nor Bastions, but only with a Ditch, hopeing to make 
it so strong in Soldiers and Inhabitants, that it should not need 
to fear the attempts of any Enemy. The Castle w^as the first Castle of 
thing that was built, which he resolved to make the biggest 
at that time in the Indies ; and the situation of the old one 
appearing good and commodious, he caused it to be demolished, 
and the foundations of the present to be laid. It was begirt 
with a Wall of Stone and Brick terrassed in several places, 
which is twenty® Cubits high, and betwixt the Castle and River 
a large place® was left for the exercises the King should think 
fit fo divert himself with. 

The Kings Palace is in the Castle. It contains three The Kings 
Courts adorned all round with Porches and Galleries that are Palace at 
Painted and Gilt ; nay there are some peeces^® covered with 
plates of Gold. Under the Galleries of the first Court, there 
are Lodgings made for the Kings Guards : The Officers 
Lodgings are in the second ; and in the third, the stately 
appartments of the King and his Ladies ; from whence he goes 
commonly to a lovely Divan which looks to the River, there 
to please himself with seeing Elephants fight, his Troops 
exercise, and Plays^^ which he orders to be made upon the 
Water, or in the open place. 

This Palace is accompanied with five and twenty or thirty Palaces of 
other very large ones, all in a line, w’-hich belong to the Princes 
and other great Lords of Court ; and all together afford a most Agra, 
delightful prospect to those who are on the other side of the 
River, %vhich would be a great deal more agreeable, were it not 
for the long Garden- walls, which contribute much to the 
rendering the Town so long as it is.*® There are upon the 
same line several less Palaces and other Buildings. All being 
desirous to enjoy the lovely prospect and convenience of the 
Water of the Gemna, endeavoured to purchase ground on that 
side, which is the cans? that the Town is very long but narrow, 

places at 

7eras of 

Baths of 

of Agra. 


of Eling 


of Tadge- 

The Tomb 
of King 


and excepting some fair Streets that are in it, all the rest are 
very narrow, and without Symmetry, 

Before the Kings Palace, there is a very large Square, and 
twelve other besides of less extent within the Town. But that 
which makes the Beauty of Agra besides the Palaces I have 
mentioned, are the Quervanseras which are above threescore 
in number ; and some of them have six large Courts with their 
Portico’s, that give entry to very commodious Appartments, 
where stranger Merchants have their Lodgings : There are 
above eight hundred Baths in the Town, and a great number 
of Mosques, of which some serve for Sanctuary. There are 
many magnificent Sepulchres in it also, several great Men 
having had the ambition to build their own in their own life- 
time, or to erect Monuments to the memory of their Fore- 

King Gehanguir caused one to be built for King Ecbar his 
Father, upon an eminence of the Town.^^ It surpasses in 
magnificence all those of the Grand Signiors, but the fairest of 
all, is that which Cha-Gehan Erected in honour of one of his 
Wives called Tadge-Mehal,^^ whom he tenderly loved, and 
whose death had almost cost him his life. I know that the 
Learned and curious Mr. Bernier^^ hath taken memoires of it, 
and therefore I did not take the pains to be exactly informed 
of that work. Only so much I’ll say that this King having 
sent for all the able Architects of the Indies to Agra, he 
appointed a Council of them for contriving and perfecting the 
Tomb which he intended to Erect, and having setled Salaries 
upon them, he ordered them to spare no cost in making the 
finest Mausoleum in the World, if they could. They corn- 
pleated it after their manner, and succeeded to his satisfaction. 

The stately Garden^® into which all the parts of that 
Mausoleum are distributed, the great Pavillions with their 
Fronts, the beautiful Porches, the lofty dome that covers the 
Tomb, the lovely disposition of its Pillars, the raising of Arches 
which support a great many Galleries, Quiochques and 
Terrasses, ’ make it apparent enough that the Indians are not 
ignorant in Architecture. It is true, the manner of it seems 
odd to Europeans ; yet it hath its excellency, and though it be 
not like that of the Greeks and other Ancients, yet the Fabrick 
may be said to be very lovely. The Indians say that it was 
twenty years^^ in building, that as many Men as could labour 
in the great work^® were employed, and that it was never 
interrupted during that long space of time. 

The King hath not had the same tenderness for the 
memory of his Father Gehanguir, as for that of his Wife Tadge- 
Mahal ; for he hath raised no magnificent Monument for him ; 

that Great Mogul is Interred in a Garden, where his Tomb 
is only Painted upon the portaL^^ 



Now after all the Air of Agra is very incommodious"® in The Air of 
the Summer-time, and it is very likely that the excessive heat 
which scorches the Sands that environ this Town, was one of 
the chief causes which made King Cha-Gchan change the 
Climate, and chuse to live at Dehly, Little thought this Prince Chfi^Gehan 
that one day he would be forced to live at Agra, what aversion 
soever he had to it,^^ and far less still, that he should be 
Prisoner'^ there in his own Palace, and so end his days in 
affliction and trouble. That misfortune though befel him, and 
A'uran-Zeb his third Son, was the cause of it,^^ who having Auran-geb 
got the better of his Brothers, both by cunning and force, made 
sure of the Kings Person and Treasures, by means of Soldiers Father."^ 
whom he craftily slipt"'* into the Palace, and under whose 
Custody the King was kept till he died. 

So soon as Auran-Zeb knew that his Father was in his Atiran-Zch 
Power, he made himself be proclaimed King : He held his ^oclaimed 
Court at Dehly, and no party was made^^ for the unfortunate ^ 

King, though many had been raised by his bounty and liberali- 
ties. From that time forward Auran-Zeb Feigned without The^death 
trouble ; and the King his Father dying in Prison about the 
end of the year One thousand six hundred sixty six,®® he 
enjoyed at ease the Empire, and that so famous Throne of the 
Moguls,“' which he had left in the Prisoners appartment to 
divert him with. He added to the precious Stones that were 
set about it, those of the Princes his Brothers, and particularly 
the Jewels of Begum-Sakeh^^ his Sister, who died after her BeguDv- 
Father; and whose death (as it was said,) was hastened by 
Poison. And in fine,®® he became absolute Master of all, after 
he had overcome and put to death Dara-Cha his Eldest Brother, 
whom Cha-Gehan had designed for the Crown. That King is The 
Interred on the other side of the River, in a Monument which 
he began, but is not finished.®® Cha-Gchan, 

The Town of Agra is Populous as a great Town ought to 
be, but not so as to be able to send out Two hundred thousand 
fighting men into the Field, as some have written. The 
Palaces and Gardens take up the greatest part of it, so that 
its extent is no infallible Argument of the number of its Inhabi- 
tants. The ordinary Houses are low, and those of the 
commoner sort of People are hut Stravr, containing but few 
People a piece ; and the truth is, one may walk the Streets 
without being crouded, and meet with no throng but when 
the Court is there : But at that time, I have been told there 
is great confusion, and infinite numbers of People to be seen ; 
and no wonder indeed,®^ seeing the Streets are narrow, and 
that the King besides his Household, (who are many,) is always 
attended by an Army for his Guard ; and the Rajas, Omras, 
Mansepdars^^ and other great Men, have great Retinues, and 
most part of the Merchants also follow the Court, not to reckon 




at A^ra. 

at Agra. 

Mr. Bebcr 

of the 

a vase number of Tradesmen, and thousands of followers who 
have all their subsistence from it. 

Some alTirm that there are twenty five thousand Christian 
Families in Agra/"^ but all do not agxee in that. This indeed 
is certain, that there are few Heathen and Parsis in respeot 
Mahomet ans' tlierc, and these'^'^ surpass all the other Sects in 
pow’er, as they do in number. The Dutch have a Factory in 
the Town f'" but the English have none now, because it did 
not turn to account. 

The Officers are the same as at Surrat, and do the same 
Duties, and it is just so in all the great Towns of the Empire. 
We told yoir° that the Foursdar or Prevost, is to answer for 
all the Robberies committed in the Country ; And that was the 
reason why iMr. Eeber, one of the Envoys to the great Mogul, 
for the concerns of the East-lndia Company in France, having 
been Robbed, demanded from that Officer of Agra, the Sum 
of thirty one thousand two hundred Roupies, which he affirmed 
were taken from him. That Sum astonished the Foursdar 
who told him that he did not believe he had lost so much ; 
and because the Envoy made Answer that the sum would 
certainly, if he dela3^ed to pay down the Money, and 
if he gave him time to call to mind a great many things which 
he had forgot ; He wrote to the Great, Mogul, and informed 
him that it was impossible that that Envoy could have lost so 
great a Sum. Monsieur Beber had also made his addresses at 
Court ; but it being pretty difficult to give an equitable sentence 
in the Case, the King, that he might make an end of it, com- 
manded the Foursdar to pay the Envoy fifteen thousand 
Roupies, and because he was wounded when he was Robbed, 
he ordered him out of his Exchequer, ten thousand Roupies 
for his Blood, 



Habits at 



• different Nations as are at Agra, as well as 

m the rest of the Indies, there is pretty great uniformity in 

Mahometans called 

K ^ *!• Portuguese, distinguish themselves outwardly 

by a particular kind of Coif, or head-attire, but in all tS 
else, they are cloathed as the rest. The Breeches of the Indian 
are commonly of Cotten-cloath, they come down to the mid 

the Anckle. They who affect Rich Clothing, wear Silk 
breeches striped with different colours, which are so long that 

The Moor*s headgear 



they must be plated upon the I^eg, much in the same manner 
as formerly Silk-stockings were worn in France, 

The Shirt hangs over the Breeches, as the fashion is all Shirts, 
over the Levant, These Shirts are fastened as the Persians 
are,^ and heretofore had no greater opening than theirs ; but 
because the Moors Shirts are open from top to bottom, as their 
upper Garments, which they call Cahas^ are ; many People at 
present wear them in that fashion, because they find them, 
more commodious,^ being more easily put on and oS : Besides 
that when one is alone, he may open them and take the fresh 

When it is cold Weather, the Indians wear over their Arcaluck, 
Shirt an Arcaluck^ or Just au corps quilted with Gotten and 
Pinked, the outside whereof is commonly of a schite^ or 
Painted stuff. The colours upon them are so good and lively, 
that though they be soiled by wearing, yet they look as fresh 
again as at first when they are washed. They make the 
Flowers and other motely colours that are upon the Stuffs 
with Moulds. 

Over the Arcaluck they put the Cab a, which is an upper caba. 
Garment, but then it must be supposed the weather is not hot ; 
for if there be but the least heat, they wear no Arcaluck j and 
the Caba is put next the Shirt. The Caba of the Indians is 
wider than that of the Persians, and I cannot tell how to 
express the manner of it more intelligibly, then by saying it 
is a kind of gown with a long Jerkin® fastened to it, open 
before, and pleated from top to bottom, to hinder it from 
being too clutterly.’' It hath a collar two fingers breadth 
high, of the same Stuff with the rest, they button not that 
Vest as we do our Coats, but they fold it cross ways over the 
Stomack ; first from the right to the left, and then from the 
left to the right. They tie it with Ribbons of the same Stuff, 
which are two Fingers broad and a Foot long ; and there are 
seven or eight of them from the upper part down to the 
Haunches, of which they only tie the first and last, and let the 
rest hang negligently as being more graceful. 

These Cabas are commonly made of white Stuff, that’s to 
say of Cotten-cloath, to the end they may be the lighter, and 
the neater by being often washed ; and that agrees with the 
fashion of the Ancient Indians, I say of Cotton-cloath, There is no 
because they use no other in the Indies, and have no Flax Plax in the 
there: Nevertheless some wear them of Painted cloath, but 
that is not the Gentilest manner of Apparel, and when the Rich 
do not wear White they use Silk, and chuse the broadest Stuff 
they can find, which commonly is streaked with several colours. 

They use only one Girdle, 'whereas the Persians have two, Girdle, 
nay and it is not very dear neither, being only of White- 

at Agra. 

Chal or 


Turban of 
the Indies. 

whereof 25 
or 30 Blls 
do not 

The form 
of the 
at Agra. 






Hose and 



cloath, and it is rare to see the Indians make use of the lovely 
Girdles of Persia, unless they be wealthy persons of Quality. 

When it is very cold, the Indians wear over all the Cloaths 
I have been speaking of, a Garment or Vest called Cadehy,^ 
and then the Rich have very costly ones. They are of Cloath 
of Gold, or other Rich Stuff, and are lined with Sables which 
cost very dear. 

At all times when they go abroad, they wear a Clial^ which 
is a kind of toileP^ of very fine Wool made at Cachmir.^^ 
These Chats are about two Ells^^ long and an Ell broad ; they 
are sold at five and twenty or thirty Crowns a piece if they be 
fine, nay there are some that cost fifty Crowns but these are 
extraordinary fine.^^ They put that Chal about their Shoulders, 
and tie the two ends of it upon their Stomack, the rest hanging 
down behind to the small of their Back. Some wear them like 
a Scarf, and sometimes they bring one end to the Head, which 
they dress in manner of a Coif. They have of them of several 
colours, but those the Banians wear are most commonly Fild- 
de-mortj^^ and the Poor, or such as will not be at the^® charges, 
wear them of plain Cloath. 

The Turban worn in the Indies is commonly little. That 
of the Mahometans is always White, and the Rich have them 
of so fine a Cloath, that five and twenty or thirty Ells of it 
which are put into a Turhan, will not weigh^® four Ounces. 
These lovely Cloaths are made about Bengale : They are dear, 
and one single Turban will cost five and Twenty Crowns. 
They who affect a Richer attire, have them mixed with Gold ; 
but a Turban of that Stuff costs several Tomans, and 1 have 
said elsewhere that a Toman^'^ is worth about forty five French 

These Turbans wreathed as they ought to be, much 
resemble the shape of the Head, for they are higher behind 
by four or five Fingers breadth than before,^® so that, the upper 
part of the Head is only well covered ; and I have seen Paisant 
women in France, whose Coiffing lookt pretty like that kind 
of Turban^^ 

The Indians w^'ear their Hair for Ornament, contrary to^° 
the Mahometans who shave their Heads ; and in that, as in 
many other things, the Indians imitate their Ancestours. 

As for Stockings the Indians are at no charge, for they 
use neither Stockings nor Socks, but put their Shoes on their 
naked Feet. The stuff they are made of is Maroquin, or 
Turkey Ae&ther, and they are much of the same shape as the 
Papouches^^ of the Turks j but the Persons of Quality have 
them bordered with Gold, and they have behind a kind of a 
heel of the same stuff as the instip, which most commonly they 
fold down, as they do who go with their Shoes slipshod. 
However the Banians wear the heel of theirs up because being 



men of business they would^^ walk with freedom, which is 
very hard to be done,^" when the Foot is not on all sides begirt 
with the Shoe. 

The Rich Banians cover the upper Leather of theirs with The 
Velvet,"^ Embrodered with great Flowers of Silk ; and the rest Shoes or 
are satisfied with red Leather and small Flowers, or some other 
Galantry^^ of little value. Banians, 

The Mogul Women who would distinguish themselves from The 
others, are Cloathed almost like the Men ; however the sleeves Womens 
of their Smocks, as those of the other Indian Women, reach 
not below the Elbow, that they may have liberty to adorn the 
rest of their Arm with Carkanets^® and Bracelets of Gold, 

Silver and Ivory, or set with Precious Stones, as likewise they 
do the small of their Legs. The ordinary Smocks of the India?i 
Idolatrous Women reach down only to the middle, as does the Indians 
Waste-coat of Sattin or Cloath, which they wear over it, Smocks, 
because from the Waste down-wards they wrap themselves up wa^s^te- 
in a piece of Cloath or Stuff, that covers them to the Feet like coats, 
a Petticoat ; and that Cloath is cut in such a manner, that they 
make one end of it reach up to their Head behind their Back, 

They wear no other Apparel neither within Doors, nor 
abroad in the Streets, and for Shoes they have high Pattins. 

They wear a little flat Ring of Gold or Silver in their Ears, The 
with engraving upon it ; and they adorn their Noses with Rings Indian 
which they put through their Nostril. adoSf^^ 

Rings also are the Ornaments of their Fingers, as they are their 

in other places : They wear a great many, and as they love to an^d 
see themselves, they have always one with a Looking-Glass set ^ 

in it,^’' instead of a Stone, which is an Inch in diametre. If ^ pingei* 
these Indian Women be Idolaters, they go barefaced ; and if I^oking- 
Mahometans, they are Vailed. There are some Countries in Glass. 

the Indies, where the Women as well as Men go naked^® to 

the middle, and the rest of their Body is only covered to the naked to 


the middle. 



There are a great many at Agra, who are curious in lighting 
breeding up of Beasts, to have the pleasure to make them Fight of Beasts, 
together : But seeing they cannot reach to^ Elephants and 
Lions, because it costs dear^ to feed them, most part® content 
themselves with^ He-goats, Weathers, Rams, Cocks, Quailes, 

Stags, and ■ Antilopes, to entertain their Friends with the 
Fightings of these Beasts. 







A Screen 



catching of 


The Indian Antilopes/ are not altogether like those of 
other Countries ; they have even a great deal more courage, 
and are to be distinguished by the Horns. The Horns of the 
ordinary Antilopes are greyish, and but half as long as the 
Horns of those in the Indies ^ which are blackish, and a large 
Foot and a half long. These Horns grow winding to the point 
like a screw ; and the Faquirs and Santons^ carry commonly 
two of them pieced together ; they are armed with Iron at both 
ends, and they make use of them, as of a little Staff. ^ 

When they use not® a tame Teopard for catching of 
Antilopes, they take with them a Male of the kind, that is 
tame, and fasten a Rope about his Horns with several nooses 
and doubles, the two ends whereof are tied under his Belly ; 
so soon as they discover a Heard of Autilopes, they slip this 
Male, and he runs to joyn them: The Male of the Heard 
advances to hinder him, and making no other opposition, but 
by playing with his Horns, he fails not to be pestered® and 
entangled with his Rival, so that it being uneasie^® for him to 
retreat, the Huntsman cunningly catches hold on him, and 
carries him off ; but it is easier so to catch the Male than the 

There are Pidgeons in that Country all over green, which 
differ from ours only in colour ; The Fowlers take them with 
Bird-lime, in this manner ; they carry before them a kind of 
light Shed or Screen, that covers the whole Body, and has 
holes in it to see through ; the Pidgeons seeing no Man, are 
not at all scared when the Fowler ' draws near, so that he 
cunningly catches them, one after another, with a Wand and 
Bird lime on it, none offering to flie away. In some places 
Parrocquets are taken after the same manner. 

The Indians are very dexterous at Game they take 
WaterfowP^"^ with great facility, as thus : The Fowlers swim 
almost upright, yet so, that they have their Head above Water, 
which they hide with a Pot full of holes, to let in the Air, and 
give them sight. Besides, this Pot is covered with Feathers, 
to cheat the Ducks, and other Fowl ; so that when the Fowler 
draws near them, they are not in the least scared, taking that 
floating head for a Fowl j and then the Fowler makes sure of 
them by the Feet, which he catches hold of under Water, and 
draws them down : The other Ducks seeing no body, think 
that their comrades have only dived, and are not at all scared ; 
so that growing acquainted with the Feathered head, that still 
follows them, they are at length all taken, whiPst in vain they 
stay^® for the return of those who have dived, before they flie 
away to another place. 

The Huntsmen 6f AgrA go five Days Journey from the 
Town, as far as a Mountain called Nerouer,^* where tiiere is a 
mine of excellent Iron ; but their business in going so far is 



only to catch a kind of Wild Cows which they call Merous/^ Merous, 
that are to be found in a Wood round this Hill, which is upon Wild Cows, 
the Road from Surrat to Golconda ; and these Cows being 
commonly very lovely, they make great advantage of them/® 

One may see a great many Pictures in the Indies upon Indian 
Paper and Past-board, but generally they are dull pieces, and Pictures, 
none are esteemed but those of Agra and Dehly ; However, 
since those of Agra are for the most part indecent, and repre- 
sent I^acivious Postures, worse than those of Aretin/^ there are 
but few civil Europeans that will buy them. 

They have a way in this Town of working in Gold upon Working 
Agat, Chrystal, and other brittle matters,^® which our Gold- 
smiths and Eapidaries have not. When the Indians would chrystaL 
beautifie Vessels, Cups, or Coffers ; besides the Circles of Gold 
they put about them, they engrave Flowers and other Figures, 
and also enchase Stones upon them. They cut leaves of Gold 
to fill up the void spaces of the Figures, lay several pieces one 
upon another, and enchase them so artificially^® in the hollow 
places, with an Iron Instrument like a Graver, that when the 
void spaces are filled up, it looks like Massie^® Gold. They do 
the same with Stones, they encompass them also with such 
pieces of Eeaf-Gold, and press them in so close that the Stones 
hold very well, 

They make Rings about Vessels, either about the middle 
or brims, of a kind of Gold made into little round Rods, which 
they beat upon an Anvil, till they be reduced into flat thin 
Plates ; then they take the measure of the part of the Vessel 
which they would incitcle,^^ and having most exactly bent the 
Ring, they Soulder the two ends of it together, and put it upon 
the part of the Vessel they intend it for ; so that it holds very 
well, provided one have the skill to adjust it true to the place 
marked : If Handles be necessary to the Vessels, or Eocks for 
the Coffers of Agat or Crystal, they soulder them to the Ring 
with the same Art that they souldered the two ends of it ; but 
they do it after another way than our Goldsmiths do. For that 
end they make use of little red Beans which are black at the 
end, and are the fruit of a Convolvulus, called in Indian Gomtchi, 
and in the Telenghi language, Gourghindeh^^ They peel off 
the Skin which is dry and hard, and taking the inside of the 
Bean that is yellowish, they grind it upon an Iron-Plate with 
a little Water till it be dissolved into a Liquid Solution ; then 
they pound a little bit of Borax, mix it with that Solution, and 
with this mixture dawb the ends which they intend to soulder, 
and having heated them with a Coal, joyn them together ; so 
that the two sides close fast and hold extraordinarily well. 

This work is performed by poor People, and sometimes by 
little Boys, who do it very skilfully and quickly, for a matter 
of two Crowns for each tole of Gold ; and something is also 





Agra a 


A lovely 
Meidan at 

A fair 
Mosque at 

The cause 
of forsaking 










Byana, and 


hade, all 

Towns of 


given to him that beats and flattens the Rods of Gold : How- 
ever none of these People know how to Enammel Gold, 

The Province of Agra hath above fourty Towns in its 
dependance, and, as they say, above three thousand four 
hundred Villages. Fetipour^^^ is one of the Towns; it was 
heretofore called Sicari^ and the Name Fetipour, which signifies, 
The enjoyment of what one desires j was given it by Echar, 
because of the happy news he received there of the birth of a 
Son,^^ when he was upon his return from a Warlike expedition. 
This Town is about six Leagues from Agra ; it hath been very 
lovely, and that Great Mogul in the beginning of his Reign, 
having rebuilt the Walls of it, made it the Capital of his Empire. 
But the Ambition Kings have to make small things great, prompt- 
ing Echar to build a Town where there was nothing but a 
Village, or at most, but a Bourg named Agra/^^ the Town of 
Feiipour was not only neglected, but hath been since wholly 
abandoned ; for so soon as Agra was become a Town, and that 
the King had given it his Name, calling it Echarabad, a place 
built by Echar, he went to reside there and forsook Fetipour. 

Though this Town of Fetipour be much decay’d, yet there 
is still a large Square to be seen in it, adorned with fair Build- 
ings ; and the stately entry of Echar' s Palace®^ is still entire, 
and has adjoyning to it one of the loveliest Mosques^® in the 
East, built by a Mahometan a Calender^^ by profession, who 
lies buried there as a Saint.^^ The Calenders are Dervishes who 
go bare-footed. This Mosque is still adorn’d with all its Pillars, 
and lovely Seelings, and indeed, with all that can beautifie a 
fair Temple. Near to it there is a great Reservatory^® which 
supplied the whole Town with Water, and was the more 
necessary that all the Springs thereabouts are Salt ; and the un- 
wholsome Waters were one of the chief causes that obliged the 
Great Mogul to settle elsewhere. 

Beruzahad?^ is one of the Towns of Agra. Chitpour^^ is 
another, and has a great trade in Schites or painted Cloaths. 
Bargant^^ is likewise one, which belongs to a Raja who exacts 
some dues. Chalaour^^ stands upon a Hill. At Vetapour^^ 
lovely Tapistry is made. Mirda,^^ Ladona,^^ Hindon,^^ Canova,^'^ 
Byana/^ and Scanderhade,^^ are also Towns of Agra. These 
last furnish the best Indigo of the Indies. Two Leagues from 
Byana there are to be seen the Ruins of Ancient Palaces, and 
other Buildings ; as also some very considerable ones upon a 
little Hill some Leagues from Scanderhade. At the Foot of the 
Hill on the side of that Town, there is a lovely Valley walled 
in, divided into several Gardens, and the Ruins of several Build- 
ings, which is not to be wondered at, seeing heretofore 
Scanderhade was several Leagues long, having been the Capital 
City of a powerful King of the Patans and the Hill it self 
made part of the Town, which was afterwards sack’d and ruin’d 



by EchaTj when he took it from Raja Selim, who made it his Raja 
chief Garrison and Magazin. Selim. 

Upon the Road from Agra to By ana there is a Royal-House, The Royal 
built by the Queen Mother of Echar,^^ with Gardens kept in 
very good order ; There are also in Byana some Serraglio's and Ecbfr’s 
a long Meidan, but that Town is thin of Inhabitants. Seronge"^^ Mother, 
hath also been named to me amongst the Towns of the Province 
of Agra, and Schites are made there, which in beauty come Lanque' 
near those of St. Thomas. There are a great many other Towns, Chani- 
whose Names I know not. The chief Rivers that water Agra, Q^g^ady, 
are the Gemna or Geminy, Lanque,^"^ Cham-Elnady,^^ Singour, all 
Geogonady,^^ Singour and a g?eat manv smaller. Rivers of 

The Kings Revenue in this Province of Agra, is reckoned xhe ’ 
to amount to above thirty seven Millions of French-Uivres a Revenue 




The Province of Dehly bounds that of Agra to the North, ^he ^ 
and at present the Great Mogul Auran-zeh keeps his Court in 
the chief City of it, which is about fourty five Teagues distant 
from Agra. In Indostan it is called Gehan-ahad,^ and elsewhere Gehan- 
Dehly. Abad. 

The Road betwixt these two Towns is very pleasant ; it A Walk 
is that famous Alley or Walk^ one hundred and fifty Teagues 
in length, which King Gehanguir planted with Trees, and which 
reaches not only from Agra to Dehly, but even as far as Labors. 

Each half Teague is marked with a kind of Turret : There are 
threescore and nine or threescore and ten of them betwixt the 
two Capital Cities, and besides there are little Serraglio’s or 
Carvanseras, from Stage to Stage for lodging Travellers. How- 
ever there is nothing worth the observing about these Serraglios, 
unless in that which is called Chekiserai,^ which is six Teagues The 
from Agra. In that place there is the Ancient Temple of an ^^^seral 
Idol, and it may be reckoned amongst the largest and fairest 
Pagods of the Indies. It was more frequented than now it is, 
when the Gemna washed the Walls thereof,^ because of the con- 
venience of Ablutions : But though that River hath fallen off® 
almost half a Teague from it, yet many Indians still resort 
thither, who forget not to bring with them Food for the Apes An Hospital 
that are kept in an Hospital built for them. 

Though the Road I have been speaking of be tolerable, 
yet it hath many inconv^ni^nci^s, One may me'et with Tygres, 







upon the 
Road from 
Agra to 

Towns of 

The first 
, Town of 


of Cha^ 

The Second 
Town of 

A' Pyramide 
of great 

Panthers and Lions upon it ; and one had best also have a care 
of Robbers, and above all things not to suffer any body to come 
near one upon the Road. The cunningest Robbers® in the 
World are in that Countrey. They use a certain Slip with a 
running-noose, which they can cast with so much slight^ about 
a Mans Neck, when they are within reach of him, that they 
never fail ; so that they strangle him in a trice. They have 
another cunning trick also to catch Travellers with : They send 
out a handsome Woman upon the Road, who with her Hair 
deshevelled, seems to be all in Tears, sighing® and complaining 
of some misfortune which she pretends has befallen her : Now 
as she takes the same way that the Traveller goes, he easily 
falls into Conversation with her, and finding her beautiful, 
offers her his assistance, which she accepts ; he had no sooner 
taken her up behind him on Horse-back, but she throws the 
snare about his Neck and strangles him, or at least stuns him, 
until the Robbers (who lie hid) come running in to her assistance 
and compleat what she hath begun. But besides that, there 
are Men in those quarters so skilful in casting the Snare, that 
they succeed as well at a distance as near at hand ; and if an 
Ox or any other Beast belonging to a Caravan run away, as 
sometimes it happens, they fail not to catch it by the Neck. 

There are three Towns of Dehly^ near to one another:^® 
The first (which is entirely destroy’d, and whereof some Ruins 
only remain,) was very ancient, and the learned Indians will 
have it to have been the Capital Town of the States of King 
Forus, so famous fop the War which he maintained against 
Alexander the Great.^^ It was nearer the Source of the Gemna 
than the two others that have been built since. The Indians 
say it had two and fifty Gates, and there is still at some distance 
from its Ruins, a Stone-bridge, from whence a Way hath been 
made with lovely Trees on each side, which leads to the second 
Dehlyj^ by the place where the Sepulchre of Cha-Humayon}^ is, 

This Second Town of Dehly is that which was taken -by 
the King, whom they call the first Conquerour of the Indies 
amongst the Modern Moguls, though his Father Mirzabaher 
had invaded it before. It was then beautified with a great many 
stately Sepulchres of the Patan Kings, and other Monuments 
which rendered it a very lovely Town ; but Cha-Gehan the 
Father of King Auran-Zeh, demolished it for the Building of 
Gehan-Abad. Towards the Sepulchre of Humayon, there is a 
Pyramide^® or Obelisk of Stone, which by its unknown charac- 
ters^ shews a great Antiquity, and which is thought in the 
Indies to have been erected by Alexander's order, after the 
defeat of Porus. This I cannot believe, because I make no 
doubt, but that the Inscriptioi^ W^uld theq h^ve been in Greek, 
which is not so, , : 

Of the province or town of dehlV 5d 

The Third Town of Dehly is joyned to the remains of the The Third 
Second : Cha-Gehan resolving to imitate King Ecbar, and to 
give his Name to a new Town, caused this to be built of the 
Ruines of the Second Dehly ^ and called it Gehan-Ahad: So 
the Indians call it at present, though amongst other Nations it 
still retains the Name of Dehly. It lies in an open Champian 
Countrey upon the brink of the Gemna, which hath its source 
in this Province, and runs into the Ganges. The fortress of it 
is half a League in circuit, and hath good Walls with round 
Towers every ten Battlements, and Ditches full of Water, 
wharffed with Stone, as likewise lovely Gardens round it : And 
in this Fort^^ is the Palace of the King, and all the Ensignes’-^ 
of the Royalty. 

This Town of Dehly or Gehan-ahadj contrary to^® that of 
Agra or Echar-ahadj hath no Ditches but Walls filled up with 
Earth behind, and Towers. There is a place towards the Water- 
side for the fighting of Elephants, and other Exercises ; and 
towards the Town there is another very large place where the 
Raja's, who are in the Kings Pay encamp and keep Guard, and 
where many exercises ate performed. The Market is also kept 
in that Square, and there Puppet-players, Juglers and Astro- 
logers shew their tricks. 

Here I should give a description of the inside of the Fort A Desctip- 
and Palace, and having begun with the two Elephants at the 
entry which carry two Warriours,^^ speak of the Canal that 
enters into it ; of the Streets that lead to the several Appart- The Canal 
ments ; of the Officers and others who are upon the Parapets of 

of these Streets on Duty ; of the Porticoes and stately Courts DeUy. 
of Guard, where the Mansepdars and, or Omras keep 
Guard ; of the Halls where all sorts of Artisans, who have the 
Kings Pay work ; of that great Court of the Amcas^^ with its The posture 
Arches, and the Consort that’s made there ; of the Amcas it 
self, that stately Hall adorn’d with thirty two Marble-Pillars, the Great 
where the King (having all his Officers great and small stand- Mogul. 
ing before him, with their Hands a-cross their Breasts)^® gives 
every Day at noon Audience to all who have recourse to his 

I should also describe that other Court, and Inner-halF® 
where the Prince gives Audience to his Ministers, concerning 
the Afiairs of his State, and Household, and where the Omras 
and other great Men repair every Evening to entertain the King The Throne 
in the Persian Language though they be of different Nations, of the 
In fine, all the particulars of the Palace ought to be described, 
without forgetting that stately Throne of Massive Gold with 
its Peacock, so much talked of in the Indies, which the Moguls 
say was begun by Tamerlan , though that be very unlikely : 

For to whom could King Humayon and his Father have 
entrusted it in the time of their disasters? Seeing the Spoils 


.Indian travels of thevEnot 

of the Pdtan Kings and other Sovereigns of the Indies, who 
were overcome by the Mogul Kings, are converted into Jewels 
and Precious Stones to adorn it, it is said to be worth above 
twenty Millions of Gold but who can know the value thereof? 
since it depends on the Stones that make the Riches as well 
as the Beauty thereof, whose weight and excellency must be 
particularly examin’d, if one would judge of their worth, and 
by consequence, of the value of the Throne. 

Though I have had Memoirs given me of the Palace and 
that Throne, yet I’ll say no more of them, because I- make no 
doubt, but that Monsieur Bernier, who hath lived many Years 
at the Court of the Great Mogul, in an honourable Employment, 
The great and commodious^® for having a perfect knowledge of the Fort, 
Mosque Palace, and all that is in them, will give a compleat description 

with of the same. I am confident also that he will not omit the 

Domes of Town, the chief places whereof are the great Mosque^"^ with 
its Domes of white Marble, and the Carvansery of Begum- 
Saheh,^^ that Princess whom we mentioned before. The two 
Streets of chief Streets of Dehly^^ may be reckoned amongst the rarities 
Dehly. ^^27 wide, streight, and very long : They have 

Arches all along on both sides, which serve for Shops for those 
who have their Ware-house backwards. Over these Arches 
there is a Terras-walk to take the Air on when they come out 
of their Lodgings ; and these Streets ending at the great Square 
and Castle, make the loveliest Prospect that can be seen in a 
Town. There is nothing else considerable in Dehly, The ordi- 
nary Houses are but of Earth and Canes ; and the other Streets 
are so narrow, that they are altogether incommodious.®® 

The Great 
is very 

Diet costs 
little in 
£he Ifirdies. 

An Army 
that follows 
the Court. 

But that inconvenience seems to contribute somewhat to 
the Reputation of that Capital City of the Empire of the Mogul, 
for seeing there is an extraordinary croud in the Streets while 
the Court is there, the Indians are perswaded that it is the 
most populous City in the World ; and nevertheless I have been 
told, that it appears to be a Desart when the King is absent. 
This will not seem strange if we consider, that the Court of the 
Great Mogul is very numerous, because the great Men of the 
Empire are almost all there, who have vast retinues, because 
their Servants cost them but little in Diet and Cloaths ; that 
that Court is attended by above thirty five thousand Horse, 
and ten or twelve thousand Foot, which may be called an Army ; 
and that every Souldier hath his Wife, Children and Servants, 
who for the most part are married Mso, and have a great many 
Children as well as^® their Masters. If to these we add all the 
dredges and rascally People which Courts and Armies commonly 
draw after them, and then the great number of Merchants and 
other Trading People, who are obliged to stick to them, because 
in that Couutrey there is no Trade nor Money to be got but 
at Court. When I say,, we consider Dehly void of all those 



I have mentioned, and of many more still, it will easily be 
believed, that that Town is no great matter when the King is 
not there ; and if there have been four hundred thousand Men 
in it w^hen he was there, there hardly remains the sixth part 
in his absence. Tet us now see what Arms the Moguls use. 



Their Swords are four Fingers broad, very thick, and by MoguVs 
consequence heavy ; they are crooked a little, and cut only on 
the convexside. The Guard is very plain ; commonly no more The form 
but a handle of Iron, with a cross Bar of the same underneath ^ ^1^® 
the Pummel which is also of Iron,^ is neither Round^ nor Oval, 
but is .fiat above and below like a Whirligigg, that the Swordl 
may not slip out of their Hands when they fight. The Swords 
made by the Indians are very brittle ; but the English furnish 
them with good ones brought from England, The Mogul's 
use Waste-belts for their Swords ; they are two Fingers broad 
and have two Hangers into which the Sword is put, so that 
the Point is always .upwards ; and all the ordinary sort of 
People in the Indies carry them commonly in their Hand, or 
upon their Shoulder like a Musket. 

It is their custom also to carry a Dagger by their sides, Moguls 
the Blade being near a Foot long, and above four Fingers broad 
at the Handle. They have an odd kind of Guard, and I don’t 
remember that I have ever seen any thing in France relating 
to Arms that looks liker it than the handle of some Moulds for 
casting of Bullets, or small-shot,- it is made of two square Bars 
of Iron one Finger broad, and about a Foot long, which are 
paralell, and four Inches distant one from another ; growing 
round they joyn together at the upper part oT the Blade, and 
have cross Bars of two little Iron-Rods two Inches distant from 
one another.^ 

The Indians never want^ one of these Daggers by their 
side, betwixt the Girdle and Caba ; they carry it always bend- 
ing a little sideways, so that the end of the Guard comes pretty 
high, and the Point pretty low upon their Stomach. The 
Officers of War have also Daggers with an Iron-Guard, but it 
is damasked and guilt ; and Persons of great quality have of 
them after the Persian fashion, which are less^ and richer. 

Their other offensive Arms are the Bow and Arrow, the 
Javelin or Zagaye/ and sometimes the Pistol:’' The Foot carry 
.a Musket, or a Pike twelve Foot long. 


Indian travels of thevenot* 

The Moguls 
good for 



The Moguls 

Coat of 

The Moguls 

Beasts at 




Dogs of 




The way of 
and feeding 
the Horses. 

They have Cannon also in their Towns, but since they 
melt the Metal in diverse Furnaces, so that some of it must 
needs be better melted than others® when they mingle all 
together, their Cannon commonly is good for nothing. 

The defensive Arms of the Indians, are a round Buckler 
about two foot in diametre : It is made of Buff, varnished over 
with Black, and hath a great many Nails, the heads whereof 
are above an inch over ; with it they defend themselves against 
Arrows and Swords. 

They have likewise the Coat of Mail, the Cuirats, the 
Head-piece, and a Vambrace fastened to the Sword ; this 
Vambrace is a piece of Iron covering the Handle almost round, 
and growing broader as it reaches from the Guard of the Sword, 
to the upper part of the Pummel, and sometimes higher. It is 
four or five inches in diametre at that place, and is lined with 
Velvet, or some such like thing in the inside, that it may not 
hurt the Hand : So that by means of that Engine,® both hand 
and handle are wholly covered from the Enemies blows. 



At Dehly are all sorts of Beasts that are known. The 
King hath many, and private Men who are Rich, have some 
also. They have Hawks^ there of all kinds ; all kinds of Camels, 
Dromedaries, Mules, Asses, and Elephants. They have also 
Elks,® and Rhinoceroses which are as big as the largest Oxen. 
The ordinary Oxen there, are less than ours. Buffies they 
have also, and those of Bengala are the dearest, because they 
are very stout,® and are not at all afraid of Eions. Nor do they 
want Dogs of all sorts, but those which are brought from 
Maurenahar, or Transoxiane, are most esteemed for Hunting, 
though they be small : However the Indian Dogs are better 
for the Hare. They have also Stags, Eions and Eeopards. 

There is abundance of all sorts of Horses there. Besides 
the Country breed, which the Moguls make use of, and which 
ate very good Horses ; they have others also from the Country 
of the Ulhscks,^ Afahia, and Petsia, those of Avahia being 
most esteemed, and the loveliest of all are constantly reserved 
for the King. They have neither Oats lior Barley given them 
in the Indies ; so that Foreign Horses when they are brought 
Either, can hardly feed. The Way they treat them is thus : 
Every Horse has a Grocmi, he curries and dresses him an 
hour before day,^^ and so soon as it is day® makes' him drink ; 



at seven of the Clock in the Morning, he gives him five or six 
balls of a composition called Donna,^ made of three Pounds of 
Flower, the weight of five PechcLS of Butter, and of four Peek as 
of Jagre ; these Balls are at first forced down his Throat, and 
so by degrees he is accustomed to that way of feeding, which 
in some Months after, he grows very fond of. 

An hour after, the Groom gives the Horse Grass, and 
continues to do so at certain times, every hour of the day after : 
and about four of the Clock, after noon, he gives him three 
Pound of dried Pease bruised ; he mingles. Water with them, 
and sometimes a little Sugar, according to the disposition the 
Horse is in ; and when Night is drawing on, he carefully 
prepares his Horses litter, which is of dry Dung, laid very thick, Litter of dry 
which he is very careful to provide. For that end, he gathers 
all that his Horse hath made, and when that is not sufiBcient, 
he buys from others, who are not so much concerned for the 
convenience of their Horses. 

At Dehly, as elsewhere, they take care to adorn their Flying 
Horses. The great Tords have Saddles and Housses’' Embroa- ^Ste Hair, 
dered, and set sometimes with Pretious Stones, proportionably taken out 
to the charge they intend to be at : But the finest Ornament, 
though of less cost, is made of six large flying tassels of long oxen. 
white Hair, taken out of the Tails of wild Oxen,® that are to 
be found in some places of the Indies, Four of these large 
tassels fastened before and behind to the Saddle,® hang down 
to the ground, and the other two are upon the Horses head ; 
so that when the Rider spurs on his Horse to a full speed, or 
if there be any wind, these tassels flying in the Air, seem to 
be so many wings to the Horse, and yield a most pleasant 

There are several sorts of Elephants at Dehly, as well as Elephants, 
in the rest of the Indies ; but those of Ceilan^^ are preferred 
before all others, because they are the stoutest, though they 
be the least, and the Indians say that all other Elephants stand 
in awe of them. They go commonly in Troops and then they 
offer violence to no body, but when they straggle from the rest, Elephants 
they are dangerous. There are always some of them that 
have the cunning and inclination to do mischief ; and in the ^ays.^^ ^ 
Country these are called. Robbers on the Highways, because 
if they meet a Man alone, theyTl kill and eat him.^^ 

Strong Elephants can carry forty Mans ; at fourscore An 
Pound weight the Man, Those of the Country of Golconda, 

Siam, Cochin, and Sumatra, are indeed, less esteemed .than the 
Elephants of Ceilan, but they are much stronger, and surer ^he 
footed in the Mountains ; and that is the reason, why the great choice of 
Men, (when they are to Travel,) provide themselves of those, 
rather than of the Elephants of Ceilan, However it may be 
said in general, tha^ Elephants^ of what Country or kind soever 

The food 
that is 
given to an 












they be, are the surest footed of all Beasts of Carriage, because 
it is very rare to see them make a trip^® : But seeing it is 
chargeable^^ to feed them, and that besides the Flesh they give 
them to eat, and the Strong-waters they drink, it costs at least 
half a PistoV-^ a day for the Paste of Flower, Sugar and Butter, 
that must be given to a single one ; there are but few that 
keep them : Nay, the great Lords themselves entertain^*^ no 
great number of them ; and the Great Mogul has not above 
five hundred for the use of his houshold, in carrying the Women 
in their Mickdemhers^’^ with grates (which are a sort of Cages) 
and the Baggage ; and I have been assured, that he hath not 
above two hundred for the Wars, of which some are employed 
in carrying small Field-pieces upon their Carriages. 

When an Elephant is in his ordinary disposition, his 
Governour can make him do what he pleases with his Trunck. 
That instrument, which many call a hand, hangs between their 
great Teeth, and is made of Cartilages or Gristles : He^®’ll 
make them play several^® tricks with that Trunck ; salute his 
friends, threaten those that displease him, beat whom he thinks 
fit, and could make them tear a Man into pieces in a trice, if 
he had a mind to it. The governour sits on the Elephants 
Neck, when he makes him do any thing, and with a prick of 
Iron in the end of a Stick, he commonly makes him Obey him. 
In a word, an Elephant is a very tractable Creature, provided 
he be not angry, nor in lust ; but when he is so, the Governour 
himself is in much danger, and stands in need of a great deal 
of art, to avoid ruin ; for then the Elephant turns all things 
topsy-turvy, and would make strange havock, if they did not 
stop him, as they commonly do, with fire-works that they 
throw at him. 

Elephant-hunting is variously performed. In some places 
they make Pit-falls for them, by means whereof they fall into 
some hole or pit, from whence they are easily got out, when 
they have once entangled them well.^® In other places they 
make use of a tame Female, that is in season for the Male, 
whom they lead into a narrow place, and tie her there; by 
her cries she calls the Male to her, and when he is there, they 
shut him in, by means of some Rails made on purpose, which 
&ey raise, to hinder him frOm getting out ; he having the 
Female in the mean time on his back, with whom he Copulates 
in that manner, contrary to the custom of all other Beasts 
When he hath done, he attempts to be. gone, but as he comes, 
and goes to find a passage out, the Huntsmen, who are either 
upon a Wall, or in some other high place, throw a great many 
small and great Ropes, with some Chains, by means whereof 
they so pester and entangle his Trunck, and the rest of his 
Body, that afterwards, they draw near him without danger ; 
and so having taken necessary cautions^ they lead him 



to the company of two other tame Elephants, whom they have 
purposely brought with them, to shew him an example, or to 
threaten him if he be umruly.^^. 

There are other Snares besides for catching of Elephants Sbe- 
and every Country hath its way. The Females go a Year with 
their young, and commonly they live about an hundred Years, with their 
Though these Beasts be of so great bulk and weight, yet they yoimg- 
swim perfectly w^ell, and delight to be in the Water : So that Elephants 
they commonly force them into it by Fire-works, when they 
are in rage, or when they would take them off from Fighting, 
wherein they have been engaged. This course is taken with 
the Elephants of the Great Mogul, who loves to see those vast 
moving bulks rush upon one another, with their Trunck, Head, 
and Teeth. All over the Indies, they who have the manage- 
ment of Elephants, never fail to lead them in the Morning to 
the River, or some other Water, The Beasts go in as deep 
as they can, and then stoop till the Water be over their Backs, 
that so their guides may wash them, and make them clean all 
over, whilst by little and little they raise their bodies up again. 



The Painters of Dehly are modester^ than those of Agra, 
and spend not their pains about lascivious Pictures, as they do. ^ 
They apply themselves to the representing of Histories, and 
in many places, one may meet with the Battels and Victories 
of their Princes, indifferently welF Painted. Order is observed 
in them, the Personages have the suitableness that is necessary 
to them,^ and the colours are very lovely, but they make Faces 
ilL*^. They do things in miniature pretty well, and there are 
some at Dehly who Engrave indifferently welP also ; but 
seeing they are not much encouraged,® they do not apply them- 
selves to their work, with all the exactness they might ; and 
all their care is to do as much work as they can, for present 
Money to subsist on.’' 

There are People in Dehly, vastly rich in Jewels, especially People 
the Rajas who preserve their Pretious Stones from Father to 
Son. When, they are to make Presents, they chuse rather to 
buy, than to give away those which they had from their 
Ancestors : They daily encrease® them, and must be reduced 
to an extream pinch, before they part with them. 

There is in this Town, a certain Metal called Tutunac,^ 
that looks like Tin, but is much more lovely and fine, and is 
often taken for Silver ; that Metal brought from China, 

Stone or 

Screws at 

away the 


Women of 


of the 

The pomp 
of the 




They much esteem a greyish Stone there, wherewith many 
Sepulchres are adorned ; and they value it the more, that^® it is 
like Theban Stone, or Garnet. I have seen in the Countries of 
some Rajas, and elsewhere. Mosques and Pagods wholly built 
of them. 

The Indians of Dehl5r^ cannot make a Screw as our Lock- 
smiths do ; all they do,- is to fasten to each of the two pieces 
that are to enter into one another, some Iron, Copper, or Silver 
wire, turned Screw-wise, without any other art than of soulder- 
ing the Wire to the pieces ; and in opening them, they turn 
the Screws from the left hand to the right, contrariwise to 
ours, which are turned from the right to the left. 

They have a very easie remedy in that Country, to keep 
the Flies from molesting their Horses, when the Grooms are 
so diligent as to make use of it : For all they have to do, is to 
make provision of Citrul Flowers,^^ and rub them therewith. 
But many slight that remedy, because it must be often 
renewed, seeing the Curry-comV^ and Water takes it off. I 
cannot tell if these Flowers have the same vertue in our 

The Women of Dehly are handsome, and the Gentiles very 
chast ; insomuch, that if the Mahometan Women did not by 
their wantonness dishonour the rest, the Chastity of the Indians 
might be proposed^® as an example to all' the Women of the 
East. These Indian Women are easily delivered of their 
Children ; and sometimes they’ll walk^^ about the Streets next 
day after they have been brought to Bed, 



There is a great Festival kept yearly at Dehly, on the 
Birth-day of the King regnant. It is Celebrated amongst the 
People, much after the same manner as the Zinez^ of Turkey 
which I described in my first Book, and .lasts five days ; It is 
Solemnized at Court with great' Pomp. The Courts of the 
Palace are covered all over with Pavillions of Rich Stuffs ; all 
that is magnificent in Pretious Stones, Gold and Silver is 
closed to view in the Halls; particularly the great and 
glittering Throne, with those others- that are carried about in 
progresses, which are likewise adorned with Jewels. The 
fairest Elephants decked with the richest Trappings, are from 
.toe to^ time brought" out before the Kihg, and the loveliest 
Horses in tfieir turns also ; and since tbe^rst Kings intro- 

The weighing of the Emperor 


6 ? 

duced a custom of being weighed in a Balance,^ to augment The King 
the pleasure of the solemnity, the King in being, never fails ^ * 

to do so. 

The Balance wherein this is performed, seems to be very The 
Rich. They say that the Chains are of Gold, and the two 
Scales which are set with Stones,® appear likewise to be of the King 
Gold, as the Beam of the Balance does also, though some is 'weighed 
afi&rm that all is but Guilt. The King Richly attired, and 
shining with Jewels, goes into one of the Scales of the Balance, 
and sits on his Heels, and into the other are put little bales, 
so closely packt, that one cannot see what is within them ; 

The People are made believe, that these little bales (which are 
often changed,) are full of Gold, Silver and Jewels, or of Rich 
Stuffs ; and the Indians tell Strangers so, when they would 
brag of their Country, then^ they weigh the King with a great 
many things that are good to eat ; and I believe that what is 
within the Bales, is not a whit more Pretious, 

However when one is at the Solemnity,® he must make as 
if he believed all that is told him, and be very attentive to the 
Publication of what the King weighs ; for it is published, and 
then exactly set down in writing. When it appears in the 
Register, that the King weighs more than he did the year 
before, all testifie their Joy by Acclamations ; but much more 
by rich Presents, which the Grandees, and the Ladies of the The 
Haram make to him, when he is returned to his Throne ; and 
these Presents amount commonly to several Millions. The Festival. 
King distributes, first a great quantity of Artificial Fruit and 
other knacks of Gold and Silver, which are brought to him in Trifles 
Golden Basons ; but these knacks are so slight, that the pro- 
fusion (which he makes in casting them promiscuously amongst 
the Princes, and other Great men of his Court, who croud one 
another to have their share,) lessens not® the Treasure of his 
Exchequer ; for I was assured that all these trifles would not 
cost one hundred thousand Crowns. And indeed, Auran’-Zeh Auran-Zeh 
is reckoned a far greater Husband,’’ than a great King ought to ^Sband 
be : dm'ing five days, there is great rejoycing all over the 
Town, as well as in the Kings Palace, which is exprest by 
Presents, Feastings, Bonefires and Dances ; and the King has Publick 
a special care to give Orders, that the best Dancing women rejoycmg. 
and Baladines,® be always at Court. 

The Gentiles being great lovers of Play at Dice ; there is play at 
much Gaming, during the five Festival days. They are so 
eager at it in Dehly and Benara/ that there is a vast deal of 
Money lost there, and many People ruined. And I was told a 
Story of a Banian of Dehly, who played so deep at the last 
Festival, that he lost all his Money, Goods, House, Wife and 
Children. At length, he that won them, taking pity of him, 




Ground of 

one of the 

The Yearly 
Revenue of 

gave him back his Wife and Children ; but no more of all his 
Estate, than to the value of an hundred Crowns. 

To conclude, The Province of Dehly, hath no great extent 
to the South-East, rvhich is the side towards Agra ; but is 
larger on the other sides, especially Eastwards, where it hath 
a great many Towns : The Ground about it is excellent, where 
it is not neglected, but in many parts it is. 

The ground about the Capital City is very fertile ; Wheat 
and Rice grow plentifully there. They have excellent Sugar 
also, and good Indigo, especially towards Chalimar,^^ which is 
one of the Kings Countrey-houses, about two Teagues from 
Dehly, upon the way to Labors. All sorts of Trees, and Fruit 
grow there also ; but amongst others, the Ananas are exceeding 
good. I shah speak of them in the Description of the Kingdom 
of Bengala. 

It is specified in my Memoire, that this Province pays the 
Great Mogul yearly, between thirty seven and thirty eight 



The Road 
from Agra 
to Azmer.^ 


of Azmer, 



The Province of Azmer, lies to the North-East of Dehly / 
the Countrey of Sinde bounds it to the West: It hath Agra 
to the East, Multan and Pengeah^ to the North, and Guzerat to 
the South. This Province of Azmer, hath been divided into 
three Provinces of Bando,^ Gessclmere^ and Soret and the 
Capital City at present, is Azmer/ which is distant from Agra, 
about sixty two Teagues. 

It is Six Leagues from Agra to Fetipoiir, 6 Leag. to Braimhad. 
7 Leag. to Hendotien. 7 Leag. to Mogul-serai. 6 Leag. to Lascot. 
7 Leag. to QhasoL 4 Leag. to- Pipola, 7 Leag. to Mosa-haa. 5 Leag. 
to Bender-Sandren. 6 Leag. to Mandil. I Leag. to Azmer. 

This Town lies in twenty five Degrees and a half. North 
Tatitude,® at the foot of a very high, and almost inaccessible 
Mountain : ® There is on the top of it, an extraordinary strong 
Castle to mount to which, one must go turning and winding 
for above a Teague ; and this Fort gives a great deal of reputa- 
tion to the Province, The Town hath Stone-Walls, and a good 
Ditch ; without the Walls of it, there are several Ruins of Fair 
Buildings, which shew great antiquity. King Echar was Master 
of this Province, before he built Agra: and before it fell into 
his hands, it belonged to a famous Raja,, or Raspoute, called 
Ramgend who came to Fetipour, and resigned it to him ; 
and at the same time, did him, Hommage for it^ 


This Raja was Mahoymian, as his Predecessors had been ; 
and besides a great many ancient marks of Mahometanism, that 
were in that Country in his Time ; the famous Cogea Mondy/^ Cogea 
who was in reputation of Sanctity amongst the Mahometans, 
was reverenced at Aznier ; and from all Parts, they came in 
Pilgrimage to his Tombe : It is a pretty fair Building, having 
three Courts paved with Marble ; whereof the first is extreamly 
large, and hath on one side, several Sepulchres of false Saints ; 
and on the other, a Reservatory of Water, with a neat Wall Sepulchre 
about it. The second Court is more beautified, and hath many 
Lamps ill it. The third is the loveliest of the three ; and there 
the Tomb of Cogea Mondy is to be seen in a Chappel whose 
door is adorned with several Stones of colour, mingled with 
Mother of Pearl. There are besides, three other smaller Courts, 
which have their Waters and Buildings for the convenience and 
lodging of Imans, who are entertained^® to read the Alcoran, 

King Echar had a mind to try as well as the rest, the Ecbars 
Vertue of this same Cogea-Mondy ; and because he had no 
Male-Children, he had recourse to his Intercession to obtain of 
them. He made a Vow to go and visit his Tomb, and resolved Children, 
upon the Journey in the bourg of Agra, 

Though it be a walk of threescore and two Leagues from jgixig 
Agra to Azmer, yet he iDerformed the PilgTimage on foot,^® Echar 
having ordered Stone-seats to be made at certain distances, for 
him to rest on: Nevertheless, he was quite tired out; forofeoLeag. 
being of a hot and stirring^’' Nature, he could hardly lay a 
constraint upon himself to walk softly,^® so that he fell sick 
upon it. He entered bare-footed (as the rest did) into the 
Chappel of the Mock-Saint : There he made his Prayers, gave 
great Charity ; and having performed his Devotion, and read 
the Epitaph of Cogea Mondy, which is written there in the 
Persian Language ; he returned back to the place from whence 
he came. 

As he passed by Fetipour, he consulted a certain Dervish, selim a 
named Selim, who was esteemed very devout ; and the Dervish, 
Mahometans say, that this Man told him, that God had heard 
his Prayers, and that he should have three Sons,^^ at that. Prophecy 
Ecbar was so well pleased with this Prophecy, especially when 
it began to be fulfilled, that he gave his Eldest Son the name dervish, 
of the Dervish Selim ; that Town which was called Sycary, the 
name of Feiipour, which signifies a place of Joy and Pleasure ; gicary. 
and that he built a very stately Palace there, with a Design 
to make it the Capital of his Empire. 

Azmer is a Town of an indifferent bigness, but when the 
Great Mogol comes there, there is no room to stir in it, especially 
when there is any Festival ; because, besides the Court and 
Army, all the People of the Country about, flock thither, and 
some disorder always happens. 

Indian tRAvfeLs of tHEvSNCtT 


Newrous. I,et us Speak a little of the Feast of Neurons, which Eiing 

Gehanguk Celebrated at Azmer,^'- where he happened to be 
one New Years day ; for Neurons, signifies New Day ; and by 
that, is meant, the First day of the Year, which begins in 
March, when the Sun enters into Aries. 

The Feast 
of the 
New Year, 


of Neurons* 

A Fair of 
the Tadies 
of the 

The Great 



The Memoires that were given me observe, that some days 
before the Festival, all the Palace was adorned ; and especially, 
the Places and Halls, into which People were suffered^ to 
enter : There was nothing all over but Sattin, Velvet, Cloath 
and Plates of Gold : The Halls were hung with rich Stuffs, 
FlowerM with Gold and Silver : And that ^where the Great 
Mogul appear'd in his Throne, was the most magnificent of 
all: The Cloath of State that covered it, was all set with 
Pretious Stones ; and the Floor was covered with a Persian 
Carpet of Gold and Silver Tissue. The other Halls had in like 
manner, their Cloaths of State ; Their Foot-Carpets, and other 
Ornaments, and the Courts were also decked (the most con- 
siderable of them) with lovely Tents pitched there ; though 
they were not so Pompous as those which are pitched in the 
Capital Cities of the Empire, upon a like Solemnity. The first 
day of the Feast, the Throne was placed in the Royal Hall, 
and was covered all over with the Jewels of the Crown ; the 
number of them was the greater, that there was but one of the 
Kings Thrones brought ; and that (as it is usual) the Jewels 
of the other little Thrones had been taken off, for the adorning 
of this. 

The Festival began in the SerragUo, by a Fair^ that was 
kept there. The Eadies and Daughters of the great Eords, 
were permitted to come to it; and the Court-Ladies of less 
Quality, (who thought themselves witty enough to make their 
Court, by putting off the curious Things that they had brought 
thither) were the Shop-keepers: But these had not all the 
Trade to themselves ; for the Wives of the Omras and Rajas 
(who were allowed to come in) opened Shop also, and brought 
with them the richest Goods they could find ; and which they 
thought suited best with the King, and the Princesses of his 
SerragUo* Many had occasion by selling,^ and disputing 
pleasantly and wittily, about the Price of the things, which 
the King and his Wives came to cheapen,^ to make their 
Husbands Court ; and to slip in Presents to those that could 



serve them in bettering their Fortune, or keeping them as they 

The King and his Begum, pay’d often double value for a Begum, 
thing, when the. Shop-keeper pleas’d them ; but that was, when 
they rallied wittily and gentilely (as People of Quality com- 
monly do)® in buying and selling: And so it happened, that 
the wittiest and fairest were always most favoured. All these 
stranger Tadies, were entertained in the Serraglio with Feasting, Quen- 
and Dancings of Quenchenies/ who are Women and Maids of c^henies, 
a Caste of that name, having no other Profession but that of 
Dancing ; And this Fair lasted five days. 

It is true, The Commodities sold there, were not so fine, 
nor rich, as they would have been, had the Festival been kept^ 
in Dehly or Agra ; but the best, and most pretious Things that 
were to be found in Azmer, and in the nearest Towns, were 
exposed to Sale there ; wherewith the King was very well 

During these rejoycings of the Serraglio, The great Men, 
who kept Guard, entertained themselves at their Posts, or 
elsewhere ; And there were a great many Tables served at the 
Kings charges, which gave them occasion® to Celebrate the 
Neurons, or New Years Feast merrily. 

The King appeared daily in the Amcas, at his usual hour, The Kings 
but not in extraordinary Magnificence before the seventh day ; 
and then the Lords (who had every day changed Cloaths) 
appeared in their richest Apparel. They all went to salute the 
King, and His Majesty made them Presents, which were only 
some Galantries® of small value, that did not cost him Four 
hundred thousand French Livres. The eighth and ninth days, 

The King also sat on his Throne, (when he was not Feasting 
with his Princess (sic) and Omras, in one of the Out-Halls) where 
he made himself several times familiar with them ; but that 
familiarity excused them not from making him Presents^®. 

There was neither Omra, nor Mansepdar, but made him very 
rich Presents ; and that of the Governour, or Tributary of Presents of 
Azmer, was the most considerable of all. These Presents were ^r^^to\he 
reckoned in all, to amount to fourteen or fifteen Millions. The King. 
Festival concluded at Court, by a review of the Kings 
Elephants and Horses, pompously^^ equipped ; and in the 
Town by a great many Fire-works, that came after their 
Feasting. Gehanguir, indeed, gave not the Princes, and great 
Lords, the equivalent of the Presents they made him at this 
Solemnity : But he rewarded them afterwards by Offices, and 
Employments. And this is the course the King commonly 
takes with them, and few complain of it. 





There is in these Countries, a like a Fox in the 
Snout, which is no bigger than a Hare : the Hair of it, is of 
the colour of a Stags, and the Teeth like to a Dogs. It yields 
The Musk most excellent Musk for at the Belly it hath a Bladder full 
Animal. q£ corrupt Blood, and that Blood maketh the Musk, or is 
rather the Musk it self : They take it from it, and immediately 
cover the place where the Bladder is cut, with Ecather, to 
hinder the scent from evaporating : But after this Operation 
is made, the Beast is not long livM.^ 

Pullets. There are also towards Azmerj Pullets® whose Skin is all 

over black, as well as their Bones, though the Flesh of them 
be very white, and their Feathers of another colour. ■ 

Maids Mar- In the extremity of this Province, the Maids are very early 
at^f Marriageable, and so they are in many other places 'of the 

years of age. Indies, where most part can enjoy Mau,^ at the age of eight 
or nine years,® and have Children at ten. That’s a very 
ordinary thing in the Country, where the young ones go naked, 
and wear nothing on their Bodies, but a bit of Cloath to cover 
their Privities. 

The Most of the Children in these Countries have the same 

playes?^^ playes to divert them with, • as amongst us : they commonly 

make use of Tops, Giggs, and Bull-flies in the season ; of 
Childrens Trumpets, and many other Toys of that nature. The 
People are rude and uncivil; The Men are great clowns, and 
very impudent ; they make a horrid noise when they have any 
quarrel, but what Passion soever they seem to be in, and what 
bitter words soever they utter, they never come to blows. 
The Servants are very unfaithful, and many times rob their 



The remedy 
of Fire. 

The Oxen 
are shod. 

rhere are very venemous Scorpions in that Country, but 
the Indians have several remedies to cure their Stinging, and 
the best of all is Fire. They take a burning Coal, and put it 
near the wound ; they hold it there as long and as near as they 
can : The venom keeps one from being incommoded by the 
heat of the Fire ; on the contrary, the Poison is perceived to 
work out of the Wound by Httle and little, and in a short 
time after, one is perfectly cured, 

The ways of this Country being very Stony, they shoe the 
Oxen when they are to Travel far on these ways. They cast 
them* with a Rope fastened to two of their Regs, and so soon 
as they are down, th^ tye their four Feet together, which 
they put upon an Engine^ made of two Sticks in form of an X ; 



and then they take two little thin and light pieces of Iron, 
which they apply to each Foot, one piece covering but one 
half Foot, and that they fasten with three Nails above an Inch 
long, which are clenched upon the side of the Hooffs, as 
Horses with us are shod. 

Seeing the Oxen in the Indies are very tame, many People 
make use of them in Travelling, and ride them like Horses ; 
though commonly they goe but at a very slow pace. Instead 
of a Bit, they put one or two small strings through the Gristle 
of the Oxes Nostrils, and throw over his Head a good large 
Rope fastened to these strings, as a Bridle, which is held up by 
the bunch he hath on the fore part of his back, that our Oxen 
have not. They Saddle him as they do a Horse, and if he be a d e , 
but a little spurred, he’ll go very fast ; and there are some 
that will go as fast as a good Horse. These Beasts are made 
use of generally all over the Indies ; and with them only are 
drawn Waggons, Coaches and Chariots, allowing more or 
fewer, according as the load is heavier or lighter. 

The Oxen are Yoaked by a long Yoak at the end of the 
Pole, laid upon their Necks ; and the Coach-man holdeth in 
his hand the Rope to which the strings that are put through 
the Nostrils are fastened. These Oxen are of different sizes, 
there are great, small, and of a middle size, but generally all 
very hardy, so that some of them will Travel fifteen leagues 
a day. There is one kind of them, almost six Foot high, but 
they are rare ; and on the contrary another, which they call 
Dwarfs, because they are not three Foot high ; these have a 
bunch on their Back as the rest have, go very fast, and serve 
to draw small Waggons. 

They have white Oxen there, which’ are extraordinary 
dear, and I saw two of them which the Dutch had, that cost 
them two hundred Crowns a piece ; they were really, lovely, 
strong and good, and their Chariot that was drawn by them, 
made a great shew. When People of quality have lovely Oxen, 
they keep them with a great deal of care ; they deck the ends 
of their Horns with sheaths of Copper ; they use them to 
Cloaths as Horses are, and they are daily curried and well fed. 
Their ordinary Provender is Straw and Millet, but in the 
Evening they make each Ox swallow .down five or six large 
Balls of a Paste made of Flower, Jagre and Butter kned 
together. They give them sometimes in the Country, Kichery/ 
which is the ordinary Food of the Poor ; and it is called 
Kichery, because it is made of a Grain of the same name boiled 
with Rice, Water and Salt; Some give them dryed Pease, 
bruised and steeped in Water. 

After all;^ no part of this Province is fertile, but the 
Countries about A^er^ Soret^ for th^ Countries of G^ssel- 


The Oxen 
serve to 
as well as 
Carts and 

White Oxen 
are very 

They have 
great care 
the Oxen. 

The food of 
the Oxen. 




The Salt- fn^re, and BandOj are Barren. Tlie chief Trade of Azmer is 

petre of in Saltpetre, and there are great quantities of it made there, 

Azmer. f^t Earth that is about it, which is the 

properest of all other Soils to afford Saltpetre. ‘The Indians 
fill a great hole with that Earth, and pound it in Water with 
great pounders of very hard Timber, when they have reduced 
it into a Eiquid mash, they let it rest, to the end the Water 
The way may imbibe all the Saltpetre out of the Earth : This mixture 
of making having continued so for some time, they draw off what is 
Saltpetre. wherein they let it boil, and 

continually scum it ; when it is well boiled, they again drain 
what is clear out of these Pots, and that being congealed and 
dryed in the Sun, where they let it stand for a certain time, it 
is in its perfection ; and then they carry it to the Sea-port 
Towns, and especially to Surrat, where the Europeans and 
others buy it to Ballast their Ships with, and sell elsewhere. 

This Province of Azmer, pays commonly to the Great 
Mogul, thirty two or thirty three Millions,^® notwithstanding 
the barren places that are in it. 


of Smde 
or Sindy. 

The River 











Sinde or Sindy j wlii’cli some call Tatia,^ is bounded with 
the Province of Azmer to the East ; and the Mountains which 
border it on that side, belong to the one or other Country. It 
hath Multan to the North, to the South, a Desart and the 
Indian Sea f and to the West, Macran and Segestan.^ It 
reaches from South to North, on both sides the River Indus, 
and that River is by the Orientals called also Sindy or Sinde. 
On the banks of it was fought that famous Battel betwixt 
Ginguis-Can, first Emperour of the Tartars or Ancient Moguls, 
and the Sultan Gelaleddin,^ which decided the destiny of the 
Empire in favour of the former, against the Carezmian^ 
Princes, who had for a. long time been Masters of the ’Kingdom 
of Persia, of all Zagatay, and of the greatest part of the 
Country of Turquestan. 

The chief Town of this Province is Taita, and the most 
Southern Town, DiuV It is still called DiuUSind, and was 
heretofore called. Dohil. It lyes in the four and twentieth or 
five and twentieth degree of latitude. There are some 
Orientals, that call the Country of Sinde, by the name of the 
Kingdom of Diul It is a Country of great Traffick,^ and 
especially in the Town of Taita, where the Indiari Merchants 
bu7 a great many curiosities m^de by the Inhabitants, who 



are wonderfully Ingenious in all kind of Arts. The Indus 
makes a great many little Islands towards Tatta, and these 
Islands being fruitful and pleasant, make it one of the most 
commodious® Towns of the Indies, though it be exceeding hot 

There is also a great trade at Lourebender,^ which is three Lourc- 
days Journey from Tatta, upon the Sea, where there is a better ^^nder. 
Road for Ships, than in any other place of the Indies, The 
finest Palanquins^^ that are in all Indosian, are made at Tatta, 
and there is nothing neater, than the Chariots with two Wheels, 
which are made there for Travelling. It is true, they have 
but few Coaches, because few Europeans go thither, and Chariots 
hardly any of the Indians make use of Coaches but they ; but convenient 
these Chariots are convenient enough for Travelling, and are not Travelling, 
harder than Coaches. They are flat and even, having a border 
four fingers broad^ with Pillars all round, more or fewer, 
according to the fancy of him for whom it is made ; but com- 
monly there are but eight, of which there are four at the four 
corners of the Engine,^^ the other four at the sides, and thongs 
of Leather are interwoven from Pillar to Pillar, to keep one 
from falling out. Some, (I confess,) have the Chariot sur- 
rounded with Ballisters of Ivory, but few are willing to be at 
' the charges of that, and the Custom of making use of that 
Net-work of Leather, makes that most^ part cares not for 
Ballisters, but go so about the Town, sitting after the Levantine 
manner, upon a neat Carpet that covers the bottom of the 
Chariot. Some cover it above with a slight Imperial, but that 
commonly is only when they go into the Country, to defend 
them from the Sun-beams. 

This Machine hath no more but two Wheels put under the The 
side of the Chariot, and not advancing outwards, they are of 
the height of the fore Wheels ‘ of our Coaches ; have eight chariots, 
square spoaks, are four or five fingers thick, and many times 
are not shod. Hackny-coaches to Travel in, with two Oxen, 
are hired for five and twenty pence, or half a Crown a day ; 
but whatever ease the Indians may find in them, our Coaches 
are much better, because they are hung. 

The Wheels of Waggons or Carts, for carrying of Goods, Cart- 
have no Spoaks ; they are made of one whole piece of solid Wheeles. 
Timber, in form of a Mill-stone, and the bottom of the Cart, 
is always a thick frame of Wood. These Carts are drawn by 
eight or ten Oxen, according to the heaviness of the Loads. 

When a Merchant conveys any thing of consequence, he ought 
to have four Soldiers, or four Pions, by the sides of the 
Waggon ; to hold the ends of the Rope that are tyed to it, to 
keep it from overturning, if it come to heeld in bad way 
and that way is used in all Caravans, though commonly they 
consist of above two hundred Waggons. 





Palanquin, Indians that are Wealthy, Travel neither in Chariots nor 
Coaches: They make use of an Engine which they call 
Palanquin, and is made more neatly at Tatia, than any where 
else. It is a kind of Couch with four feet, having on each 
side ballisters four or five Inches high, and at the head a feet 
a back-stay like a Childs Cradle, which sometimes is open like 
Ballisters, and sometimes close and Solid. This Machine^ 
hangs by a long Pole, which they call Pamhou/ by means of 
two frames nailed to the feet of the Couch, which are almost 
like to those that are put to the top of moving Doors, to fasten 
Hangings by ; and these two frames which are the one at the 
head, and the other at the opposite end, have Rings through 
which great Ropes are put, that fasten and hang the Couch to 
the Pamhou, 

The The Pamhous that serve for Palanquins, are thick round 

P^nluins Inches in Diametre, and four Fathom long, 

^ * crooked Arch-wise in the middle, so that on each side from 

the bending, there remains a very streight end, about five or 
six foot long* On the bending of the Pambou, there is a cover- 
ing laid of two pieces of Cloath sewed together, betwixt which 
at certain distances, there are little Rods cross-ways, to hold 
the Cloaths so, that they may conveniently cover the Palanquin. 
If a Woman be in it, it is covered close over with red-Searge, or 
with- Velvet if she be a great Eady : And if they be afraid of 
Rain, the whole machine is covered over with a waxed Cloath. 
In the bottom of these Palanquins, there are Mats and Cushions 
to lie or sit upon, and they move or ease themselves by means 
of some Straps of Silk that are fastened to the Pambou, in the 
inside of the Machine. 

The Orna- 
ment of 


Porters of 

Every one adorns his Palanquin according to his humour, 
some have them covered with plates of carved Silver, and others 
have them only Painted, with Flowers and other curiosities, or 
beset round® with guilt Balls ; and the Cases or Cages, wherein 
hang; the Vessels that hold the Water which they carry with 
them to drink, are beautified in the same manner, as the Body 
of the Palanquin. These Machines are commonly very dear, 
and the Pambou alone of some of them, costs above an hundred 
Crowns ; but , to make a-mends^ for bhatj .they have Porters at 
a very easie rate, for they have but nine or ten Eivres a piece 
by the Month, and are obliged to Diet .themselves : It requires 
four Men to carry a Palanquin, because each end of the Pambou 
resfe upon the Shoulders of two Men ; and when the Journey is 
long, some follow after to take their turn, and ease the others 
When "they are weary. 

Indian conveyances 



Sinde, of which, we have beea speaking, yields not the The yearly 
Great Moguls above three Million four hundred thousand 
French Livres a Year. Province 

of Sinde. 



Multan, which comprehends Bucor,^ has to the South the Multan, 
Province of Sinde, and to the North the Province of Caboul ; 
as it hath Persia to the West, and the Province of Labors to the 
East. It is watered with many Rivers^ that make it Fertile. 

The Capital Town which is also called Multan,^ was heretofore 
a place of very great Trade, because it is not far from the 
River Indus ; but seeing at present, Vessels cannot go up so 
far, because the Chanel of that River is spoilt in some places, 
and the Mouth of it full of shelves, the Trafi&ck^ is much lessened, 
by reason that the charge of Land-carriage is too great : How- 
ever the Province yields plenty of Cotton, of which vast numbers What 
of Cloaths are made. It yields also Sugar, Opium, Brimstone, 

Galls,^ and store of Camels, which are transported into Persia, 
by Gazna, and Candahar, or 'into the Indies themselves by 
Labors ; but whereas the Commodities went heretofore down 
the Indus at small Charges, to Tatta, where the Merchants of 
several Countries came and bought them up, they must now 
be carried by Land as far as Surrat, if they expect a considerable 
price for them. 

The Town of Multan is by some Geographers attributed to The Town 
Sinde, though it make a Province by it self. It lies in twenty Multan. 
nine Degrees forty Minutes North Latitude,® and hath many 
good Towns in its dependance, as Cozdar or Cordar,’^ Candavil,^ Cozdarov 
Sandur,^ and others. It furnishes Indostan with the finest Bows 
that are to be seen in it, and the nimblest Dancers.^® The Com- sandur 
manders and Of&cers of these Towns are Mabometans and by Towns. 
consequence, it may be said, that most part of the Inhabitants 
are of the same Religion : But it contains a great many Banians Banians. 
also, for Multan is their chief Rendezvous for Trading into 
Persia, where they do what the Jews do in other places ; but 
they are far more cunning, for nothing escapes them, and they 
let slip no occasion- of getting the penny/^ how small soever 
it be. 

The Trib^ 6f these Banians, is the fourth in dignity amongst The Banians 
the Castes, Tribes, or Sects of the Gentiles ; of whom we shall useful, 
treat in the, sequel of this Relation-. They are all Merchants 
and. Breakers, and are so< eispert in business, that hardly any 



The Paged 
of Multan, 

The Idol 
of Multan, 

The yearly 
Revenue of 

The Pro- 
vince of 


body can be without them. They give them commissions of all 
kinds ; though it be known that they make their profit of every 
thing, yet Men chuse rather to make use of them, than to do 
their business themselves ; and I found often by experience, 
that I had what they bought for me, much cheaper, than what 
I bought myself, or made my servants buy. They are of a 
pleasing humour, for they reject no service, whether honour- 
able or base, and are always ready to satisfie those who employ 
them ; and therefore every one hath liis Banian in the Indies, 
and some persons of Quality intrust them with all they have, 
though they be not ignorant of their Hypocrisie and Avarice. 
The richest Merchants of the Indies are of them and such I 
have met with in all places where I have been in that Country. 
They are commonly very Jealous of their Wives, who at Multan 
are fairer than the Men, but still of a very brown complexion, 
and love to Paint. 

At Multan there is another sort of Gentiles, whom they 
call Catry,^^ That Town is properly their Country, and from 
thence they spread all over the ’Indies ; but we shall treat of 
them when we come to speak of the other Sects : both the two 
have in Multan a Pagod of great consideration,^® because of 
the aifiuence of People, that came there to perform their 
Devotion after their way ; and from all places of Multan, 
Labors, and other Countries, ti^ey come thither in Pilgrimage. 
I know not the name of the Idol that is Worshipped there ; 
the Face of it is black, and it is cloathed in red Teather : It 
hath two Pearls in place of Eyes ; and the Emir or Governour 
of the Countrey, takes the Offerings that are presented to it. 
To conclude. The Town of Multan is but of small extent for 
a Capital, but it is pretty well Fortified ; and is very 
considerable^^ to the Mogul, when the Persians are Masters of 
Candahar, as they are at present. 

What the Great Mogul receives yearly from this Province, 
amounts to Seventeen millions. Five hundred thousand Eivres. 



Before I speak of the Eastern Provinces of the Indies, 
I shall proceed to “heat of those which are to the West of the 
Indus, or towards the Riv^s that make part of it. Candahar^ 
is one of them ; tho’ the chief Town of it belong at present to 
the King of Persia,^ who took it from Cha~Gehan, contrary to 
the will of his Grand-mother, which cost her her Eife. It is 



said, That that Lady got Money from the Great Mogul, to 
hinder the Siege of this Town. Her Grand-son being ready 
to march, she made him a thousand Entreaties to divert him 
from the expedition ; and finding that she could gain nothing 
of him by fair means, she fell into a passion, and upbraided 
him that he was going to squander away the Estate of Orphans. The King 
This Discourse so offended the King, that having asked her 
if that Estate belonged to any but to him. He cut her over Grand- 
the head with an Axe that he held in his hand, of which she mother, 

This Province hath to the North the Country of Bale/ 
whereof an Usbec Prince is Sovereign. To the East it hath the 
Province of Cahoul, to the South that of Bucor, which belongs The hounds 
to Multan, and part of Sigestan, which is of the Kingdom of Candahar. 
Persia ; and to the West, other Countries of the King of Persia. 

The Province is very mountainous, and Candahar its chief 
Town, lies in the twenty third degree of Latitude, though some 
Travellers have placed it in the four and thirtieth.® 

That Countrey produces abundantly all sorts of Provisions 
that are necessary for the subsistence of its Inhabitants, unless 
it be on that side which lies towards Persia, where it is very 
barren. Every thing is dear in the chief Town, because of the 
multitude of Porreign Merchants that resort thither, and it 
wants® good Water. The Town of Candahar is considerable 
by its Situation ; and every one knows that the Persian and 
Mogul both pretend to’' it. The former has in it at present a 
Garrison of nine or ten thousand Men, least it should be Two 
surprized by the Mogul ; and being besides a Town of great ca^har. 
importance, it is fortified with good Walls, and hath two 

The Trade that it hath with Persia, the Country of the ^ 

Uzhecs and Indies, makes it very rich ; and for all the Pro- 
vince is so little, it heretofore yielded the Mogul betwixt 
fourteen and fifteen Millions a year. There is no Province in 
Industan where there are fewer Gentiles. The Inhabitants are The yearly 
great lovers of Wine, but they are prohibited to drink any ; 
and if a Moor who hath drank Wine, commit any Scandal, he from Canda- 
is set upon an Ass, with his Face to the Tail, and led about 
the Town, attended by the Officers of the Cotoual, who beat a 
little drum, and they are followed by all the Children,® who p^Sshed. 
hoop and hallow after them. Though there be no Province 
of Indostan, where there are fewer Gentiles : yet there are 
Banians there, because of Traffick / but they have no publick 
Pagod : and their Assemblies for Religion are kept in a Private 
House, under the direction of a Bramen, whom they entertain 
for performing their Ceremonies. 

The King of Persia suffers not the Gentiles Wives there 
Xo burq, thems^lve^ whm thejr JIusbands are dead. There are 



The Wives 
are not 
burnt at 


a great many P arsis or Guebres there, but they are poor, and 
the Mahometans employ them in the meanest and most servile 
drudgeries : They perform the Ceremonies of their Religion on 
a Mountain not far distant from the Town, where they have a 
place, wherein they preserve the Fire which they worship. I 
have spoken of these People in my Book of Persia.^° 

The same Officers are in Candahar, as in the Towns of 
the Kingdom of Persia, “ and do the same Duties : but above 
all things, they have special Orders to treat the People gently, 
because of the proximity of the Moguls ; and if they oppress 
them in the least, they are severely punished for it. 

There are some small Rajas in the Mountains, who are 
suffered to live in liberty, paying some easie“ Tributes ; And 
these Gentlemen have always stuck to the strongest side, when 
the Country came to change its Master. There is also a Httle 
Countrey in the Mountains which is called Pena/® that’s to 
say, Fairy-Land, where Father Ambrose a Capucin spent a 
Lent upon the mission in two Bourgs, whereof the one is named 
Cheboular,^* and the other Cosne And he, told me That 
that country is pleasant enough, and full of good honest 
People : but that the Christians who are there, have but shght 
tinctures of Religion. 

of Caboul. 





Caboulf a 

CdbouUsian is limited to the North by Tariary, from which 
it is separated by Mount Caucasus,^ which the Orientals call 
Caf’^Dagai, Cachmire lies to the East of it : It hath to the 
West Zabulisian,^ and part of Candahar ; and to the South ; 
the Countrey of MuUan.^ Two of the Rivers that run into 
the Indus, ^ have their source in the Mountains thereof, from 
whence they water the Province, and for all that, render it 
nothing the more fruitful ; for the Countrey being very^ cold, 
is not fertile, unless in those places that are sheltered by Moun- 
tains : Nevertheless it is very rich, because it hath a very great 
Trade with Tariary, the Countrey of the Usbecs, Persia, and 
the Indies. The Usbecs alone sell yearly above threescore 
thousand Horses there ; and that Province lies so conveniently 
for Traffick, that what is wanting in it, is brought from all 
Parts ; and things are very cheap there. 

The chief Town of the Province' is called Cdboul ; a very 
large place with two good C^^stles : And seeing Kings hav^ 


licld their Courts there,® and many Princes successively have 
had it for their Portion ; there are a great many Palaces in it. 

It lies in thirty three degrees and a half North Latitude : 

Mirabolans grow in the^ Mountains of it, and that’s the reason uiraholans. 
why the Orientals call it Cahuly, There are many other sorts 
of Drugs gathered there ; and besides that, they are full of 
aromatick Trees, which turn to good account to the inhabitants 
as also do the Mines of a certain iron, which is fit for all uses. 

From this Province especially come the Canes, of which they 
make Halbards and Lances, and they have many Grounds 
planted with them. Cahoulistan is full of small Towns, 

Burroughs and Villages ; .most of the Inhabitants are heathen : 
and therefore there are a great many Pagods there. They 
reckon their months by Moons, and with great Devotion cele- 
brate their Feast, called HoulyJ^ which lasts two days. At Houly a 
that time their Temples are filled with People, who came to 
Pray and make their Oblations there ; the rest of the Celebra- 
tion consists in Dancing by companies in the Streets, to the 
sound of Trumpets. At this Feast, they are cloathed in a dark 
Red, and many go to visit their Friends in Masquarade. 

Those of the same Tribe eat together, and at night they 
make Bonefires in the Streets. That Feast is Celebrated yearly 
at the Full Moon in February j and ends by the destruction of 
the Figure of a Giant ; against which a little child shoots 
Arrows, to represent what the People are made to believe ; to 
wit, That God coming into the World under the name of 
Cruchman/ he appeared in shape of a Child, that a great Giant God under 
that feared to be undone by him, endeavoured to ruin him : the name of 
But that that Child hit him so dexterously with an Arrow, that 
he laid him dead upon the ground. These people seem hereto- 
fore to have been Christians ; but if they have had any A Giant 
Tincture® of it, it is much corrupted by the Fables and strange 
Tales that have' been told them concerning the same, to which 
they conform their Lives and Religion. Their chief Charity Charity 
consists in digging a great many Wells, and in raising several of the 
Houses, at certain distances, upon the High-ways ; for the 
convenience of Travellers : And by these little Houses, there 
is always a place fit for those who are weary and heavy Loaded, 
to rest in ; so that they can put off, / or take up their Burden 
without any bodies help. 

This Countrey supplies the rest of the Indies with many Physicians 
Physicians, who are all of the caste of Banians : Nay, and some 
of them are very skilful, and have many secrets in Medicine ; 
and amongst other Remedies, they often make use of burning. The yearly 
The Great Mogul has not out of this Proviuce above four or 
five Millions a year. 





The Pi-o- 
vince of 


Tchenas,^ a 


The Kingdom or Province of Cachmvr,^ hath to the West 
Cahoulistan, to the East, part of Tibet; to the South, the 
Province of Labors ; and to the North, Tartaric : But these 
are its most remote limits ; for it is bounded and encompassed 
on all hands by Mountains, and there is no entry into it, but 
by by-ways and narrow passes. This Countrey belonged some- 
times to the Kings of Turquestan, and is one of those which 
were called Turchind, that is to say, the Irudia of the Turks, 
or the Turky of the Indies. 

The Waters of the Mountains that environ it, afford so 
many Springs and Rivulets, that they render it the most fertile 
Countrey of the Indies ; and having pleasantly watered it, 
make a River called Tchenas, which having communicated its 
Waters for the transportation of Merchants Goods through the 
greatest part of the Kingdom, breaks out through the breach 
of a Mountain, and near the Town of Atoc, discharges it self 
into the Indus ; but before it comes out, it is discharged by 
the name of a Eake,^ which is above four Teagues in circuit, 
aud adorned with a great many Isles, that look fresh and green, 
and with the Capital Town of the Province that stands almost 
on the banks thereof.® Some would have this River to be the 
Moselle,^ but without any reason ; for the Moselle runs through 
CalDoulistan, and is the same that is now called Behat or Behar/ 
because of the aromatick Planta that grow on the sides of it. 

* Town of C(^ckniir, which bears the name of the Pro- 

Syrenaquer. vince, and which some call Syrenaquer, lies in the five and 
thirtieth degree of Tatitude, and in the hundred and third of 
Tongitude.® This Capital City is about three quarters of a 
Teague in length, and half a Teague in breadth. It is about 
two Teagues from the. Mountains, and hath no Walls. The 
Houses of it are built of Wood, which is brought from these 
Mountains, and for the most part are three Stories high, with 
a Garden, and some of them have a little Canal which reaches 
to the Take, whither they go by Boat to take the Air.’^ This 
oicac^e Kingdom is very populous, hath several Towns, and a 
great many Bourgs. It is full of lovely® Plains, which are 
here and there intercepted by pleasant lit^e Hills, and delight- 
ful Wafers ; Fruits it hath in abundance, with agreeable 
Verdures. The Mountains which are all Inhabited on the sides,, 
afford so lovely a prospect by the great variety of Trees, 
amongst which stand Mosques, Palaces, anid other Structures, 
that it is impossible perspective can furnish a more lovely 
Tnndskip, The Great Mogul hath a House of Pleasure there, 
y^ith a stately Garden,® and the Magnificence of all is so much 



the greater, that^° the King who biiilt it, adorned it with the 
spoils of the Gentiles Temples, amongst which there are a great 
many pretions Things. 

King Ecbar subdued this Kingdom, which was before King Echar 
possest by a King named Justaf-Can : He being Victorious in 
all places, wrote to this Prince that there was no appearance jaltaf-can 
he could maintain a War against the Emperour of the Indies, Kingof 
to whom all other Princes submitted ; that he advised him to 
do as they had done ; and that he promised him, if he would 
submit willingly, without trying the fortune of War, he would 
use him better than he had done the rest ; and that his Power 
instead of being lessened, should be encreased, seeing he was 
resolved to deny him nothing that he should ask Justaf-can 
(who was a peaceable Prince) thinking it enough to leave his 
Son in his Kingdom, came to wait upon the Great Mogul at 
the Town of Eahors, trusting to his word: He paid him 
Hommage ; and the Emperour having confirmed the Promise 
which he made to him in his Tetters, treated him with all 

In the mean time Prince Jacob, Jusiafs Son, would not Jacob, the 
stop there: For being excited by the greatest part of the Son of 
People of the Kingdom, who looked upon the Dominion of the 
Moguls as the most terrible thing imaginable ; he caused him- 
self to be proclaimed King, made all necessary preparations in 
the Countrey, and at the same time secured the Passes and 
Entries into it ; which was not hard to be done, because there 
is no coming to it, but by streights^^ and narrow passes which 
a few Men may defend. His conduct highly displeased the 
Great Mogul, who thought, at first that there was Intelligence 
betwixt the Father and Son ; but he found at length, that 
there was none : And without offering any bad usage to the 
Father, he sent an Army against Cachmir, wherein he employed 
several great Tords and Officers of War, who had followed 
Justaf-can. He had so gained them by his Civilities and 
Promises, that they were more devoted to him, than to their 
own Prince ; and they being perfectly well acquainted with 
the streights^^ and avenues of the Mountains, introduced the 
Moguls into the Kingdom, some through Places that belong cachmt- 
to them, and others by By-ways that could not possibly have rians, 
been found, without the conduct^® of those who knew the 
Countrey exactly. They succeeded in their Design the more the Moguls. 
easily, that King Jacob thought of nothing but guarding the 
most dangerous places, and especially the Pass of Bamher,^^ 
which is the easiest way for entring into Cachmir. 

The Moguls having left part of their Army at Bamber, to Bamber. 
amuse Prince Jacob, and his Forces^’^ marched towards the 
highest Mountains, whither the Omras of Cachmir led them : 

There they found small passages amongst the Rocks, that were 



not at all to be mistrusted : By these places they entered one after 
another, and at length, meeting in a place where the Rendez- 
vous was appointed ; they had Men enough to make a Body 
sufficiently able to surprize (as they did in the Night-time) the 
Capital City which wanted Walls, where Jacob Can was taken. 
Nevertheless Ecbar pardoned him, and allowed Him and his 
Father, each of them a Pension for their subsistence: But 
he made sure of the Kingdom which he reduced into a Pro- 
vince. He annexed it to the Empire of Mogolistan, and his 
The yearly Successours have enjoyed it to this present, as the pleasantest 
Cachmlr°^ Country in all their Empire. It 3delds not the Great Mogul 
ac vmir. above five or six hundred thousand French Eivres. 




of Labors, 


oi' Labors. 



Ravy, River 










Sind, Ravy, 

Van. Rivers 

It is about forty eight or fifty Leagues from Lahors to the 
borders of Cachmir, which is to the North of it, as Dehly is 
to the South ; and Lahors is a hundred Leagues^ from Dehly, 
for they reckon Two hundred Cosses from the one Town to 
the other, and the Cosses or half Leagues are long in that 
Countrey. Multan lyes to the West of Lahors, and is distant 
from it threescore and odd Leagues ; and to the Last of it 
there are high Mountains, in many places Inhabited by Rajas, 
of whom some are tributary to the Great Mogul, and others 
not, because having strong places to retreat into, they cannot 
be forced, though the Merchants suffer much by their 
Robberies ; and when they travel in that Countrey, they are 
obliged to have a guard of Soldiers to defend the Caravanes 
from these Robbers. 

Lahors lies in thirty one degrees fifty minutes Latitude,^ 
near the River Ravy,^ which falls into the Indus, as the others 
. do. The Moguls have given that Province the name of 
Rangeah, which signifies the five Rivers, because five run in 
the Territory of it. These Rivers have received so many parti- 
cular names from the Moderns that have spoken of them, that 
at present" it is hard to distinguish them one from another ; 
nay, and most part of these names are confounded, though 
Pliny^ distinguished them by the names of Acelines, Cophis, 
Hydarphes, Zaradras and Hispalis,^ Some Moderns call them 
Behai, Canah, Sind, Ravy, Van and others' give them other 
Appellations, which are not the names of the Countrey, or at 
least which are not given them, but in some places of it they 
run through. However, nil these Rivers have their Sources in 



the Mountains of the North, and make up the Indus, that for a 
long way, goes by the name of Sinde, into which they fall ; 
and that’s the reason why this River is sometime called Indyj 
and sometimes Sindy, The chief Town is not now upon the 
Ravy as it was for a long time, because that River having a 
very flat Channel, has fallen off from it above a quarter of a 

This hath been a very pretty Town when the Kings kept 
their Courts in it,® and did not prefer Dehly and Agra before 
it. It is large, and hath been adorned as the others are with 
Mosques y publick Baths, Quervanserais, Squares, Tanquies, 

Palaces and Gardens. The Castle® remains still, for it is 
strongly built, heretofore it had three Gates on the side of the 
Town, and nine towards the Countrey, and the Kings Palace 
within it, hath not as yet lost all its beauty. There are a pictures 
great many Pictures upon the Walls, which represent the at Lahors, 
Actions of the Great Moguls, their Fore-fathers that are pom- 
pously Painted there ; and on one Gate there is a Crucifix and 
the Picture of the Virgin on another, but I believe these two a Crucifix 
pieces of Devotion were only put, there by the Hypocrisie of at Labors, 
King Gehanguir, who pretended a kindness for the Christian 
Religion to flatter the Portuguese. Many of the chief Houses of the B. 
of the Town run into decay daily, and it is pity to see in some Virgin, 
Streets (which are above a League in length) Palaces all 
ruinous. Nevertheless the Town is not old, for before King 
Humayon, it was at best but a Bourg : That King made a City 
of it, built a Castle,^® and kept his Court there, and it en- 
creased so in a short time, that with the Suburbs it made three 
Leagues in length. As there are a great many Gentiles in this pagods at 
Town, so are there many Pagods also ; some of them are well Labors, 
adorned, and all raised seven or eight steps from the ground. 

Labors is one of the largest and most abundant Provinces The product 
of the Indies ; the Rivers that are in it render it extreamly Labors, 
fertile, it yields all that is necessary for life ; Rice, as well 
as Corn and Fruits are plentiful there ; there is pretty good 
Wine in it also, and the best Sugars of all Indostan, "There are 
in the Towns Manufactures, not only of all sorts of painted Manufac- 
Cloaths, but also of every thing else that is ’ wrought in the 
Indies and indeed, according to the account of my Indian, 
it brings in to the Great Mogul above thirty seven Millions a The yearly 
year,^^ which is a great Argument of its fruitfulness. I have Revenue of 
already said, that the ‘great walk of Trees (which begins at 
Agra) reaches as far as Labors, though these two Towns be 
distant from one another an hundred and fifty Leagues, that 
lovely Alley is very pleasant, because the Achy Trees^® (where- Xi-ee. 
with it is planted) have long and thick Branches which extend 
on all sides, and cover the whole way ; there are also a great 
manjr Pagods upon the Road from Labors, to Dehly, and 


Tanassar, especially towards tlie Town of Tanassar,^^ where Idolatry may 
a Town. be said to be freely professed. 

There is a Convent of Gentiles there-, who are called Vartias^ 
of that have their General, Provincial and other Siiperionrs, they 

The Vows of say that it is above Two thousand years since they were 
the Vartias, founded. They vow Obedience, Chastity and Poverty they 
strictly observe theit Vows, and when any one trespasses 
against them, he is rigorously punished. They have Brothers 
appointed to beg for all the Convent ; they eat but once a day, 
and change their House every three Months, they have no fixt 
The ^ time for their Novi’ciat ; some perform it in two years, some in 
the^Farte others who spend -four years therein, if 

^ ’ the Superiour think fit. The main point of their institution 

The conduct is not to do to others what they would not have others do to 
them ; that precept they observe even towards Beasts, for they 
Vartias, j^^ver kill any, and much more towards Men, seeing if any 
body beat them, they do not resist, and if they be reviled, they 
make no answer. They obey the least Signal of their Superiour 
without murmuring, and it is forbidden to them to look a 
Woman or Maid in the face ; they wear nothing on their Bodies 
but a Cloath to cover their Privy Parts, and they bring it up 
to their heads to make a kind of a Coif like that of a Woman ; 
they can possess no Money, are prohibited to reserve any thing 
The ^ for to morrow to eat, and how hungry soever they may be, 
^ they patiently wait till their Purveyors bring them the Alms, 

which are daily given them at the Houses of the Gentiles of 
their Tribe ; they take but little, that they may not be trouble- 
some to any body, and therefore they receive no more at every 
place but a handful of Rice, or some other eatable matter, and 
if more be offered them, they’ll refuse^® it ; they take nothing 
but what is boyled and drest,^® for they kindle no Fire in their 
House, for fear some FHe may burn it self therein ; when they 
have got Charity enough, they return to the Convent, and there 
mingle all the Rice, Tentils, Milk, Cheese, and other Provisions 
they have got together. Then an Officer distributes all equally 
among the Vartias, who eat their Portions severally cold or hot, 
as it is given them, and ’drink nothing but water. 

The Vartias They make their imeal about noon, which serves them for 

eat but ouce whole day ; let hunger or thirst f^ess them never so much, 

they must wait till the same hour next day, before they either 
eat or drink. 

The VdrUds ^^st of the day tkef *employ in Prayers, and reading 

Domxitary. of Books ; and when the Sun sets, they go to sleep, and never 
li^t a Candle. They all lie in Ifee same Chamber, and have 
no other Bed but the GrouH'd. They catmot of themselves leave 
the orders after they have once taken the Vows ; yet if they 
commit any fault contrary to their Vows, and especially against 
that of Chastity, are 'dsp^M, mk only the order, but 



also their tribe. The General, Provincials, and all the Ofi&cers The 
change their Convent every four Months their Office is for Officers of 
lyife ; and when any of them dies,, he names to the Religous, 
him whom he thinks fittest to succeed, and they follow his 
choice. These Vartias have above ten thousand Monasteries 
in the Indies ; and some of them are more Austere than others : 

Nay their [sic] are some who think it enough to worship God oentik 
in Spirit, and these have no Idols, and will have no Pagod Nuns, 
near them. There are also Religious Nuns in some places, who 
live very exemplarily. 



The two Provinces of Ayoud^ andFamZ/ are so. httle fre- Pro- 
quented by the Moguls, that they (from whom I asked an 
account of them,) could give me none, though they were pretty 
well acquainted with the rest of MoguUsian ; and therefore I 
cannot say much of them in particular. The Province of Ayoud, 

(as far as I could learn,) contains the most Northern Countries xEe Pro- 
that belong to the Mogul, as Ccmcares,^ Bankich,^ Nagarcut,^ vince of 
Siba,^ and others ; And that of Varal consists of those which Varal, 
are most North-East ward, to wit, Gor/ Pitm/ Candmna,^ 
and some others. 

These two Provinces being every where almost watered with 
the Rivers which run into the Ganges, are very fertile ; not- 
withstanding the Mountains that are in them, which makes them 
exceeding Rich. The Province of Ayoud yields the Great Mogul The yearly 
above ten Millions,, and that of Varal, more than seven and 
twenty a year. The great gains that these two Provinces, and varal, 
that which is next them,, make from? the Strangers, of the North 
and East, are the cause of such considerable Revenues as the 
Mogul draws out of them, and they are so much the greater, 
that (these Countries being remote frpm the Sea,) no Europeants 
share with them therein. 

There are many Rajas in both, who. (for the most) part, Rajas not 
own not the Authority of the Great Mogul, There are two 
Pagods of great reputation in Ayoud, the one at Hagarcut,^^ 
and the other at. Calamac^'^^ but that of Nagarcut is far more 
famous than the other, because of the Idol McUta,^ to which The idol 
it is Dedicated ; and they say that there are some Gentiles, that 
come not out of that Pagod withput Sacrificing part their 
Body. The Devotion which the Gentiles, make shew of at the The Pagod 
Pa^od of Cc^piao^ proceed^ from this^ that they look upon it Calamac, 



as a great Miracle, that the Water of the Town which is very 
cold, springs out of a Rock, that continually belches out Flames. 
That Rock of Calamac, is of the Mountain of and 

the Bramens (who Govern the Pagod,) make great profit of it. 

The Pro- 
vince of 




The Towns 

of Be car, 







Castes or 

Tribes of the 


84 . 


Catry or 

Soudr or 



The Province of Becar,'^ .which comprehends the Countries 
of Douab, ^ Jesuat^ and Udesse,^ is also watered by the Rivers 
that discharge themselves into the Ganges. It. lies not only 
to the East of Dehly, but is also- the most Eastern Province of 
Mogolistan, by the Countrey of Udesse, which shuts it in with 
its Mountains : And that great Province being rich, by reason 
of the fertility thereof, yields to the Great Mogul yearly above 
fourteen Millions. It contains several good Towns ; but the 
best are Samhal,^\ Menapour,^ Ragmpout,'^ Jehanac,^ and above 
all Becaner,^ which at present is the Capital, standing to the 
West of the Ganges. 

In this Province of Becar, and in the two former, there are 
of^° all the Castes and Tribes of the Indians, which are reckoned 
in all to be fourscore and four in number.^^- Though all of them 
profess the same Religion, yet the Ceremonies of every one of 
these Castes, nay, and of the private Persons of each Caste, 
are so different, that they make an infinite number of Sects. 
The People of every one of these Tribes follow a Trade ; and 
none of their Off -spring can quit it, without being reckoned 
infamous in his Tribe. For Example, The Bramens (who make 
the first Tribe) profess Doctrine, and so do their Children, with- 
out ever forsaking that Profession. The second, is the Tribe of 
the^ Catry or Rasp out es^^ who make profession of Arms : Their 
Children profess the same, or ought to do it, because they all 
pretend to be descended of Princes of the Gentiles ; Not but 
some of them are Merchants,^® nay, and Weavers in the'Pro- 
Labors, and Sinde ; but they are despised in 
the Tril^, and pass for base Fellows, void of honour. The third 
IS the Tribe of the Soudr^^ or Courmy, and these are the 
^abourers of the Ground ; some of them carry Arms, and since 
that is an honourable Trade, and of a superiour Caste, it do*s 
Mt reflect upon them ; but becau^ they love not to serve on 
Horse-back, they ^erve commonly for the Garisions of Places ; 
md this C^te^ Tribe is the greatest of all. The fourth, is the 
of th^ Oum Qf Batmans } and they are all Merchants, 



Bankers, or Brokers, and tke expertest People in the World for 
making Money of anything. 

Anciently there were no more Tribes but these four ; but 
in succession of time, all those who applied themselves to the 
same Profession, composed a Tribe or Caste, and thaPs the 
reason they are so numerous. The Colis or Cotton-dressers have Colis, 
made a distinct Caste : The Teherons or Travellers Guards, Teherans. 
have theirs : The Palanquin-heoiers have also made one, and 
they are called Covillis : Bow-makers and Fletchers have also CouilUs. 
made another ; as also the Hammer-men, such as Goldsmiths, 

Armorers, Smiths and Masons. They who work in Wood, as 
Carpenters, Joyners and Bill-men, are all of one Caste : Publick 
Wenches, Tumblers, Vaulters, Dancers and Baladins, are of 
another. And it is the same with Taylors, and other Sheers- 
men, with Coach-makers and Sadlers : The Bengiara,^^ who are Bengiarct, 
Carriers, Painters and (in a word) all other Trades-men.^^ 

The least esteemed of all the eighty four Tribes, are the 
Piriaves^^ and the Der,^^ or Halalcour,^^ because of their nasti- Der, 
ness and they who touch them, think themselves unclean. 

The Periaves are employed in taking off, and carrying away the Penaves, 
Skins of Beasts, and some of them are Curriers.^^ The Halalcour Halalcour, 
are the Gold-finders^^ of the Towns ; they make clean the 
publick and private Houses of Office,^^ and are payed for it 
Monthly ; they feed on all sort of Meats prohibited or not pro- 
hibited ; they eat others leavings without considering what 
Religion or Caste they are of : And thaPs the reason why those 
who only speak Persian in the Indies^ call them Halalcour, 

(thaPs to say) He that takes the liberty to eat what he pleases ; 
or according to others. He that eats what he has honestly got. 

And they who approve this last Application,^® say, that hereto- 
fore the Halalcour were called Haramcour, eaters of prohibited 
Meats : (But that a King one day hearing his Courtiers Jear 
them, because of their nasty^® Trade, said to them. Since these 
People gain their Bread better than you, who are lazy lubbards, 
their name of Haramcour ought to be given to you, and to them Haramcour, 
that of Halalcour,) And that they have retained that name. Halalcour. 

There is a Caste of Gentiles, called Baraguy,^"^ who damn^® Baraguy. 
the yellow Colour ; and who in the Morning put white on their 
Fore-head, contrary to the custom of the other Castes, who 
have red put there by the Bramens. When a Gentile is Painted "White and 
with this Red, he bows his Head three times, and hfts his 
joyned hands thrice up to his Fore-head ; and then presents the head. 
Bramen with Rice and a Cocos. 

All the Castes or Tribes go to their Devotions at the same 
time ; but they adore what Idol they please, without addressing 
themselves solely to him, to whom the Temple is dedicated, 
unless their Devotion invite them to do so, in so much that some 
carry their Idols along with them, when they know that he 




The alliance 
of the Gen- 

The sub- 
of Tribes. 




BetSj or 
Books of 



Ram, a God 
of the 


of Idols. 

The Belief 
of the 

whom they Worship is not there. JTone of these Gentiles marry 
out of their own Tribe. A Bramen marries the Daughter of 
another Bramen, a Raspoute the Daughter of a Raspoute, a 
Halalcour the Daughter of a Halalcour, a Painter of a Painter, 
and so of the rest. 

The eighty four Tribes, observe among themselves an 
Order of Subordination. The Banians yield to the Courmis,^^ 
the Courmis to the Rajpoutes or Catrys, and these (as all the 
rest do) to the Bramens ; and so the Bramens are the chief 
and most dignified of the Gentiles. And therefore it is, that 
a Bramen would think himself prophaned, if he had eaten with 
a Gentile of another Caste than his own, though those of all 
other Castes may eat in his House. And so it is with the other 
Tribes in relation to their inferiours. 

The Bramens, who are properly the Brahmanes or Sages 
of the Ancient Indians, and the Gymnosophists of Porphyrins/^ 
are the Priests and Doctors of the Heathen in India. Besides 
Theologi'e (which they profess) they understand Astrology, 
Arithmetick and Medicine ; but they who are actually Physi- 
cians, pay yearly a certain Tribute to their Caste, because 
Physick ought not to be their Profession. All these Gentiles 
have a respect for the Bramens ; and they believe them in all 
things, because they have been always told that God sent the 
four Bets^^ to them, which are thfe Books of their Religion, 
and that they are the keepers of them. 

Several of these Doctors apply themselves to Philosophy, 
and love not to appear so extravagant as the rest in their 
Belief. When a Christian speaks to them of their God Ram, 
whom the Gentiles Worship ; they maintain not that he is 
God, and only say that he was a great King, whose Sanctity 
and good OflSices that he did to Men, have procured him a 
more particular communion with God, than other Saints have ; 
and that so they shew him much more reverence : And if one 
speak to them of the Adoration of Idols, they answer, that they 
Worship them not ; that their intention is always fixed upon 
God ; that they only honour them, because they put them in 
mind of the Saint whom they represent ; that one must not 
heed the ignorance of the Common People, who form to them- 
selves a thousand idle fancies, their Imaginations being always 
stuffed with Errors and Superstitions ; and that when one 
would be informed of a Religion, he ought to consult those 
that are knowing in it. That it is true, the ignorant believe 
that many great Men (under whose shape God hath made 
himself known) are Gods, but that for their part, they believe 
no such thing j ^ and that if God hath been pleased to Act so, 
it was only to facilitate the Salvation of Men, and tp cpn^esqencj 
to the capacity an4 hvtmour of every Nation, 



Upon tliis Principle they believe that every Man may be 
saved in his Religion and Sect, provided he exactly follow the 
way which God hath set before him, and that he will be 
damned if he take another Course : They make no doubt but 
that their Religion is the first of all Religions ; that it was 
Established in the days of Addm, and preserved in Noah^'^ Th& Indians 
They believe Heaven and Hell, but they affirm that none shall believe that 
enter there before the Universal Judgment : They say also, if the 

that no body ought to find fault with them for the honour they first of all. 
shew to the Cow ; that they prefer her before other Animals, Respect to 
only because she furnishes them more Food, by means of her 
Milk, than all the rest put together ; and that she brings forth 
the Ox which is so useful to the World, seeing he makes it 
subsist by his Eabour, and feeds Men by his Pains. 

The Bramens believe the Metempsychosis or Transmigra- Metejip- 
tion of Souls^^ into New Bodies, more or less noble, according psychosis. 
to the merit of their Actions which they have done in their 
lyif e-time. And many of the other Castes follow that Opinion 
of Pythagoras They believe that every Soul must thus make Pythagoras. 
many Transmigrations, but they determine not the number ; 
and therefore there are some who kill no Beast, and never 
kindle Fire nor light Candle, for fear some Butterfiie should 
burn it self thereat: It being possible (say they) that the 
Soul of a Butterfiie may have lodged in the Body of a Man ; 
and they have the same Sentiment of other Animals. In pros- 
pect of saving living Creatures, they often sollicite the Mogul 
Governours, to forbid Fishing on certain Festival days ; and 
sometimes that prohibition is procured by Presents. They 
would willingly also hinder the killing of Cows, but they can 
never obtain that. The Mahometans will needs eat Flesh, and 
that of the Cow is the best of all the gross Meats of the Indies. 

After all, the vulgar Opinion of the Gentiles, touching the 'phe ^ 

God Ram, is that he was produced, and came out of the Eight, C^imon of 

in the same manner as the Fringe of a Belt comes out of that concerning^ 

Belt ; and if they Assign him a Father whom they call Defter/® their God 

and a Mother named Gaoucella that is only for form sake, 

seeing he was not born : And in that consideration, the 

Indians render him divine Honours in their Pagods, and else 

where ; And when they salute their Friends, they repeat his 

Name, saying. Ram, Ram. Their Adoration consists in joyning chitatht 

their hands, as if they Prayed, letting them fall very low, and Wife of 

then lifting them up again gently to their mouth, and last 

of all; in raising them over their head. They call Chita?^ 

the Wife of Ram ; and seeing they know what respect Christians 

bear to the Holy Virgin, they have the boldness to compare 

that Wife to her ; and if they meet with her Image, they take 

it to be the representation of Chita. 



An Image of 
the Virgin. 
Onr Lady of 

The Indian 

The Pro- 
vince of 



Adam, Eve, 

In this Opinion many Gentiles go to Bass aim, a Town 
belonging to the Portuguese, where there is the Image of a 
Virgin, who is called ottr Lady of Remedies,®® and where (they 
say) Miracles are wrought. When they come to the Church- 
door, they salute* it, bowing to the ground ; and having taken 
off their Shoes, and come in, they make many Reverences ; 
they put Oyl into the Lamp that hangs before the Image ; 
burn Wax-Candles, and cast some Money into the Box, if 
they be able. At first they would have added to this Oblation, 
Fruits, and the Anointing of their Body, that so they might 
call it Sacrifice, but the Portuguese hindred them. It may 
easily be concluded, from the aversion they have to the killing 
of Beasts, that their Sacrifices are never bloody ; they only 
consist in bringing into their Pagods many things fit to be 
eaten. When they are come there, and have taken Directions 
from the Bramen, they Anoint their Body with Oyl, and say 
their Prayers, before the Idol they intend to Invocate ; and 
having presented their Oblation to it, they return out of the 
Pagod again. The chief Bramen takes of it what he pleases, 
and then all that have a mind to eat of it, may, of what Religion 
soever they be. They perform also Sacrifices to the Sea. 



The Province of Halahas^ was heretofore called Pur op In 
it are comprehended Narvar^ and Mevat,^ which have Bengala 
to the South. The chief Town lying upon the side of the 
Ganges, at the mouth of the River Gemini, bears the name of 
the Province ; for a long time it was one of the Bulwarks of 
the Kingdom of the Patans, and is the same Town which Pliny 
calls Chrysohacra,^ It fell under the power' of the Great Mogul 
Echar, after he had subdued the Kingdom of Bengala: He 
caused the strong Citadel to be built there,® which stands upon 
a tongue of Land, begirt with three Walls, whereof the last 
(I mean the outmost Wall) was of very hard red Stone. That 
Castle is adorned with a very ancient Obelisk it is above 
sixty Foot high from the ground, and has many Inscriptions 
upon it ; but the Letters of it are so worn out, that one cannot 
so much as distinguish the Character. 

The King’s Palace is also a fair pile of Building ;® and 
underneath it there are places Arched, where the Pagods® are 
carefully kept, which the People of the Countrey attribute to 
Adam and Eve,'^^ whose .Religion they pretend to follow : 


Thither comes at certain times an incredible concours of People, 
in Pilgrimage from all parts of the Indies ; and they are drawn 
thither by the belief they have, that Adam and Eve were 
created there : But before they approach that place (which 
they look upon to be holy) they throw themselves stark naked 
into the Ganges to be purified, and they have^^ their Beards and The 
Hair, that they may merit the Honour of being introduced. 

That Province hath a great many good Towns, of which number Ganges. 
are Narval and Gehud but the People there are so extra- NarvaU 
vagant in point of Religion, that hardly any thing is to be Gehud 
understood of it : They are taken with every thing they see, 
and approve all the Actions of those that make any shew of 
Devotion, never minding whether it be true or false. It many 
times happens that a Banian will give a Faquir considerable Faquir. 
Sums of Money, because he has the boldness to place himself 
near his Shop, and to protest that he’ll kill himself if he be not 
supplied with what he demands : The Banian promises fair, 
and brings it him ; but because the fantastical Faquir under- 
stands that several have contributed to that Charity, he openly^® 
refuses it, and goes about to execute what he hath threatned, 
if the Banian alone furnish not the Sum ; and the Banian 
knowing that some Faquirs have been so desperate as to kill 
themselves upon the like occasion, is so much a fool as to give 
it out of his own Purse, and to give the others back again what 
they had contributed. 

These Faquirs (who give themselves out to be of a Religious 
Order) have commonly no place to retreat unto, unless it be 
some Pagods ; and they cannot be better compared (if you’ll set 
aside the Penances they do) than to GypsieSj for their way of Gypsies, 
lyiving is like theirs ; and I believe Iheir Profession has the faquirs. 
same Original, which is Libertinisme. However, they attri- 
bute it to a Prince named Revan^^ who had a Quarrel with Prince 
Ram ; and who being overcome and stript of all, by an Ape Fevan. 
called Herman , spent the rest of his Life in rambling over Herman 
the World, having no other subsistence for himself and hi‘s the Ape. 
followers but what was given him in Charity. 

They are many times to be seen in Troops at Halahas, 
where they Assemble for Celebrating of some Feasts^® (for 
which they are obliged to wash themselves in the Ganges) and ^^e good 
to perform certain Ceremonies. Such of them as do no hurt, Faquirs 
and shew signs of Piety are extreamly honoured by the honoured. 
Gentiles ; and the Rich think they draw down blessings upon 
themselves, when they assist those whom they call Penitents. 

Their Penance consists in forbearing to eat for many days, to 
keep constantly standing upon a Stone^^ for several weeks, or 
several months ; to hold their Arms a cross behind their head, 
as long as they live, or to bury themselves in Pits for a certain 
space of time. But if some of these Faquirs be good Men, there Rogues. 


The Moguls 

The Pro- 
vince of 
Ouleser^ or 

Penance of 
a Faquir, 

are also very Rogues amongst them ; and the Mogul Princes are 
not troubled, when such of them as commit violences are 

One may meet with some of them in the Countrey stark 
naked with Colours and Trumpets, who ask Charity with Bow 
and Arrow in hand and when they are the strongest, they 
leave it not to the discretion of Travellers to give or refuse. 
These wretches have no consideration even for those that feed 
them ; I have seen some of them in the Caravans, who made 
it their whole business to play tricks, and to molest Travellers, 
though they had all their subsistence from them. Not long 
since I was in a Caravane, where some of these Faquirs were, 
who took a fancy to suffer no body to sleep : All night long they 
did nothing but §ing and Preach ; and instead of banging 
them soundly to make them hold their peace (as they ought to 
have been served) the Company prayed them civilly, but they 
took it ill ; so that they doubled their Cries and Singing, and 
they who could not Sing, laughed and made a mock of the rest 
of the Caravane, 

These Faquirs were sent by their Superiours, into I know 
not what Countrey full of Banians, to demand of them Two 
thousand Roupies, with a certain quantity of Rice and Mans 
of Butter ; and they had orders not to return without fulfilling 
theit Commission* This is their way all over the Indies, where 
by their Mummeries, they have accustomed the Gentiles to 
give them what they demand, without daring to refuse. There 
are a great many Faquirs among the Mahometans, as well as 
amongst the Idolaters, who are also Vagabonds, and worse than 
they : and commonly both of them are treated alike. 

The Province of Halabas pays the Moguls yearly about 
fourteen Millions. 



The Province of Oulesser,^ which we call Bengala, and 
which the Idolaters name Jaganai because of the famous 
Idol of the Pagod of Jaganai which is there, is Inhabited by 
Gentiles no less fantastical in point of Religion, than those of 
Halahas ; and this one instance may serve for a proof of it. A 
F aquir intending to invent some new spell of Devotion that was 
never seen before, and which might cost him a great deal of 
pains, resolved to measure with his Body the whole extent of 
the Moguls Empire, from Bengala as far as Caboul, which are 

A strange way of covering distance as penance 



the limits of it from South East to North West. The pretext 
he had for so doing, was, that once in his life he might be 
present at the Feast of Houly, which I have already described, 
and he had a kind of novices to wait upon him and serve him. 

The first Action he did when he set out upon his Journey, 
was to lay himself at full length on the ground upon his belly, 
and to order that the length of his Body might be marked there ; 
that being done, he rose up, and acquainted his followers with 
his Design, which was to take a Journey as far as Cohoul, by 
lying down and rising up again continually, and to walk no 
more at a time but the length of his Body ; ordering his Novices 
to make a mark on the ground at the Crown of his Head, every 
time he lay down, to the end he might exactly regulate the 
March he was to make ; all was punctually performed on both 
sides : The Faquir made a Cosse and a half a day, that^s 
to say, about three quarters of a League ; and they who related 
the Story, met him a year after his setting out, no farther off 
than at the utmost bounds of the Province of Halabas. In the 
mean time, he had all imaginable respect shewed him in the 
places he passed through ; and was loaded with Charity, in so 
much, that he was obliged to distribute the Alms he got amongst 
the Poor, who in hopes of getting by him, followed him in his 

Many Mahometans live there also, but they are no better 
than the Gentils. The People (for the most part) are extra- 
ordinarily voluptuous ; they have a captious and subtil wit, 
and are much given to pilfring and® stealing ; The Women 
themselves are bold and lascivious, and use aU Arts imaginable 
to corrupt and debauch^ Young Men, and especially Strangers, ^^ts’of 
whom they easily trapan, because they are handsom and wear Bengala 
good Cloaths.® voluptuous. 

The people in this Province live much at their ease, because 
of its fruitfulness ; and above Twenty thousand Christians 
dwell there. The Countrey was kept in far better order under 
the Paian Zings, (I mean) before the Mahometans and Moguls 
were Masters of it,® because then they had Uniformity in Reli- 
gion. It has been found by experience, that disorder came into 
it with Mahometanism ; and that diversity of Religions hath introduced 
there caused corruption in Manners. disorder. 

Dacaj or Daac/ is properly the capital City of Bengala ; it 
lies upon the banck of the Ganges, and is very narrow, because 
it stretches out near a League and a half in length, along the 
side of that River. Most of the Houses are only built of Canes, 
covered with Earth : The English and Dutch Houses are more 
solid, because they have spared no cost for the security of their Augustins 
Goods; The Augustines have a Monastery® there 'also. The 
Tide Qome^ up a^ f^r a^ Daca^ so that the Galleys which are at Daca, 


Galleys of 

the Gulf of 


Towns of 








The Dutch 
Factory at 


The Ganges, 

Meina, a 

The Water 
of the 

Pagods of 
Pagod of 

built there, may easily Trade in the gulf of Bengala ; and the 
Dutch make good use of theirs for their Commerce. 

The Countrey is full of Castles and Towns ; Philipatan,^ 
Satigan,^^ Patane,'^^ CasanbazaP^ and Chatigan, are very 
rich ; and Patan e is a very large Town, lying on the West side 
of the Ganges in the Countrey of Patan, where the Dutch have 
a Factory. Corn, Rice, Sugar, Ginger, long Pepper, Cotton 
and Silk, with several other Commodities, are plentifully pro- 
duced in that Country, as well as Fruits ; and especially the 
Ananas, w^hich in the out side is much like a Pine- Apple ; they 
are as big as Melons, and some of them resemble them also ; 
their colour at first is betwixt a Green and a Yellow, but when 
they are ripe, the Green is gone ; they grow upon a Stalk not 
above a Foot and a half high ; they are pleasant to the taste, 
and leaves the flavour of an Apricock in the mouth. 

The Ganges is full of pleasant Islands, covered with lovely 
Indian Trees ; and for five days Sailing on that River, Passen- 
gers are delighted with the beauty of them. In these Isles, and 
some other places of Bengala, there is a kind of bird called 
Meina,^^ which is much esteemed ; it is of the colour of a Black- 
bird, and almost as big as a Raven, having just such another 
Beak, but that it is yellow and red ; on each side of the neck, 
it hath a yellow streak which covers the whole Cheek till below 
the eye, and its Feet are yellow ; they teach it to speak like a 
Starling, and it hath the tone and voice much like but besides 
its ordinary Voice it hath a strong deep Tone which seems to 
come from a distance ; it imitates the neighing of a Horse 
exactly, and feeds on dryed Pease which it breaks. I have seen 
some of them upon the Road from Masulipatan to Bagnagar,"^^ 

The Heathen Indians esteem the water of the Ganges to be 
sacred ; they have Pagods near it, which are the fairest of 
all the Indies ; and it is in that Countrey especially where 
Idolatry is triumphant: The two chief Pagods are that of 
Jaganat, (which is at one .of the mouths of the Ganges^'^) and 
the other of the Town of B^'^cirous,'^^ which is also upon the 
Ganges. Nothing can be more magnificent than these Pagods, 
by reason of the quantity of Gold and many Jewels, wherewith 
they are adorned. Festivals are kept there for many days 
together, and millions^^ of People repair thither from the other 
Countreys of the Indies ; they carry their Idols in triumph, and 
act all sorts of Superstitions ; they are entertained by the 
Bramens, who are numerous there,, and who therein find their 

The Great The Greai Mogul drinks commonly of the Water of the 

^iXsof G-anges,^° because it is much lighter than other Waters ; and 
the Water of I have met with those who affirm that it causes Fluxes ; 
the Gcmges, and that the Europeans (who are forced to drink it) boil it first. 

This Riv^r having received an infinite number pf Brooks and 



Rivers from the North, East and West, discharges it self by 
several mouths into the Gulf of Bengala, at the height of three The Gulf 
and twenty degrees, or thereabouts ; and that Gulf reaches Bengala. 
from the eig'hth degree of latitude to the two and twentieth, it 
being eight hundred Leagues over. On the sides thereof to the The Coasts 
East and West, there are many Towns belonging to several ^Ber3ala 
Sovereigns, who permit the Traffick of other Nations, because 
of the profit they get thereby. 

My Indian reckons the yearly Revenue of the Mogul in Moguls 
this Province, to amount to Ten millions ; but I learnt from 
other hands, that it hardly makes Nine,^^ though it be far richer Bengala. 
than other Provinces that yield him more : The reason given 
for that, is, that it lies in the extremity of his Empire, and is 
Inhabited by a capricious sort of People, who must be gently 
used, because of the Neighbourhood of Kings that are enemies, 
who might debauch them if thejr were vexed. The Mogul 
sends the Traitors thither, whom he hath condenmed to perpe- T^raitors. 
tual Imprisonment and the Castle where they are kept, is 
strictly guarded. 



Malva} is to the West oi Bengala and Halahas ; therein The Pro- 
are comprehended the Countries of Raja-Ranas, Gualear^ and 
Chitor,^ The Town of Mando^ is one of the fairest Ornaments Raja^Ranas. 
of the Province : The Mahometans took it from the Indians, Gualear, 
above Four hundred years before the Moguls came there,^ and 
when they attacked it, it was in the possession of Cha-Selim/ ChaSelim, 
King of Behly. The first of the Moguls that took it, was King 
Humayon, who lost it again ; but he afterwards made himself 
Master of it/ This Town is of a moderate bigness, and hath 
several Gates, which are esteemed for their structure and 
height : Most of the Houses are of Stone ; and it hath lovely 
Mosques, whereof the chief is much beautified / a Palace that 
is not far from that Mosque, (and which depends upon it) 
serves as a Mausoleum to four Kings, ^ who are interred in it, 
and have each of them a Monument ; and close by, there is a 
Building in form of a Tower, with Portico’s and several 

Though this Town lying at the foot of a Hill, be naturally 
strong by its Situation, it is nevertheless fortified with Walls 
and Towers, and has a Castle on the top of the Hill, which is The Castle 
steep, and encompassed with Walls six or seven Leagues in of Mando. 
circuit. It is a very neat Town at present/^ but nothing tg 



The Ruins what it hath been heretofore: It appears by the Ruins all 
otMando,^ about, that it hath been much greater than it is, that it hath 
te&teen^^ had two fair Temples,^* and many stately Palaces; and the 
magnificent, sixteen large Tmqui&s or Reservatories, which are to be seen 
still for keeping of Water, shew (that in former times) it hath 
been a place of great consequence. 

This Province is very fertile, and produces all that grows 
Ratispor, in the other places of the Indies. Ratispor^^ is the Capital of 
the Capital Province, and at present tiie Town of greatest Traf&ck ; it 
° stands also upon a Mountain, and thither the Grand Signior 

Traitors sends the Traitors whom he hath condemned to die : For a 

certain time they are kept Prisoners, and always one or other 
in the room with them ; and the day they are to die, they make 
them drink a great quantity of Milk, and throw them down 
from the top of the Castle upon- the declining side of the Hill, 
which is full of sharp poihted craggy Stones, that tear the 
Bodies of the wretches, before they can reach the bottom of 
the Precipice. 

Chitor. The Town of Ckiipr is very famous also, but it is almost 

Raja-Ranas ruined ; it long belonged to Raja-Ranas, who deduced his 

of Genealogie from King Porus though that Raja had con- 

siderable Territories, and strong, by reason of the Mountains 
that almost encompassed them ; yet could he not avoid the mis- 
fortune of other Princes, but fell (as they did) under the power 

of the Moguls, in the Reign of King Echar. At present, there 
An hundred are but few Inhabitants in Chitor, the Walls of it are low, and 
Temples in of a great many stately publick Buildings, nothing remains 
* but the ruins. The hundred Temples or Pagods are still to be 

Antique distinguished, and many antick Sfaines to be seen ; it hath a 

Statues. Fort, where Fords of chief Qjmlity are Imprisoned for small 

faults : In short. The remains of many Ancient Fabricks (that 

are to be seen there) make it apparent, that it hath been a 
very great Town. The Seat of it is very pleasant, and the 
top of the Hill (on which it stands) exdr.eamly fertile ; it hath 
Revenue of Reservatories or Tanijuies for the privafe use of the 

the^l?o-*° Inhabitants. There are a great many other Trading Towns 
Vince of in that Province, and the Great Mo^ul receives yearly out of it 
Malva. above fourteen Millions. 

There are two kinds of Bats in that Countrey, the one is 
^na^Bat.' “ Europe ; buf seeing tbe other, differs 

much, I pleased my self in examining it ia a Friends House, 
who kept one out of curiosity it is eig^t fnches long, and 
covered with yellowish Hair ; the Body of it is round, and as 
big as a Ducks ; its Head ami Eyes resemblf a Cats, and it has 
a sharp Snout like to a great Rat ; it hath jmcked black Ears 
and no Hair upon them ; it halli no b^t under its Wings, 
two Teats as big as the end p£ ones little finger ; ft hath four 
Regs, some pall them Arms, and ail four seem tP glued 


fast witlim the Wings, which are joyned to the Body along 
the sides, from the Shonlder downwards ; the Wings are almost 
two Foot long, and seven Or eight Inches broad, and are of a 
black Skin like to wet Parchment ; each Arm is as big as a 
Cats thigh ; and towards the Joynt, it is almost as big as a 
Mans Arm ; & the two foremost from the Shoulder to the 
Fingers, are nine or ten Inches long ; each of the two Arms is 
fleshed into the Wing, Perpendicularly to the Body, being 
covered with Hair, and terminating in five Fingers, which make 
a kind of hand ; these Fingers are black and without Hair ; they 
have the same Joynts as a Mans Fingers have ; and these 
Creatures make use of them to stretch out their Wings when 
they have a mind to flie : Each hind Eeg or Arm, is but half 
a Foot long, and is also fastened to the Wing parallel to the 
Body ; it reaches to the lower part of the Wing, out of which 
the little hand of that Arm peeping, seems pretty like the hand 
of a Man ; but that instead of Nails, it hath five Claws ; the 
hind Arms are black and hairy (as those before^^ are) and are 
a little smaller. These Bats stick to the Branches of Trees, 
with their Talons or Claws ; they fly high, almost out of sight, 
and some (who eat them) say they are good meat.^® 



The Province of Candich} is to the South of Mcdvd, and pj-o- 
they who have reduced the Provinces, have joyned to it Berar, vince of 
and what the Mogul possesses of Ofhccc.^ These Countries 
are of a vast e^ttent, full of populous Towns and Villages, and orisxa, 
in all MoguUsian, few Countries are so rich as this. The the MogiiZs 
Memoire® I have of yearly Revenues, makes this Province yield yearly Reve- 
the Mogul above seven and twenty Millions a‘ year. The Capital candied 
City of this Province is Brampour f it lies in the twenty eighth Brampour, 
degree of Eatituder,, about fourscore Teagues distant from the Capital 
Sufrai,^ The Governour thereof is commonly a Prince of the Ccmdich, 
Blood, and Auren-^Zeb hafh been Governour of it himself. 

Here it was that th^e SieUrs de La B outlay e and Beher Quarrel 
Envoy's from the French Eo^t-Iudia Company, quarrelled with the Sieurs 
the Banians, to whdm they werd reebmUiended. When they 
arrived at BramPoiir, these Banians met them with' Basons full had with a 
of Sweetmeats, and Ro'Upies in their hands. The Gentlemen banian, 
not knowing the custom of the Countrey, which is to offer 
Presents to Strangers whom they esteem ; and imagining that 
the five and twenty or thirty Roupies that were offered them, 
was a sign that they thought t&em poor, fell into a Passion, 


Ground o£ 

The House 


The Castle 


The Kings 
Palace at 

The Monu- 
ment of an 

100 INDIAN Travels of tMevenot 

railed at the Banians, and were about to have beat them, which 
was like to have bred the trouble enough : if they had been 
well informed of the custom of the Countrey, they would have 
taken the Money, and then returned some small Present to the 
Banians ; and if they had not thought it fit to make a Present, 
they might have given it back again after they had received it ; 
or if they would not take it, touch it at least with their Fingers 
ends, and thanked them for their civility. 

I came to Brampour in the worst weather imaginable ; and 
it had rained so excessively, that the low Streets of that Town 
were full of water, and seemed to be so many Rivers. Brampour 
is a great Town standing upon very uneven ground ; there 
are some Streets very high, and others again so low, that they 
look like Ditches when one is in the higher Streets ; these in- 
equalities of Streets occur so often, that they cause extra- 
ordinary Fatigue. The Houses are not at all handsom, because 
most of them are only built of Earth ; however, they are 
covered with Varnished Tiles, and the various Colours of the 
Roofs, mingling with the Verdure of a great many Trees of 
different kinds, planted on all hands, makes the Prospect of it 
pleasant enough. There are two Carvanseras in it, one appoint- 
ed for lodging Strangers, and the other for keeping the Kings 
Money, which the Treasurers receive from the Province ; that 
for the Strangers is far more spacious than the other, it is 
square, and both of them front towards the Meidan. That is a 
very large place, for it is at least Five hundred paces long, and 
Three hundred and fifty broad ; but it is not pleasant, because 
it is full of ugly huts, where the Fruiterers sell their Fruit and 

The entry into the Castle® is from the Meidan, and the chief 
Gate is betwixt two large Towers ; the Walls of it are six 
or seven Fathom high ; they have Battlements all round, and 
at certain intervals there are large round Towers which jet ,a 
great way out, and are about thirty paces Diametre. This Castle 
contains the Kings Palace, and there is no entring into it with- 
out permission ; the Tapty running by the .East side of that 
Town, there is one whole Front of the Castle upon the River- 
side, and in that part of it the Walls are full eight Fathom high, 
because there are pretty neat Galleries on the top, where the 
King (when he is at Brampour) -comes to look about him,’^ and 
to^ see the fighting of Elephants, which is commonly in the 
middle of the River ; in the same place, there is a Figure of an 
Elephant® done to the natural bigness, it is of a reddish shining 
Stone, the back parts of it are in the Water, and it leans to the 
left side ; the Elephant (which that Statue represents) died in 
that place, fighting before Cha-Gehan (the Father of Auran-Zeh) 
who would needs erect a Monument to the Beast, because he 



loved it, and the Gentiles besmear it with Colours, as they do 
their Pagods. 

They drink not commonly the Tapty Water at Bram^our, 
because it is very brackish ; but they are supplied from a 
large square Bason® (that is in the Meidan) the Water whereof 
comes from a distant Spring, and before it fills that Bason, 
passes by the Carvansera for Strangers which it furnishes ; it 
then runs under ground to the great Bason in the place, which 
many times is empty at night, because of the great quantity 
of Water which they fetch thence all day long ; but it fills 
again in the night-time, and so they seldom have any want. 

There are a great many Houses also on the other side of the 
River, and they may be said to be a second Town. 

The great Trade of the Province is in Cotton-cloath, and 
there is as much Trajfick at Brampour, as in any place of the 
Indies. Painted Cloaths are sold there, as every where else ; white 
but the w^hite are particularly esteemed, because of the lovely Cloaths 
mixture of Gold and Silver that is in them, whereof the rich 
make Veils, Scarfs, Handkerchiefs and Coverings, but the white and Silver 
■Cloaths so Adorned, are dear. In short, I do not think that ^ 
any Countrey of Indostan abounds so much in Cotton as this 
do’s^® which bears also plenty of Rice and Indigo. The same Indigo at 
Trade is driven at Orixa, Berar, and other Towns of this 



Balagate^ is one of the Great Moguls rich Provinces, for The Pro- 
it yields him Five and twenty Millions a year ; it lies to the 
South of Candich. To go from Surrat to Aurangeuhad/ which The yeiiy 
is the Capital Town of Balagate, one must from Dumm-Gote Revenue of 
hold straight East, and soon after, turning towards the South- 
East, cross some Countries of the Provinces of Benganala^ and 
Telenga.^ Part of Balagate 1 saw, as I went to Golconda ; for 
this Journey I hired two Chariots, one for my self, and another 
for my Man and Baggage ; I payed about Seventeen Crowns The Pay of 
a month for each Chariot, and I entertained two Pions in my Tions, 
Service, to whom I gave two Crowns a piece by the month, and 
two pence half penny a day for Board-wages (as the custom is,) 
these Men are always by the sides of their Masters Chariot or 
Waggon, .that they may hold it up in bad way if it heel’d ; except 
when one comes to any place to bait at,® they’ll do any thing 
out of the Kitchin ; but they will not venture to dress Meat, 
which those of their Sect would not eat. In short. They are 

10 ^ 


The Pions 


Pions are 
better than 
the Moors. 

from Surrat 
to Aumn- 

in all things else very serviceable ; they’ll buy what is necessary, 
look after theit Masters things exactly, and stand sentinel all 
night long ; they are Arined with Sword and Dagger, and have 
besides the Bow, Musket or Dance, ini are always ready to 
fight against all sorts of Enemies. There are of them both 
Moors and Gentiles of the Tribe of the Raspoutes ; I took 
RaspouieSj because I knew they served better than the Moors, 
who are proud, and will not be complained of, whatsoever 
foppery or cheat they may be guilty of. 

I made this Journey in company of Monsieur Bazou,^ a 
French Merchant, a very civil and witty Man, who had with 
him ten Waggons or Chariots, and fourteen Pions for himself, 
his Servants and Goods ; we were eight Franks in company, 
and in all Five and forty Men. We parted from Surrdt in the 
Evening, and encamped near the Queens Garden, which is 
without Daman-Gsite ; so soon as we were got thither, we sent 
to the Town for what Provisions we wanted, for else we must 
have fared hard during our Journey. The Gentiles (who sell 
Provisions) will neither furnish Travellers with Eggs nor 
Phllets ; and instead of ordinary Bread, there is nothing to be 
got but ill baked Buns or Cakes, so that one must not fail to 
make provision of Bisket at Surrat, 

Trees. The Countrey from SuHdt to Aurangabad, is extreamly 

Wars, ^ diversified ; there are in it a great many Wars, Manguiers, 

Mahom!"^' Ma/io-ya/ Quiesou,^ Cahoul,^ and other sorts of Trees ; and I 

Quiesouj saw the Querzeheray there also, which I have described in my 

Cahoul. Book of Persia. 


second Vol. There are vast numbers of Antelopes, Hairs and Partridges, 
here and there in that Countrey ; and towards the Mountains 
Merous, Merous,^^ or wild Cows, most patt of the Band is arable Ground ; 
wild Cows, and the Rice (wherewith the Fields are covered) is the best in 
Places of Indies, especially towards NadpoUra,^^ where it has an 

Camping on odoriferous Taste, which that of other Countries has not. 
froi^'Sttrrat Cottoli abotmds fitiire also, aad in many places they have Sugar- 
ioAuran- Cahesy with Milk hiruise the Canes, and Furnaces to boyl 
geabttd. the Sugar. 

Barnoly, a Bourg five leagues from Surrat. Balor, a Village, 
4 Beag. from Barnoly. Biaraa^ Village, 3 keag. and a half 
from Balor. Charca a Village, 2 keag. and a half from 
Biara. Naopoura a Town, 6 leag. from Charca. Quanapour a 
Village, 6 Teag. from Naopoura. Pipelnar a Town, 6 Teag. 
from Quanapour. Tarahat a Villatge, 4 keag. from Pipelnar. 
Seiana a Bourg, 4 Teag. and a half from. Tarahat. Omrana a 
Village, 5 Teag. and a half from Setam. Enquitenqui, 6 Teag. 
from Omrana. Beoicham a Town,- 6 Teag. from Enquitenqui. 
The Soiir, a Town, 6 Teag. from Deotcham: Aurangeabad 8 
lycag. from the Sour.^^ 



Now and then one meets with Hills that are hard to be 
crossed over, but there are lovely Plains also watered with many 
Rivers and Brooks. In this Road there are four Towns, and 
four or five and thirty Bourgs and Villages, pretty well Peopled. 
Tchoguis,^^ or Guards of the High-ways, are often to be met 
with here, who ask Money of Travellers, though it be not their 
due ; we gave to some and refused others, but that signifies 
no great matter in the whole. 

In most places Inhabited, there are Pagods, and every now 
and then, we met with Waggons Ml of Gentiles, who were 
coming to perform their Devotions in them. The first Pagod 
(I saw) was by the side of a great War ; and before the Door of 
it, there was an of Stone, which a Gentile (who spake 
Persian) told me was the Figure of the Ox, which served to 
carry their God Ram, We found besides, many other Pagods carried the 
like to that, but we saw others, which consisted of one single God Ram, 
Stone about six Foot high,^^ on which the Figure of a Man is 
cut in relief: There are also a great many Reservatories and 
Caravanserai upon the Road, but we chose rather to Encamp, 
than Todg in them, because of their nastiness.^® 

As we were encamped near the Bourg Setana^^ under a 

Manguiers, not far distant from a small River, which is also , 
called Seiana, almost mid way betwixjt Sfcrrat Aurangeahad; 
we met the Bishop of Heliopolis^'^^ so much esteemed in the 
Indies for his Piety and Zeal ; he had in company with him 
Monsieur Champson, and a Spanish Cordelier, who had left the 
Bishop of Barut,'^^ with several other Church-men, who laboured Bmit ^ 
in converting the Gentiles at Siam. That Bishop was going to 
Surratj in order to return to France, from whence he hoped to 
bring back new Missionaries with him ; and the Cordelier came 
from China, where he had lived fourteen Years ; we continually 
met Caravans of Oxen and Camels upon our Road, and somie I of above a 
saw that came from Agra, consisting of rriore than a thousand 1000 Oxen. 
Oxen loaded with Cotton-Cloath. At length, the eleventh pf 
March we arrived at Aurangeahad, threescore and fifteep. Capital of 
Teagues from Surrat, which we Travelled in a fortni^t. Balagate. 

This great Town (the Capital of the Province) has no 
Walls ; the Governour (who is commonly a Prince) has hjs 
Residence there, and King Auran-Zeh commanded there, as long 
as he did at Candich in the Reign of his Father.^’ His first 
Wife (whom he loved dearly) died in this Town as a Monument 
to her, he erected a lovely Mosque, covered with a Dome, and 
beautified with foiir Minarets or Steeles. It is built of a white 
polished Stone, and many take it for Marble, though it come ^ 
short of that, both in hardness and lustre. There are sev^al 
other pretty fair Mosque ip Ms Town, and k is not destitute first Wife., 
of publick places, Carvanseras, and Bjagnios:^ The buildings 
are for the most part of and petty high ; before the 



Sheep that 
are Saddled 
and Bridled. 

nary Apes. 

The Pagods 
of Elora, 

A lovely 
way in a 

Doors there are a great many Trees growing in the Streets, and 
the Gardens are pleasant, and well cultivated, affording the re- 
freshment of Fruit, Grapes, and Grass-plats. They have Sheep 
there without Horns, that are so strong, as that being Bridled 
and Saddled, they’ll carry Children of ten years of Age up and 
down, wheresoever they please. This is a Trading Town, and 
well Peopled, with excellent Ground about it : Though it was 
but in the beginning of March, we found all the Corn cut down. 
I saw some Apes^^ much esteemed there, which a Man had 
brought from Ceilan : They valued them because they were no 
bigger than ones Fist, and differed in kind from the common 
Monkeys ; they have a flat Forehead, big round Eyes, which are 
yellow and clear like the Eyes of some Cats ; their Snout is 
very sharp, and the inside of theit Ears yellow ; they have no 
Tail, and their Hair is like to that of other Apes. When I 
looked upon them, they stood upon their hind Feet, and em- 
braced one another often, eying the People stedfastly without 
being scared ; their Master called them wdld Men. 



At Surrat L was told great matters of the Pagods of Elora 
and therefore I had a mind to see them, so that so soon as I 
came to Aurangeabad, I sought out for an Interpreter to go 
along with me ; but it being impossible for me to find one, I 
resolved to take my Servants with me, and make that little 
Journey alone. And because my Oxen were weary, I hired a 
little Waggon to carry me thither, and took two Pions more 
besides those I had : I gave all the four, half a Crown Piece, 
and leaving my Men to look after my Baggage, I parted about 
nine of the Clock at Night. They told me that there was some 
danger of meeting Robbers, but being well Armed, (as my Men 
also were,) I was not much concerned ; and I chose rather to run 
some little risk, than to miss an opportunity of seeing those 
Pagods, which are so renowned all over the Indies : We 
marched softly^ because of the tmevenness of the Country, and 
about two of the Clock in the Morning, came near to Doltahad,^ 
where we rested till five. 

We had a rugged Mountain to ascend, and very hard for 
the Oxen to climb up, though the way cut out of the Rock, be 
almost every where as smooth, as if it were Paved with Free- 
stone : It had on the side a Wall three Foot thick, and four 
Foot high, to hinder the Waggons and Chariots from falling 
down into the Plain, if ^they chanced* to be overthrown. My 



Pious thrust forward the Waggon with all their force, and con- 
tributed as much as the Oxen to get it up to the top of the Hill. 

When I arrived there, I discovered a spacious Plain of well 
cultivated Land, with a great many Villages, and Bourgs amidst 
Gardens, plenty of Fruit-trees and Woods : We Travelled at 
least for the space of an hour over Plow’d Land, where I saw Fair Tombs 
very fair Tombs^ several stories high, and covered with domes 
built of large grayish Stones, and about half an hour after 
seven, having passed by a great Tduquie/ I alighted near a 
large Court paved with the same Stones. I went in, but was A large 
obliged to put off my Shoes ; at first I found a little Mosque, where 
where I saw the Bismillah of the Mahometans writ over the one must 
Door ; the signification of that Inscription is. In the Name of 
God, There was no light into the Mosque, but what entered by 
that Door ; but there were many Lamps burning in, it, and 
several old Men that were there, invited me to come in, which 
I did. I saw nothing rare in it, but two Tombs covered with 
Carpet ; And I was extreamly troubled for want of an Inter- 
preter, for else I had known a great many particulars, that I 
could not be informed of. 

A little farther Westward, my Pions and I were above half 
an hour clambering down a Rock, into another very low Plain. 

The first thing I saw were very high Chappels, and I entered 

into a Porch cut out of the Rock, which is of a dark grayish 

Stone, and on each side of that Porch, there is a Gigantick 

figure of a Man cut out of the natural Rock,® and the Walls are Gigantick 

covered all over with other figures in relief, cut in the same c^ut^n 

manner. Having passed that Porch, I found a Square Court,’' the Rock. 

an hundred paces every way : The Walls are the natural Rock, 

which in that place is six Fathom high, Perpendicular to the 

Ground-plat, and cut as smooth and even, as if it were Plaster 

smoothed with a Trewel. Before all things, I resolved to view 

the outside of that Court, and I perceived that these Walls, or 

rather the Rock hangs, and that it is hollowed underneath ; so 

that the void space makes a Gallery almost two Fathom high, ^ ' 

and four or five broad; It hath the Rock for Ground, and is 

supported only by a row of Pillars cut in the Rock, and distant 

from the floor of the: Gallery, about the length of a Fathom, so 

that it appears as if there were two Galleries. Everything 

there, is extreamly well cut, and it is really, a wonder to see 

so great a Mass in the Air, which seems so slenderly under- ^ 

propped, that one can hardly forbear to shiver at first entering Rock in the 

into it. 

In the middle of the Court there is a Chappel, whose Walls Diverse 
inside and outside are covered with figures in relief. They ^ 

represent several sorts of Beasts, as Griffons, and others cut in ^ chappel. 
the Rock : On each side of the Chappel there is a P3rramide lovely 
or Obeli^,^ at th^ Ba§i§ than thos^ of Rome^ but they are Pyramid's* 




An Obelisk 
with an 

The Pagods 
of Elara, 

not sharp pointed, and are cut out of the very Rpck, having some 
Characters upon them, which I know not. The Obelisk on the 
left hand, has by it an Elephant as big as the Eife, cut out in 
the Rock, as all the rest is ; but his Trunck has been broken. 
At the farther end of the Court, I found two Stair-cases cut in 
the Rock, and I went up with a little. Bramen, who appeared, to 
have a great deal of Wit : Being at the top, I perceived a kind 
of Platform, (if the space of a Teague and a half, or two 
Teagues, may be called a Platform) full of stately Tombs, Chap- 
pels and Temples, which they call Pagods, cut in the Rock. 
The little Bramen led me to all the Pagods, which the small 
time I had allowed me to see : With a Cane he shew’d me 
all the Figures of these Pagods, told me their Names, and by 
some Indian words which I understood, I perceived very well, 
that he gave me a short accoimt of the Histories of them ; but 
seeing he understood not the Persian Tongue, nor I the Indian 
I could make nothing at alP of it. 

A. great 
built in the 
very Rock. 

I entered into a great Temple built in the Rock it has 
a flat Roof, and adorned with Figures in the inside, as the 
Walls of it are: In that Temple there are eight rows of Pillars 
in length, and six in breadth, which are about a Fathom distant 
from one another. 

The Temple is divided into three parts : The Body of it, 
(which takes up two thirds and a half of the length,) is the first 
part, and is of an equal breadth all over ; the Quire, which is 
narrower, makes the second part ; And the third, which is the 
end of the Temple, is the least, and looks only like a Chappel ; 
^Gigantick in the middle whereof, upon a very high Basis, there is a Gigan- 
tick Idol, with a Head as big as a Drum, and the rest propor- 
tionable. All the Walls of the Chappel are covered with Gigan- 
tick Figures in relief, and on the outside aU round the Temple, 
Figures of there are a great many little Chappels adorned with Figures of 
Meuaud an ordinary bigness" in relief, representing Men and Women, 
women. embracing one another. 

Reaving this place, I went into several other Temples of 
dffierent structure, built also in the Rock, and full of Figures, 
Pilasters, and Pillars : I saw three Temples, one over another, 
which have but one Front all three but it is divided into 
three Stories, supported with as many rows of Pillars, and in 
every Story, there is a great door for the Temple ; the Stair-cases 
are cut out of the Rock. I saw but one Temple that was 
Arched, and therein I found a Room, whereof the chief Orna- 
For above ^ Well, cut in the Rock, and full of Spring- 

two I^^gues water, that rises within two or three foot of the brim of the 

numbers of Pagods aU along the Rock, 
to be seen there is nothing else to be seen for above two Reagues : 

but Pagods, They are all Dedicated to gome Heathen Saints, and the Statue 

Juggler’s feat 



of the false Saint, (to which every one of them is Dedicated,) 
stands upon a Basis at the farther end of the Pagod. 

In these Pagods I saw several Santo-'s or Sogues^^^ without 
Cloaths, except on the .parts of the Body which ought to be 
hid : They w^ere all covered with Ashes, and I was told that 
they let their Hair grow as long as it could. If I could have 
stayed longer in those quarters, I should have seen the rest 
of the Pagods, and used so much diligence, as to have found 
out some body, that might have exactly informed me of every 
thing ; but it behoved me to rest satisfied as to that, with the 
information I had from the Gentiles of Aurangeabad, who upon 
my return told me, that the constant Tradition was, that all The time 
these Pagods, great and small, with their Works and Ornaments, when these 
were made by Giants, but that in what time it was not known. made. 

However it be,, if one consider that number of spacious 
Temples, full of Pillars and Pilasters, and so many thousands 
of Figures, all cut out of a natural Rock, it may be truly said, Multitudes 
that they are Works surpassing humane force; and that 
least, (in the Age wherein they have been made,) the Men have 
not been altogether Barbarous, though the Architecture and 
Sculpture be not so delicate as with us. I spent only two hours 
in seeing what now I have described, and it may easily be 
judged, that I needed several days to have examined all the rari- 
ties of that place ; but seeing I wanted time, and that it behoved, 
me to make haste, if I intended to find my company still at 
Aurangeabad, I broke off my curiosity, and I must confess it 
was with regret : I therefore got up into my Waggon again, 
which I found at a Village called Rougequi,^^ from whence I Rougequi. 
went to Sultcunpoumj^^ a little Town, the Mosques and Houses 
whereof are built of a blackish Free-stone, and the Streets paved 
with the same. Not far from thence I found that so difficult 
descent, which I mentioned ; and at length, after three hours 
march from the time we left Elora, we rested an hour under 
Trees, near the Walls of Boltdbad, which I considered as much 
as I could. 



This Town was the Capital of Balagate, before it was i^oltabad. 
conquered by the Moguls : It belonged then to Decan, and was 
a place of great Trade ; but at present the Trade is at Aurangea- 
bad, whither King Auran-Zeb used his utmost endeavours to trade trans- 
transport it, when he was Governour thereof. The Town is ported from 


iNbiAN Travels of thEvenoT 

Doltabad to 



A Hill 
in Doltabad 





A fair War, 


indifferently big^ it readies from East to West, and is much 
longer than broad ; it is Walled round with Free-stone, and 
has Battlements and Towers mounted with Cannon. But 
though the Walls and Towers be good, yet that is not the thing 
that makes it accounted the strongest place belonging to the 
Mogul: It is an Hill of an oval Figure, which the Town 
encompasses on all sides, strongly Fortified, and having a Wall 
of a natural smooth Rock, that environs it at the bottom, with 
a good Citadel on the top, whereon the Kings Palace stands. 
This is all I could see from the place. Where I was without the 
Town : But I learnt afterwards from a Frenchman who had 
lived two years therein ; that besides the Citadel, there are three 
other Forts in the Place, at the foot of the Hill, of which one is 
called Barcot, the other Marcot, and the third Calacot,^ The 
word Cot in Indian, signifies a Fort ; and by reason of all these 
Fortifications, the Indians think that place Impregnable. I 
spent two hours and a half in coming from Doltabad to 
Aurangeahad, which are but two Teagues and a half distant. 
This was the third time that I crossed this last Town, and 
about an hour after, I came to the place where my company 
Encamped : They waited only for a Billet from the Customer^ 
to be gone, but it could not be had that day, because it was 
Friday, and the Customer (who was a Mahometan) observed that 
day with great exactness. 

It is threescore® Teagues and more from Aurangeahad to 
Cahar,^ which is the last Bourg or Village belonging to the 
Mogul, on the Frontiers of the Kingdom of Golconda. We 
found eight Towns, great and small, before we came to Calvar, 
to wit, Ambar, Achty, Lasana, Nander, Lisa, Dantapour, 
Indour, Condelualy, and Indelvay ;® and that Countrey is so 
. Populous^ that we continually met with Bourgs and Villages on 
our way. An hour and an halfs march from Aurangeahad, we 
encamped under the biggest War-itee, that I have seen in the 
Indies : It is exceedingly high, hath some branches ten Fathom 
long, and the circumference of it, is above three hundred® of 
my paces. The branches of it are so loaded with Pigeons, that 
it were an easie matter to fill a great many Pigeon-houses with 
them, if one durst take them ; but that is forbidden, because 
they are preserved for the Prince’s pleasure. There is a Pagod 
under that Tree, and Many Tombs, and hard by a Garden 
planted wdth Citron-trees. 

We saw a stately Tanquie at the Town of Ambar, it is 
square, and on three sides faced with Free-stone, with fair steps 
to go dowm to it ; In the middle of the fourth side there is a 
Divan, that rUnS out into the WAter about two Fathom ; it is 
covered with Stone, and supported by sixteen Pillars a Fathom 
high : It stands at the foot of a fair Souse, from whence they 
go down into that Divan, by two fine pair of Stairs at the sides 


of it, there to take the Air and Divert themselves. Near the 
Divan there is a little Pagod under Ground, which receives day- 
light by the door, and by a square airie, and many Devout 
People are there, ^ because of the convenience of the Water. On 
the Road we met with a great many Troopers who were going 
to Aurangeabad, where there was a Rendez-vous appointed for 
an Army, which was to march against Viziapour.^ 

Five Deagues from the Town of Nander, near a Village Nander. 
called Paioda,^ we had the Diversion of seeing Feats^° of Extra- 
Agility of Body ; There was a great concourse of People, and 
we had a place given us, on an Eminence, under the shade of a Agility of 
great Tree, from whence we might easily see all the Plays. Body. 
The Tumblers did all that the Rope-dancers of Europe do, and 
much more : These People are a supple as an Eel, theyTl turn 
their whole body into a Bowl, and then others rowP^ them with 
the hand. The finest tricks were performed by a Girl of thirteen 
or fourteen years of Age, who Played for the space of two hours 
and more. This amongst other Feats of Agility which she didj 
appeared to me extreamly difBcult : She sat down upon the 
Ground, holding cross-ways in her Mouth a long cutting Sword ; 
with the right Hand she took hold of her left Foot, brought 
it up to her Breast, then to her left side, and without letting 
go that Foot, she put her Head underneath her right Arm, and 
at the same time, brought her Foot down along the small of her 
Back : Then she made it pass under her sitting, and over the 
right Deg four or five times without resting, being always in 
danger of cutting her Arm or Deg with the edge of the Sword : 

And she did the same thing with the left Hand and right Foot. 

Whilst she was shewing of that trick, they dug a hole in 
the Ground two foot deep^ which they filled with Water. So 
soon as the Girl had rested a little, they threw into the hole a 
little Hook made like a Clasp, for her to fetch out with her 
Nose, without touching it with her Hands : She put her two 
Feet on the sides of the Pit^ and turned her self backwards, 
upon her two Hands, which she placed on the sides of the hole 
where her Feet had stood. Then she dived headlong into the 
Water, to search after the Hook with her Nose : The first 
time she missed it, but the pit being filled full of Water again^ 
she plunged backwards into it a second time, and upholding 
her self only with the left hand, she gave a sign with the right 
hand, that she had found what she ,sought for, and she raised 
her self again with the Clasp at her Nose. 

Then a Man took this Girl, and setting her upon his Head> 
ran at full speed through the place, she in the mean time not 
tottering in the least : Setting her down, he took a large 
Earthen pot, like to those round Pitchers that the Indian Maids 
make use to draw Water in ; and put it upon his Head with 
the mouth upwards. The Girl got on the top of it, and he 



Jla a Town. 
Indour a 

carried about the place with the same security, as he had 
done without the Pot ; Which he did twice more, having put the 
Pot with the mouth downwards once, and then with the mouth 
side-ways. Phe same trick he shewed in a Bason wherein he 
turned the Pot three different ways : Then he took the Bason 
and turned its bottom up upon his Head, with the Pitcher over 
it. The Girl shewed the same tricks upon it. And at length, 
having put into the Bason upon his Head, a little wooden 
Truncheon a foot high, and as big as ones Arm, he caused the 
Girl to be set upright upon that Stake, and carried her about 
as before ,' sometimes she only stood upon one Foot, taking 
the other in her Hand ; and sometimes she hurkled down upon 
her Heels, nay, and sat do\vn, though the carrier in the mean 
time, went on as formerly. Then the Man took the Bason^® 
from under the Stake, and put it on the top of it, where the 
Girl likewise appeared: Then changeing the Play, he put 
into the Boson four Pins, or little Stakes of Wood, four Inches 
high, set square-ways with a Board upon each of them, two 
Fingers breadth, and upon these Boards four other Pins or 
little Stakes, with as many Boards more, making in all, two 
Stories over the Bason, supported with the great Stake or Pillar : 
And that Girl getting upon the upper Story, he ran with her 
through the place with the same swiftness as at other times, 
she not appearing in the least, afraid of falling, though the Wind 
was high. These People shew’d a hundred other tricks of 
Agility, which I shall not describe, that I may not be tedious ; 
only I must say, that the finest I saw Acted, were performed 
by Girls. We gave them at parting three Roupies, for which 
they gave us a thousand Blessings : We sent for them at Night 
to our Camp, where they diverted us again, and gained two 
Roupies more. 

From thence we went to the Towns of Ila and Derdapour, 
and some days after we arrived at Indour,^* which belongs to 
a Raja, who owns the Mogul no more than he thinks fit ; He 
is maintained by the King of Golconda,^^ and in time of War, 
he sides always with the strongest. He would have had us pay 
two Roupies a Waggon ; but after much dispute, we payed but 
one, and passed on. We came before a Village called 
Bisetpoury and being informed, that near to that place, 
on the top of a Hill, there was a very fair Pagod, we alighted 
and went on Foot to see it. 




That Pagod is called Chitanagar ^ : It is an oblong square The Paged 
Temple, forty five Paces in length, twenty eight in breadth, and 
three Fathom high ; it is built of a Stone of the same kind as 
the Theban, It hath a Basis five Foot high all round, charged^ The fair 
with Bends and Wreaths, and adorned with Roses and Notch- 
ings, as finely cut, as if they had been done in Europe, It hath 
a lovely frontispiece, with its Architrave, Cornish and Fronton ; The Archi- 
and is Beautified with Pillars, and lovely Arches,® with the 
Figures of Beasts in relief, and some with Figures of Men. ^ 

Then we viewed the inside ; the contrivance of that Temple is Chitmiagar. 
like that of Flora, it hath a Body, a Quire, ^ and a Chappel at contri- 
the end. I could perceive nothing in the Body and Quire, but vance of the 
the four Walls ; though the Lustre of the Stones they are built 
of, renders the prospect very agreeable : The Floor is of the ^ ^ 
same Stone, and in the middle of it there is a great Rose well 
cut. This place like the other Pagods, receives light only by 
the door : On each side of the Wall of the Quire, there is 
square hole a foot large, which slopes like a Port-hole for a A Place for 
Piece of Od’nance, and in the middle of the thickness of it, a E^enance. 
long Iron skrew, as big as ones Leg, which enters Perpendi- 
cularly into the Wall like a Bar, and I was informed, that these 
Irons served to fasten Ropes to, for supporting of those who 
performed voluntary Abstinence for seven days or longer. In 
the middle of the Chappel at the end, there is an Altar of the 
same Stone as the Walls are of ; it is cut into several Stories, 
and Adorned all over with Indentings, Roses, and other Embel- 
lishments of Architecture, and on each side below, there are 
three Elephants Heads. There hath been a Pedestal prepared 
of the same Stone the Altar is of, to set the Idol of the Pagod 
Upon ; but seeing the building was not finished, the Idol hath 
not been set up. 

When I came down, I perceived at the foot of the Hill, on 
the East side, a building, which I was not told of ; I went A fair Build- 
thither alone with my Pions, but found nothing but the begin- 
nings of a Palace, the Walls whereof were of the same Stone 
as the Pagod. The Threshold of each Door is of one piece of 
Stone, a Fathom and a half long : It is all Built of very great 
Stones, and I measured one of them, that was above four 
Fathom long. Near to that Building, there is a Reservatory as 
broad as the Seine at Paris ; but so long, that from the highest 
place I went to, I could not discover the length of it. In that fatory. ^ 
Reservatory, there is another little Tanquie, seven or eight 
Fathom square, and Walled in : This Water bring below the 
House, there is large pair pf Stairs to go down to it ; and 



about an hundred and fifty paces forward, in the great Reser- 
vatory opposite to the House, there is a square Divan or 
Quiochque, about eight or ten Fathom wide, the Pavement 
whereof is raised about a foot above the Water. Fhat Divan 
is built and covered with the same Stone, that the House is 
built of : It stands upon sixteen Pillars, a Fathom and a half 
high, that’s to say, each Front on four. 

Seeing my Company kept on their March, I spent but half 
an hour in viewing that Building, which very well deserves 
many, as well for examining the design of it, the nature of 
the Stones, their Cut, Polishing and Bigness ; as for consider- 
TheArchi- ing the Architecture, which is of a very good contrivance,^ 
^Chitamgar though it cannot ‘absolutely be said to be of any of our 

of a very ^ Orders, yet it comes very near the Dorick. The Temple and 
goodcoutri- Palace are called Chiianagar, that is to say, the Dady Chita, 
CMta‘ because the Pagod is Dedicated to Chita the Wife of Ram : 
^ncampings I learnt that both had been begun by a Rich Raspoute, who 
Road from Temple and' House imperfect. After all, I 

Aurangea- observed, as well in the Ancient, as Modern Buildings of the 

had to Indies, that the Architectors make the Basis, Body, and Capital 

a var. q£ Pillars, of one single piece. 

Tchequel Tchequel Cane Leag. and a half from Aurangeahad. Amhar a 

Cane, Town, Rovilag-herd 6 Leag. from TchequeUCane, Daholquera 5 Leag. 

from Rovilag-herd, ^ Achti a Town, 8 Leag. from Dabolquera, Manod 
e Leag. from Achti, Parhoni a Town, 5 Leag. from Manod, PournOf 
nadi a River. Lazana a Town, 6 Leag. from Parboni. Nander a Town, 
5 Leag. from Lazana, Guenga Ganges a River, Patoda a Town, 5 
Leag. from Nander, Condelvai 9 Leag. from Patoda. Mandgera a River, 
Lila a Town. Dentapour a Town. Indore a Town, 9 Leag. from Con- 
delvai. Coulan a River. Indelvai a Town, 4 leag. from Indour. Calvar 
4 I^ag. froni Indelvai,^ 

We past next by the Town of Indelvai, of which nothing 
is to be said in particular, but that a great many Swords, 
Daggers, and Tances are made there, which are vended all 
over the Indies, and that the Iron is taken out of a Mine near 
the Town,^ in the Mountain of Calagatch.^ The Town (at that 
time,) was almost void of Inhabitants, for they were gone 
farther up into the Country, because of the Brother of Sivagy,^ 
who made inrodes to the very Town. We Encamped beyond 
Indelvai, and next day being the six and twentieth of March, 
(having after four hours March passed over the pleasantest 
Hills in the World, by reason of the different kinds of Trees 
that cover them,) we arrived at Calvar which is the last Village 
of the Moguls Countrey. It is distant from Aurangeahad, about 
fourscore and three Leagues, which we Travelled in a fort- 
nights time. 

The rest of the Road to Golconda I shall describe, when 
I treat of that Kingdom. The way from Aurangeahad, that 
I h^vo been ppw speakin|: of^ is diversified by Hills mi 



Plains : All the Plains are good Ground, some sow’d with Rice, 
and the rest planted with Cotton-trees. Tamarms, Wars, Cad- 
jours, Manguiers, Quesous, and others ; and all Watered with 
several Rivers, which turn and wdnd every way, and with 
Tanquies also, out of which they draw the Water by Oxen : 

And I saw one of these Reservatories at Dentapour, which is a 

Musquet-shot over, and seven or eight hundred Geometrical 

paces long. We were incommoded during our whole Journey 

almost with I<ightenings, Whirle-winds, Rains, and Hail-stones, Very large 

some as big as a Pullets Egg and when we were troubled ^^^^-stones, 

with none of these, we heard dull Thunderings, that lasted 

whole Days and Nights. We met every w’^here Troops of Horse The Moguls 

designed against Viziapour, the King whereof, refused to send 

the Great Mogul, the Tribute which he used to pay to him. Viziapour. 

To conclude with this Province, it is to be observed, that 
all the Rocks and Mountains I have mentioned, are only depen- 
dances of that Mountain which is called Balagate, which accord- The Moun- 
ing to the Indian Geographers, divides India into the two parts 
of North and South, as that of Guate, according to the same 
Geographers, environs it almost on all hands, 



Telenga} was heretofore the principal Province of Decan, ThePro- 
and reached as far as the Portuguese Lands towards Goa,^ 

Viziapour being the Capital City thereof : But since the Mogul ^ ' ’ 
became Master of the Northern places of this Countrey, and 
of the Towns of Beder^ and Cation,^ it hath been divided Calion. 
betwixt him and the King of Decan, who is only called King 
of Viziapour, and it is reckoned amongst the Provinces of 
Indostan, which obey the Great Mogul. It is bordered on the The borders 
East by the Kingdom of Golconda on Maslipatan side, on the Telenga, 
West by the Province of Baglana and Viziapour, on the North 
by Balagate, and on the South by Bisnagar.^ The Capital City 
of this Province is at present Beder, which belonged to Balagate 
when it had Kings and it hath sometime belonged to Decan. 

Beder is a great Town it is encompassed with Brick- 
Walls which have Battlements, and at certain distances Towers ; 
they are mounted with great Cannon, some whereof have the 
mouth three Foot wide. There is commonly in this place a 
Garison of Three thousand Men, half Horse and half Foot, Great Guns, 
with Seven hundred Gunners ; the Garison is kept in good order, 
because of the importance of the place against Decan, and that 
they are always afraid of a surprize. The Governour lodges in a 




The Train 
of the 
of Beder, 

The Great 
in Telenga. 

The wash- 
ings of the 

The feedin 
of tiie 

The Diet 
of some 

Castle without the Town/ it is a rich Government, and he who 
commanded it when I was there, was Brother-in-law to King 
Chdgean, Auran-Zebs Father but having since desired the 
Government of Br amp our, (which is worth more) he had it, 
because in the last War, that Governour had made an Army of 
the King of Viziapours, raise the Siege from before Beder, 

Some time after, I met the new Governour upon the Road 
to Beder, who was a Persian of a good aspect, and pretty well 
stricken in years ; he was carried in a Palanquin amidst Five 
hundred Horse-men well mounted and cloathed, before whom 
marched several Men on foot, carrying blew Banners charged 
with flames of Gold, and after them came seven Elephants. 
The Governours Palanquin was followed with several others full 
of Women, and covered with red Searge, and there were two 
little Children in one that was open. The Bambous of all these 
Palanquin, were covered with Plates of Silver chamfered ; after 
them came many Chariots full of Women, two of which were 
drawn by white Oxen, almost six Foot high ; and last of all, 
came the Waggons with the Baggage, and several Camels 
guarded by Troopers. This Province of Telenga is worth above 
Ten millions a Year to the Great Mogul. 

No where are the Gentiles more Superstitious than here ; 
they have a great many Pagods with Figures of Monsters, that 
can excite nothing but Horror instead of Devotion, unless in 
those who are deluded with the Religion. These Idolaters use 
frequent Washings ; Men, Women and Children go to the River 
as soon as they are out of Bed ; and the rich have Water brought 
them to wash m. When Women lose their Husbands, they are 
conducted thither by their Friends, who comfort them ; and 
they who are brought to Bed, use the same custom, almost as 
soon as they are delivered of their Children, and indeed, there 
is no Countrey where Women are so easily brought to Bed ; 
when they come out of the Water, a Bramen dawbs their Fore- 
head with a Composition made of Saffron, and the Powder of 
white Sawnders® dissolved in Water, then they return home, 
where they eat a slight Breakfast ; and seeing they must never 
eat unless they be washed, some return to the Tanquie or River, 
about noon ; and others perform their Ablutions at home, before 
they go to Dinner. 

r As they have a special care not to eat any thing but what 
is dressed by a Gentile of their Caste, so they seldom eat any 
where but at home, and commonly they dress their Victuals 
themselves, buying their Flower, Rice, and such other Pro- 
visions in the Shops of the Banians, for they’ll not buy any 
where else. 

These Banians (as wdl as the Bramens and Courmis) feed 
on Butter, Pulse, Herbs, Sugar and Fruit ; they eat neither 
Fish nor Flesh, and drint nothing but Water, wherein they 

Of the province op telenga iis 

put Coffee and Tea ; they use no dishes, for fear some body 
of another Religion or Tribe, may have made use of the Dish, 
out of which they might eat ; and to supply that, they put their 
Victuals into large Teaves of Trees, which they throw away 
when they are empty, nay, there are some of them who eat 
alone, and will not suffer neither their Wives nor Children 
at Table with them. 

Nevertheless, I was informed, that in that Countrey one The 
certain day of the year, the Bramens eat Hogs Flesh f but they 
do it privately for fear of Scandal, because the Rules of their eatHogs ^ 
Sect enjoyn®^ them so to do, and I believe it is the same all over Flesh, 
the Indies, 

There is another day of rejoycing, whereon they make a A Cow 
Cow of Paste, which they fill full of Honey, and then make a 
fashion of killing it, and break it to pieces ; the Honey which 
distills on all sides, represents the Blood of the Cow, and they 
eat the Paste instead of the Flesh. I could not learn the 
Original of that Ceremony ; as for the Catris or Raspouies, 
except that they eat no Pullets, they (as the rest of the inferiour 
Castes do) make use of all kinds of Fish and Flesh, unless it be 
the Cow, which they all have in veneration. 

The Gentiles generally are great Rasters, and none of The ^ 
them let a fortnight pass over without mortifying “themselves 
by Abstinence, and then they Fast four and twenty hours ; but 
that is but the ordinary Fast, for there are a great many Gentiles 
(and especially Women) who will fast six or seven days 
and they say, there are some that will Fast a whole month, 
without eating any more than a handful of Rice a day, and 
others that will eat nothing at all, only drink Water, in which 
they boyl a Root, called Criata,^^ which grows towards Cambay e, criata, a 
and is good against many distempers ; it makes the Water bitter, Root, 
and strengthens the Stomach. When a Woman is at the end 
of one of these long Fasts, the Bramen her director, goes with 
his companions to the House of the penitent, beats a Drum 
there, and having permitted her to eat, returns home again. 

There are such Fasts many times among the Vartias, the Segues, 
and other religious Gentiles of that Province, and they accom- 
pany them with several other mortifications. 

Now I have mentioned these Religious Gentiles, I would Religious 
have it observed, that in all the Indies there is no religious 
Community amongst the Gentiles, belonging particularly to one 
Caste or Tribe: For Example, There is not any, whereinto 
none are admitted but Bramens or Raspouies ; if there be a con- 
vent of Sogues any where, the Community will consist of 
Bramens, Raspouies, Comris, Banians and other Gentiles ; and 
it is the same in a convent of Vartias, or a company of Faquirs, 

I have already treated of both these, as occasion offered. 

The yearly 
Revenue of 



border on 
the Moguls 




made over 
to the 


II Morro di 









The Province of Baglana^ is neither so large, nor do’s it 
yield so great a Revenue as the other nineteen ; for it pays the 
Great Mogul a year but Seven hundred and fifty thousand 
French Livres ; it is bordered by the Countrey of Telenga, 
Guzerai, Balagaie, and the Mountains of Sivagi ; the Capital 
Town of it is called Mauler.^ Before the Moguls, this Province 
was also of Decan, and at present it belongs to Mogolistan ; by 
it the Portuguese border upon the Moguls Countrey, and their 
Territories begin in the Countrey of Daman. 

The Town of DamarP that belongs to them, is one and 
twenty Leagues from Surrat, which is commonly Travelled in 
three days. It is indifferently big,^ fortified with good Walls, 
and an excellent Citadel ; the Streets of it are fair and large, 
and the Churches and Houses built of a white Stone, which 
makes it a pleasant Town. There are several Convents of 
Religious Christians in it ; it depends on Goa, as the other 
Portuguese Towns do, especially as to Spirituals, and the Bishop 
keeps a Vicar General there. It lies at the entry of the Gulf of 
Camhaye ; and the Portuguese have Slaves there of both Sexes,® 
which work and procreate only for their Masters, to whom the 
Children belong, to be disposed of at their pleasure ; from 
Daman to Bassaim it is eighteen Leagues : This last Town 
lies in the height of about nineteen Degrees and a half, (upon 
the Sea,) being Walled round, and almost as big as Daman ; 
it hath Churches, and a College of Jesuits as Daman hath. 

From Bassaim to Bombaim,^ it is six Leagues ; this last 
Town hath a good Port, and was by the Portuguese made over 
to the English, upon the Marriage of the Infanta of Portugal 
with the King of England, in the year 1662 ; it is six Leagues 
more from Bomhaim to ChaouL The Port of Chaoul is diffi- 
cult to enter, but very safe and secure from all foul weather ; it 
is a good Town, and defended by a strong Citadel upon the 
top of a Hill, called by the Europeans, II Morro di Ciaul F it 
was taken by the Portuguese, in the year One thousand five 
hundred and seven. 

From Chaoul to Dahul,^ it is eighteen good Leagues. 
Dahul is an ancient Town, in the Latitude of seventeen degrees 
and a half ; it has its Water from a Hill hard by, and the 
Houses of it are low, it being but weakly fortified ; I am told 
Sivagi hath seized it,® notwithstanding its Castle, as also Raja- 
pour, Vingourla, Rasigar,^^ and some other places upon that 
coast of Decan. It is almost fifty Leagues from Dabul to Goa, 
which, is in Viziapour, 



As all the People of that coast are much given to Seafaring, 
so the Gentiles offer many times Sacrifices to the Sea, especially sacrifice ta 
when any of their Kindred or Friends are abroad upon a Voyage, the Sea. 
Once I saw that kind of Sacrifice, a Woman carried in her hands 
a Vessel made of Straw, about three Foot long, it w^as covered 
with a Vail three Men playing upon the Pipe and Drum ac- 
companied her, and two others had each on their head a Basket 
full of Meat and Fruits ; being come to the Sea-side, they threw 
into the Sea the Vessel of Straw, after they had made some 
Prayers, and left the Meat they brought with them upon the 
Shoar, that the poor and others might come and eat it. I have 
seen the same Sacrifice performed by Mahometans. 

l^he Gentiles offer another at the end of September, and Opening of 
that they call to open the Sea, because no body can Sail upon 
their Seas from May till that time ; but that Sacrifice is peformed 
with no great Ceremonies, they only throw Cocoas into the Sea 
and every one throws one. The only thing in that Action that 
is pleasant, is to see all the young Boys leap into the Water 
to catch the Cocoas ; and whilst they strive to have and keep 
them, shew a hundred tricks and feats of Agility. 

In this Province (as in the rest of Decan) the Indians 
Marry their Children very young, and make them Cohabit The 
much sooner that they do in many places of the Indies ; they 
Celebrate Matrimony at the Age of four, five or six Years, and^ ^ ^ 
suffer them to bed together when the Husband is ten Years old, 
and the Wife eight but the Women who have Children so 
young, soon leave off Child-bearing, and commonly do not 
conceive after thirty Years of Age, but become extreamly 
wrinkly ; and therefore there are places in the Indies where 
the young Married couple are not suffered to lye together before 
the Man be fourteen Years old : After all,^^ a Gentile marries 
at any Age, and cannot have several Wives at a time as the An Didian 
Mahometans have when his Wife dies, he may take another, cannot have 
and so successively, provided she he takes be a Maid, and of wives at a 
his own Caste. time. 

There are many Ceremonies to be seen at the Weddings Great 
in Indostan^^^ because the Gentiles are numerous there ; there numbers of 
are certain times (when in great Towns) Five or six hundred ^^xndo^^n 
are Celebrated a day, and nothing is to be seen in the Streets 
but Inclosures ; these Wedding Inclosures are just as big as the Wedding 
Front of the Husbands House to the Street, they are made of inclosures. 
Poles and Canes hung in the inside, and covered with Tapistry 
or Cloaths, to preserve the Guests from the heat of the Sun, and 
there they feast and make merry. 

But before the Wedding Feast, they must make the usual The 
Cavalcade through, the Town ; Persons of Quality perform it in Cavalcade 
the manner I described in the Chapter of Surrat, and the wedding 
Citizens with far less Pomp. This is their custom, First appear 


Indian tRAvfiLs of TMEVfiNOt 


of the 

Women of 
the Indies 

They are 
to bed. 

a great many People playing on Instruments, some on Flutes, 
others on Timbals, and some have a long kind of Drums like 
narrow Barrels, which hang about their Neck ; and besides 
these, others hold Copper-cups, which they strike one against 
another, and thereby render a very bad Harmony ; though 
these Instruments together make a great noise, several little 
Boys of five, six or seven years of Age, come after on Horse- 
back, and Children two or three years Old in little Chariots, 
about a Foot high, or somewhat more, drawn by Goats or 
Calves and after them, the Husband appears upon the fairest 
Horse he can have, with a Coco in his hand ; he is Cloathed in 
his best Apparel, his head covered with a Garland of Flowers, 
or a Cap in form of a Mitre, adorned with Painters Gold, and 
a Fringe that reaches down to the lower part of his Face ; he 
hath about him a great many Banians on Foot, who have their 
Coif and Caha dawbed over with Saffron, and are mingled with 
those that carry UmhrelWs and Banners^ who make a great 
shew with them ; after the bridegroom hath in this equipage 
made many turns about the Town, he goes to the House of his 
Bride, and there the Ceremony is performed. 

A Bramen having said some Prayers over both, puts a 
Cloath betwixt the Husband and the Wife, and orders the 
Husband with his naked foot to touch the naked foot of his 
Wife, and that' Ceremony compleats the Marriage, the Consum- 
mation whereof is delayed till a competent Age, if the Parties 
be too young, after that, the Bride is conducted with her Face 
uncovered to the Bride-grooms Lodgings ; her Train (which 
consists of several pieces of Stuff of different Colours,) is 
carried by Men j and amongst other pieces of Houshold Furni- 
ture,^® they carry a Cradle for the Child that is to be born of 
that Marriage, Drums and Trumpets going before all the Proce- 
ssion. The rich make their Cavalcades by Torch-light in the 
night time for greater State, and are better accompanied. When 
they come to the Bride-grooms House, the Feasting begins, and 
because the Husbands are obliged to treat most of their Caste, 
the Solemnity lasts seven or eight days. 

The Women all over the Indies are fruitful, because they 
live very frugally as well as their Husbands, and they are so 
easily brought to Bed, that some of them go abroad the same 
day they have been Delivered, to wash themselves in the River. 
Their Children are brought up with the same facility ; they go 
naked till they be seven Years old, and when they are two 
or three Months old, they suffer them to crawl upon the ground 
till they be able to go when they are dirty they wash them, 
and by degrees they come to walk as streight as ours do, with- 
out the torture of Swathing-bands or Clouts. 






The Indian Wives have a far different fate from that ofxheWidow- 
their Husbands, for they cannot provide themselves of a second, hood of the 
when their first Husband is dead ; they dare not Marry again, 
they have their Hair cut off for ever after and though they be 
but five or six years old (they are obliged) if they will not burn 
themselves, to live in perpetual Widowhood, which happens 
very often ; but then they live wretchedly, for they incur the 
contempt of their Family and Caste, as being afraid of death ; 
what Vertue soever they make appear, they, can never regain 
the esteem of their Relations, and it is rare (though they be 
young and beautiful,) that they ever find another Husband ; 
not but that some of them transgress the Law of Widowhood, The glory 
but they are turned out of the Tribe when it comes to be ^ Widow- 
known ; and such of them as are resolved to Marry again, have 
recourse to the Christians or Mahometans, and then they being burnt 
forsake Gentilisme. In fine. The Gentiles make the glory of 
Widowhood, to consist in being burnt with the Bodies of their 
Husbands f when one asks them the cause of it, they say it is 
the custom ; they pretend it was always so in the Indies, and so 
they hide their cruel Jealousie under the vail of Antiquity. 

When a Heathen Man or Woman has committed a sin that for 

makes them be expelled the Caste, as if a Woman had lay’n \^man^ho 
with a Mahometan, she must (if she would be readmitted into hath sinned, 
the Tribe) live upon nothing for a certain time, but on the 
Grain that is found amongst Cow-dung. 

The most usual way of ordering the Bodies of Men, after The order- 
their death in the Indies, is to wash them in the water of a 
River or Reservatory, near to which there is a Pagod, then Funerals 
to burn them, and throw the Ashes into the same water ; in differ ^ 
some Countries they leave them upon the brink of the River, to^piac^^f 
but the Ceremony of burying differs according to places ; in 
some places the Body is carried, (with beat of Drum) sitting of burning 
uncovered in a Chair, cloathed in goodly Apparel, and accom- ^^g^^nd 
panied with his Relations and Friends ; and after the usual -^ith the 
Ablution, it is surrounded with Wood and his Wife who hath living Wife, 
followed in triumph^ hath her Seat prepared there, where she 
places herself Singing, and seeming very desirous to die: A 
Bramen ties her to a Stake that is in the middle of the Funeral 
Pile, and sets Fire to it ; the Friends pour odoriferous Oyles 
into it, and in a short time both the Bodies are consumed. 

In other places the Bodies are carried to the River-side in 
a covered Liter, and being washed, they are put into a hutt full 
of odoriferous Wood, if they who are dead have left enough to 
defray the Charges, When the Wife (who is to be burnt) hath 

A Woman 
that endea- 
vours to 
shew a 
before she 
is burnt. 


wherein the 
Bodies of the 
and Wife 
are burnt. 

of Bodies. 

isme in the 
Indies is a 
for the 


to hinder 
the burning 
of the 


taken leave of her kindred, and by such Galantries as may 
convince the Assembly, (which many times consists of the 
whole Caste,) that she is not at all afraid of dying ; she takes 
her place in the Hutt under the head of her Husband, which 
she holds upon her knees, and at the same time recommending 
her self to the Prayers of the Bramen, she presses him to set 
fire to the Pile, which he fails not to do. 

Elsewhere they make wide and deep Pits, which they fill 
with all sorts of combustible Matter ; they throw the Body of 
the deceased into it, and then the Bramens push in the Wife 
after she hath Sung and Danced, to shew the firmness of her 
resolution ; and sometimes it happens, that Maid-Slaves throw 
themselves into the same Pit after their Mistresses, to shew the 
love they bore to them, and the Ashes of the burnt Bodies are 
afterwards scattered in the River, 

In the other Places, the Bodies of the dead are interred 
with their Regs a cross ; their Wives are put into the same 
Grave alive, and when the Earth is filled up to their neck, they 
are strangled by the Bramens.^ 

There are several other kinds of Funerals among the 
Gentiles of the Indies, but the madness of the Women in being 
burnt with their Husbands, is so horrid, that I desire to be 
excused that I write no more of it. 

To conclude, the Women are happy that the Mahometans 
are become the Masters in tie Indies, to deliver them from the 
tyranny of the Bramens,^ who always desire their death, 
because these Eadies being never burnt without all their Orna- 
ments of Gold and Silver about them, and none but they having 
power to touch their Ashes ; they fail not to pick up aE that 
is pretious from amongst them. However, the Great Mogul 
and other Mahometan Princes, having ordered their Governours 
to employ all their care in suppressing that abuse, as much as 
lies in their power, it requires at present great SoH'citations and 
considerable Presents, for obtaining the permission of being 
Burnt ; so that the diflSculty they meet with in this, secures a 
great many Women from the infamy they would incur in their 
Caste, if they were not forced to live by a Superior Power, 

The end of Mogolisian, 











Decern^ was heretofore a most powerful Kingdom, if one Decan 
may believe the Indians ; it consisted of all the Countries that 
are in that great Tongue of Land, which is betwixt the Gulfs Kingdom, 
of Cambaye and Bengala, all obeyed the same King ; nay, and 
the Provinces of Balagate, Telenga and Baglana, which are 
towards the North, were comprehended within it, so that it 
may be said, that at that time there was no King in the Indies 
more powerful than the King of Decan ; but that Kingdom in 
process of time hath been often dismembred ; and in the begin- 
ning of the last Age, (when the Portuguese made Conquests The Arri- 
therein) it was divided into many Provinces,® for they foiled 
there the Kings of Calecut/ Cochin,^ Cananor^ and Coulam^ in the^ 
upon the Coast of Malabar.^ Another King Reigned at Indies. 
Narsingue,^ there were some Common-wealths in it also ; and 
the Dominions of him® (who was called King of Decan) reached 
no further than from the limits of the Kingdom of Cambaye or 
Guzerat, to the borders of the principality of Goa, which did 
not belong to him neither. 

Calecut was the first place of the Indies, which the Portu- Calecut. 
guese discovered in the year One thousand four hundred and 
ninety eight, under the conduct of Vasco de Gama.^^ The 
King of Calecut, who at first received them friendly, would at 
length, have destroyed them, at the instigation of Arabian 
Merchants, and the greatest Wars they had in the Indies, was 
against that- Kiing. Th? Sing of Cbb^m made Alliance with 




Samorin, or 

The Town 
of Cole cut. 

King of 

The Fort 
of Cochin, 
taken from 
the Portu- 
guese by the 

The Port of 

of Pepper 
at Cochin. 

A Man 
with a leg 
like an 

them, and the Kings of Cananor and Coulam invited them to 
come and Trade with them. 

Malahar (which is the Countrey of all these Kings) begins 
at Cananor, and ends at Cape Comory ; the most powerful of 
all these Princes, was the King of Calecut, who took the 
Quality of Samorin or Emperour.^^ The Port of Calecut, lying 
in the Latitude of eleven degrees twenty two minutes, is at 
some distance from the Town ; before the coming of the Portu- 
guese, it was the most considerable Port of the Indies for Com- 
merce, and Ships came thither from all parts. The Town has 
no Walls, because there is no ground for laying a Foundation 
upon, for water appears as soon as they begin to digg. There 
are no good Buildings in Calecut, but the Kings Palace and 
some Pagods ; the Houses joyn not,^® they have lovely Gardens, 
and of all things necessary for life, there is plenty in that Town. 

The King of Cochin was a most faithful Friend to the 
Portuguese, for, for their sake he was deprived of his King- 
dom by the King of Calecut pbut they restored him, and gained 
so much upon him, that he gave them leave to build a Fort in 
that part of the Town, which is called Lower-Cochin upon the 
Sea side, to distinguish it from the Higher-Cochin where the 
King resides, and from which it is distant a quarter of a League. 
The Portuguese' held that Fort a long time, but three or 
four years since, it was taken from them by the Dutch.^^ 

The Port of Cochin is very good, there is six Fathom 
water close by the Shoar, and upon a Plane one may easily 
come from on Board the Vessels. The Town of Cochin is about 
thirty six Leagues from Calecut ; it is watered by a River,^® and 
there is plenty of Pepper in the Countrey about it,^’^ which is 
fruitful in nothing else. There are People in that Countrey 
who have Legs like an Elephant,^® and I saw a Man at Cochin 
with such a Leg ; the Son Inherits not after his Father, because 
a Woman is allowed by the custom to lye with several Men, so 
that it cannot be known who is the Father of the Child she 

Succession brings forth ; and for Successions, the Child of the Sister is 
in Ma a m. because there is no doubt of the Line by the Female. 

The Sisters (even of the Eungs themselves) have; liberty to chuse 
have^bSt^ such Nairs’^^ or Gentlemen as they please to lye with ; and 
to ebuse^^ ^ when a Nair is in a Ladies Chamber, he leaves his Stick or 
their Sword at the Door, that others (who have a mind to come) 

Galants. should know that the place is taken up, no body offers to come 
in then : And this custom is Establish’d all over Malahar.^^ 

The Corona- Heretofore the King of Cochin was Crowned upon the 
K^n^of ^ Coast, though it was possest by the Portuguese ; but he who 
Cochin. ought now to be King, would not be Crowned there, because it 
is in the power of the Dutch And he made them answer, 
when they invited him to follow the Custom, that he would have 
nothing to do with them } and that when the Portuguese were 



restored to the possession of that coast, he would be Crowned 
there. In the meane time the Dutch have Crowned another 
Prince, who is the Kings Kinsman, and have given him the 
Title of Samorin or Emperour, which the King of Calecui 
pretends to. 

The true King of Cochin is retired to Tanor,^^ which is the xanor 
first Principality of his House, to the Prince of Ta7ior his 
Uncle, eight Teagues from Cochin. They Sail from one Town 
to the other in little Barks, upon a pretty pleasant River. 

These Naires or Gentlemen we have been speaking of, have xhe Nates. 
a great conceit of theh Nobility, because they fancy themselves 
descended from the Sun they give place to none but the 
Portuguese^ and that precedency cost Blood. The Portuguese ^ 

General (to compose the Debates that happened often betwixt betwixt a 
them) agreed with the King of Cochin, that the Matter should 
be decided by a duel of two Men, and that if the Naire had for the 
the better on’t, the Portuguese should give place to the Naires ; pi^ce. 
or if the contrary happened, the Naires should allow the Portu- 
guese the advantage for which they fought, and the Naire being 
overcome, the Portuguese take place of the Naires ; they go stark Apparel of 
naked from the girdle upwards, and have no other Clothing from Nates. 
the girdle to the knee, but a piece of Cloath ; their head is 
covered with a Turban, and they carry always a naked Sword 
and a Bubkler. The Naire Women are cloathed like the Men, 
and the Queen her self is in no other dress.^^ The Naires have 
several degrees of Nobility amongst them, and the inferior make 
no difficulty to give place to those that are above them. 

They have a great aversion to a Caste of Gentiles, who are 
called Poleas.^^ If a Naire come so near a Poleas as to have PoUas. 
felt his breath, he thinks himself polluted,^’' and is obliged to 
kill him ; because if he killed him not, and it came to the Kings 
knowledge, he would cause the Naire to be put to death, or if 
he pardoned him as to life, he would order him to be sold for 
a Slave ; but besides that, he must make publick Ablutions with 
great Ceremonies. 

For avoiding any mischance that may happen upon that 
account. The Poleas cry incessantly when they are abroad in 
the Fields Popo/^ to give notice to the Naires who may be Popo. 
there, not to come near. If a Naire hear the word Popo^ he 
answers (crying) Coucouya/^ and then the Poleas knowing 
that there is a Naire not far from him, turns aside out of the 
way, that he may not meet him. Seeing these Poleas cannot Poleas 
enter into Town, if any of them need any thing, they are cannot enter 
obliged to ask for it without the Town, crying as loud as they Towns. 
can, and leaving Money for it in a place appointed for that 
Traffick ; when they have left it and told so, they are to with- 
draw, and a Merchant fails not to bring what they demand ; he 



No Cavalfie 
in Cochin. 



Rio Largo. 

The Pagod 
of Swear- 




St. Thomas. 

Syria ck 



takes the true value of his Commodity, and so soon as he is 
gone, the Poleas comes and takes it, and so departs. 

Cavalrie are not used in the Wars, neither in Cochin, nor 
the rest of Malabar ; they that are to fight otherwise than on 
Foot, are mounted upon Elephants, of which there are many 
in the Mountains, and these Mountain-Elephants are the biggest 
of the Indies. The Idolaters tell a false story at Cochin, which 
they would have no body to doubt of, because of the extra- 
ordinary respect they have for a certain Reservatory, which is 
in the middle of one of their Pagods. This great Pagod stands 
upon the side of a River, called by the Portuguese Rio Largo,^^ 
which runs from Cochin to Cranganor, it goes by the name of 
the Pagod of Swearing ; and they say, that the Reservatory or 
Tanquie, which is in that Temple, has Communication under 
ground with the River, and that when any one was to make 
Oath judicially about a matter of importance, he that was to 
Swear, was brought to the Tanquie, where a Crocodile was called 
upon,^^ which commonly kept there, that the Man put himself 
upon the back of the Creature when he swore, that if he said 
truth, the Crocodile carried him from one end of the Reservatory 
to the other, and brought him back again sound and safe to the 
place where it took him up ; and if he told a lie, that the Beast 
having carried him to one side of the Tanquie, carried him again 
into the middle, where it dived under water with the Man ; and 
though at present there be no Crocodile in that Reservatory, yet 
they confidently affirm that the Story is true. 

Coulam (which is the Capital Town of the little Kingdom 
of that name) is four and twenty Teagues to the South of 
Cochin, but the King keeps not commonly his Court there. 

‘ Before Calicut was in reputation, all the Traffick of that Countrey 
was at Coulam, and then it was a flourishing Town, but it is 
much diminished now both in Wealth and Inhabitants. The 
Haven of it is safe, and the Tide runs a great way up in the 
River. There are a great many Christians of St. Thomas^^ at 
Coulam as well as at Cochin ; they pretend that they have 
preserved the Purity of the Faith, which that Apostle taught 
their Ancestors ; and there are a great many also in the Moun- 
tains that run from Cochin to St. Thomas by Madura.^^ In the 
divine Office they make use of the Sariack Tanguage, and most 
of them are Subjects of the King of Cochin, as well as many 
Families of the Jews, who live in that Countrey. I have been 
also told of a little Kingdom (called CarghelanY^ that is in 
those parts, where there is also another little Prince ; and so 
these little Kingdoms terminate Malabar to the South, as 
Cananor begins it to the North. 

There is a good Harbour at Cananor, which is a large 
Town ; the little King (who is called King of CananorY^ lives 
not there ; he holds his Court towards a streight farther from 



the Sea ; hxs Countrey affords all things necessary for life ; the 
Portuguese have been always his Friends, and many of them 
live in his Countrey. 

The Malahars of Bergare/^ Cougnales^^ and Montongue^^ Indian 
near Cananor, are the chief Pirats of the Indian Sea, and there 
are many Robbers also in the Countrey, though the Magistrates, Cougnaies, 
do all they can to root them out. The truth is. They’ll put I^Io^itongue, 
Man to death for a single Teaf of Betlie stolen ; they tye his 
hands, and having stretched him out upon his belly, run him The^ 
through with a Javelin of Areca,^^ then they turn him ^ 

his back, and the Javelin being quite through his Body, they Jobbers, 
fasten it in the ground, and bind the Criminal so fast to it that 
he cannot stir, but dies in that posture. 

All the Malahars write as we do (from the left to the right) dlie Leaf of 
upon the leaves of Palmeras-Bravas,^^ and for making their 
Characters, they use a Stiletto a Foot long at least ; the Letters -whicli Men 
which they write to their Friends on these leaves, are made up 
round, like a roll of Ribbons ; they make their Books of several 
of these leaves, which they file upon a String, and enclose them 
betwdxt two Boards of the same bigness ; they have many 
Ancient Books (and all almost in Verse) which they are great 
lovers of, I believe the Reader will be glad to see their 
Characters, and I have hereto subjoyned the Alphabet : The The 
Bramens are held in greater honour here than elsewhere ; what 
War soever there may be amongst the Princes of Malabar ^ esteemed in 
Enemies do them no hurt, and nevertheless, there are many Malabar, 
Hypocrites among them who are very Rogues. There are certain 
Festival days in Malabar, on which the Young People fight 
like mad-men,"^^ and many times kill one another ; and they 
are per s waded, that such as die in those Combats are certainly 

The Kings of BangueP^ and Olala^^ are to the North of Bangnel, 
that Countrey, and Mangalor'^^ (which lies within ten degxees 
and some minutes of the Line) belongs to the King of BangueL ^ 

This is a little ill built Town twelve Leagues from Barcelor,^^ as Barcelor, 
Barcelor is twelve Leagues from Onor/^ and the Countrey 
where these Towns lie, is called Canara/'^ all the rest of the Onor, 
coast (as far as Goa) signifies but very little, except the Town of 
Onory which is about eighteen Leagues from Goa ; it hath a 
large and safe Harbour made of two Rivers, that fall into the 
Sea by one and the same mouth below the Fort, which stands 
upon a pretty high Rock. The Town is far worse"^® than the 
Fort ; the most considerable People live there with the Governour, 
and many Portuguese have their Residence in it ; it lies in the 
Latitude of fourteen degrees. The rest of Decan Northwards, 
within a little of Surrat, belongs to the King of Viziapour, or 
to the Portuguese ; the English (as I have said) hold Bomhaym 
there and Raja Sivagy some other places. The Kings of that 






A* great 

126 INDIAN travels 6F THEVENOT 

coast have hardly so much yearly Revenue a piece, as a 
Governour of a Province in France^ and yet they hold out still, 
notwithstanding the Changes that have happened in the other 
Countreys of Decan. 



He who may be called last King of Decan, or at least the 
last but one, was a Raja of the Mountains of Bengale, called 
Tcher-Can/ who rendered himself so powerful, that having 
taken to himself the haughty Title of Chahalem, (which 
signified King of the World) he made all the Kings of the Indies 
to tremble ; that Captain having raised a great Revolt in the 
Kingdom of Bengala, put the King of it to death, ^ and not only 
usurped the Kingdom and all Patan, but also all the Neighbour- 
ing Dominions ; he even forced the first Mogul King Humayon^ 
to flie from Dehly, which he had seized from an Indian King 
called Selim,^ and all that (which at present is called the 
Kingdoms of Viziapour, Bisnagar or Cornates,^ and Golconda) 
fell under his power, with the Title of the Kingdom of Decan ; 
but what is most surprizing of all, at the very time (when he 
was most dreaded all over the Indies ,) he grew weary of 
Royalty, and gave his Dominions to a Cousin German of his 
own, called (as I think) Daquem, whom he made King, and 
then retired to a private life in Bengala.^ 

But seeing he had been served in his Conquests by some 
Mahometan Captains, whom he much esteemed for their Valour, 
he contracted with his Sticcessour that he should leave them 
in the Governments of the Countries, where he had placed them : 
The truth is, The new King not only confirmed them therein, 
but (that he might please Chahalem the more) augmented their 
Governments, and honoured them with a particular confidence. 
These Captains maintained splendidly the power of their Master, 
as long as Chahalem lived ; but after his death, which happened 
in the Year One thousand five hundred and fifty, ^ his Successour 
having been defeated by the Mogul Humayon, who returned into 
the Indies, with the assistance that Chah-Tahmas, King of 
Persia, gave him at the Sollicitation of his Sister ; these Traitors 
(instead of owning their Benefactor as they ought to have done 
by their Royalty,) combined against him, and killed all his faith- 
ful Friends ; they seized his own person, and having shut him 
up in the Castle of Beder, kept him there till he died, under 
the strickt Guard of one of the Conspirators ; they next invaded 
his Countreys, divided amongst themselves his Provinces, and 



formed them into Kingdoms. The three chief Conspirators were 
Nizam-Cha/ Coih-Cha? and AdiUCha these three Usurpers The 
made themselves Kings, and established the Kingdoms of Usurpers of 
Viziapour, Bisnagar or Carnates, and Golconda, Viziapour fell 
to the share of Nizam-Cha, who is said to have been an Indian, The 
and of the Royal Blood ; Bisnagar to AdiUCha, and Golconda 
to Cotb-Cha ; and the Successours of these several Kings have jcing^doms- 
since continued to take the name of their Founders. 

As many other Captains^ ^ were concerned in the Conspiracy, 
so were other Principalities erected in Decan, but most of them 
fell under the power of the first three, or of their Successours. 

These three Princes possessed their Kingdoms without trouble, 
so long as they lived together in good Intelligence, and they 
defeated the Army of the Mogul in a famous Battel,^^ but they 
fell a clashing amongst themselves about the end of their 
Reigns, and their Children succeeded to their Misunderstand- 
ings as well as to their Dominions, to which the cunning of the 
Moguls did not a little contribute. These have by degrees taken 
from them the Provinces of Balagate, Telenga and Baglana,^^ 
or at least the greatest part of them, and Auran-Zeb seized of a Auran-Zeb, 
great many good Towns in Viziapour,^^ when he was no more 
as yet but the GovernotO: of a Province, which would not have 
happened, if the King of Bisnagar had assisted his Neighbour 
as he ought to have done. The want of assistance on that Kings 
part, so exasperated the King of Viziapour, that he no sooner 
made peace with the Mogul in the year One thousand six hundred 
and fifty, but he made a Teague with the King of Golconda 
against the King of Bisnagar, and entered into a War with him ; 
they handled him so very roughly, that at length, they stript 
him of his Dominions, The King of Golconda seized those of 
the coast of Coromandel,^^ which lay conveniently for him ; and 
the King of Viziapour having taken w’^hat lay next to him, 
pursued his Conquest as far as the Cape of Negapatan,^^ so that 
AdiUCha was left without a Kingdom,^^ and constrained to flie 
into the Mountains where he still lives deprived of his Terri- 
tories. His chief Town was Velour,^^ five days Journey from Velour. 

St. Thomas, but that Town at present belongs to the King of 
Viziapour, as well as Gengi,^^ and several others of Carnates. Gengi. 

This Kingdom of Carnates or Bisnagar, which was formerly Carnates. 
called Narsingue, began three days Journey from Golconda ^^snagar. 
towards the South ; it had many Towns, and the Provinces 
thereof crossed from the coast of Coromandel to the coast of 
Malabar, reaching a great way towards the Cape of Comory ; 
it had Viziapour and the Sea of Cambaye to the West, and the 
Sea of Bengala to the East ; what of it belongs to the King of 
Viziapour is at present governed by an Enuch of Threescore 
and ten years of Age, (called Raja^Couli,)^^ who conquered it Raja Couli. 
with extraordinary expedition. That Raja (to whom the King 




The Paged 
of Trapety, 


K!itig of 


Town of 

An Orphan 
adopted an( 

gave the Surname of Niecnam-Can,) which is as much as to 
say, Lord of good renown, is the richest Subject of the Indies. 

Whilst I was in Carnate, the Kings of Viziapour and 
Golconda attacked a certain Raja,^^ who had a Fort whither he 
retreated betwixt the two Kingdoms, there he committed an 
infinite number of Robberies ; and in the last War that the 
Great Mogul made in Viziapour, that Raja (set on by the Mogul) 
made considerable incursions into the Countreys of the two 
Kings, which made them force him to the utmost extremity ; 
so that they took his Fort, made him Prisoner, and seized all 
his Riches. 

The Kingdom of Viziapour is bounded to the East by 
Carnates, and the Mountain of Balagate ; to the West by the 
Lands of the Portuguese ; to the North by Guzerat and the 
Province of Balagate ; and to the South by the Countrey of 
the Naique of Madura,^^ whose Territories reach to the Cape 
Comory. This Naique is tributary to the King of Viziapour, 
as well as the Naique of Tanjahor,^^ to whom belonged the 
Towns of Negapatan, Trangabar,^^ and some others towards the 
coast of Coromandel, when the King of Viziapour took them. 
Negapatan fell since into the hands of the Portuguese, but the 
Dutch took it from them, and are at present Masters of it. The 
Danes have also seized a place (where they have built a Fort 
towards Trangabar) which is distant from St. Thomas five days 
Journey of a Foot-post, which they call Patamar.^^ 

As to the famous Pagod of Trapety,^^ (which is not far 
from Cape Comory) it depends on the Naique of Madura ; it 
consists of a great Temple, and of many little Pagods about it ; 
and there are so many Lodgings for the Bramens, and the 
Servants of the Temple, that it looks like a Town. There is a 
great deal of Riches in that Pagod. 

The King of Viziapour is the most potent Prince of all 
those of Decan, and therefore he is often called King of Decan. 
His chief City is Viziapour, which hath given the name to the 
Kingdom, and he hath many other considerable Towns in his 
Provinces with three or four Ports, to wit, Carapatan,^'^ Dabul, 
Raja-pour, and Vingourla ; but I am informed that Raja Sivagy 
hath seized some of them not long since. The Town of Vizia- 
pour is above four or five Leagues in circumference ; it is forti- 
fied with a double Wall, with many great Guns mounted, and 
a flat bottomed Ditch. The Kings Palace is in the middle of 
the Town, and is likewise encompassed with a Ditch full of 
water, wherein there are some Crocodiles. This Town hath 
several large Suburbs full of Goldsmiths and Jewellers Shops, 
yet after all, there is but little Trade, and not many things 
remarkable in it. 

The King (who Reigns in Viziapour at present)^® was an 
Orphan, whom the late King and the Queen adopted for their 



Son ; and after tlie death, of tlie King, the Queen had so much made King 
interest as to settle him upon the Throne ; but he being as . 
yet very young, the Queen was declared Regent of the Kingdom; ^ * 

Nevertheless, there has been a great deal of weakness during 
her Government, and Raja Siv.agy hath made the best onT for 
his own Elevation. 



The Town of Goa (with its Isle of the same name,) which 
is likewise called Tilsoar,^ borders upon Viziapour, directly 
Southward ; it lies in the Latitude of fifteen degrees and about 
forty minutes^ upon the River of Mandoua/ which discharges 
it self into the Sea two leagues from Goa, and gives it one of 
the fairest Harbours in the World ; some would have this 
Countrey to be part of Viziajpour, but it is not ; and when the 
Portuguese came there, it belonged to a Prince called Zabaim/ Zabaim, 
who gave them trouble enough; nevertheless, Albuquerque 
made himself Master of it in February One thousand five 
hundred and ten, through the cowardize of the Inhabitants, who 
put him into possession of the Town and Fort, and took an 
Oath of Allegiance to the King of Portugal. 

This Town® hath good Walls, with Towers and great Guns, 
and the Isle it self is Walled round, with Gates towards the 
Land, to hinder the Slaves from running away, which they do 
not fear (towards the Sea) because all the little Isles and Penin- 
sules that are there, belong to the Portuguese, and are full of 
their Subjects’. This Isle is plentiful in Corn, Beasts and Fruit, 
and hath a great deal of good water. The City of Goa is the Capi- 
tal of all those which the Portuguese are Masters of in the Indies. 

The Arch-Bishop, Vice-Roy and Inquisitor General, have their 

Residence there ; and all the Governours and Ecclesiastick and 

secular OfiScers of the other Countries (subject to the Portuguese 

Nation in the Indies) depend on it. Albuquerque was buried ^he death ' 

there in the year One thousand five htmdred and si'xteen, and 

St. Francis of Xavier^ in One thousand five hundred fifty two. The death of 

The River of Mendoua is held in no less veneration by the 

Bramens and other Idolaters, than Gaitges is elsewhere, and 

at certain times, and upon certain Festival days, they flock 

thither from a far, to perform their Purifications. It is a great 

Town, and full of fair Churches, lovely Convents, and Palaces 

well beautified ; there are several Orders of Religious, both Men 

and Women there, and the Jesuits alone have five publick 

Houses ; few JT^tion^. ii} tl;e World were so rich ip th^ In^ie^ 




The way of 
the Banians 

as the Portuguese were, before their Commerce was ruined by 
the Dutch, but their vanity is the cause of their loss ; and if 
they had feared the Dutch more than they did, they might have 
been still in a condition to give them the Daw there, from which 
they are far enough at present. 

There are a great many Gentiles about Goa^ some of them 
worship Apes,^ and I observed elsewhere that in some places® 
they have built Pagods to these Beasts. Most part of the 
Gentiles, Heads of Families in Viziapour, dress their own 
Victuals themselves ; he that do^s it having swept the place 
where he is to dress any thing, draws a Circle,® and confines 
himself within it, with all that he is to make use of ; if he 
stand in need of any thing else, it is given him at a distance, 
because no body is to enter within that Circle, and if any 
chanced to enter it, all would be prophaned, and the Cook 
would throw away what he had dressed, and be obliged to 
begin again. When the Victuals are ready, they are divided 
into three parts. The first part is for the Poor, the second for 
the Cow of the House, and the third portion for the Familie, 
and of this third they make as many Commons^® as there are 
Persons ; and seeing they think it not civil to give their leavings 
to the poor, they give them likewise to the Cow. 





Li, U, li* 

The bounds 
of Mogulis- 

The most powerful of the Kings of Decan, next to Vizia- 
pour, is the King of Golconda. His Kingdom borders on the 
Hast side, upon the Sea of Bengala ; to the North, upon the 
Mountains of the Countrey of Orinca ; to the South, upon many 
Countries of Bisnagar, or Ancient Narsingue, which belongs to 
F^i2m:^0Mr ; and to the West, upon the Hmpire of 
the Great Mogul, by the province of Balagate, where the Village 
^ CaUar is, which is the last place of Mogolistan, on that side. 
There are very insolent collectors of Tolls at Calvar, and when 
ttey have not what they demand, they cry with all their force, 
teeir Aj, h, K, striking their Mouth with the pahn of their 
Hand, and at that kind of alarm-bell, which is heard at a great 
distance, naked Men come running from all parts, carrying 
Staves, Hances, Swords, Bows, Arrows, and some, Musquets. 
who make Travellers pay by force what they have demanded, 
and when all 13 payed, it no easie matter still to get rid of them. 

The boundaries of MoguUstan and Golconda, are planted 
about a league and a half from Calvar ; They are Trees which 

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( 5>2 ) Travels into the INDIES. . Bart III. 

The consonants. 

Figures. Names. PowERi 


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ntfinm p. 



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JkittiiiGaJbrxmim verhgmMk* ^iett& 



ficMtfft GaUmm i* vtrho gmUiev com{;agQ^ 


ftta^daA Arti»m, prtmxmiixtur /* medit pahti, tan- 
ge»d» cum extrenutate I'mgmte medium pahtL 


etixm pnmuXiatxr im mxd» paUti^ taMgenda cum 
extremitate Hague medium palati. 


we/lrMmtf&iuMda efi jimpUx, mnltetiei ptenua- 
tteter mt mefirmt d. 



they call Mahoua ; these mark the outmost lyand of the Mogulj Mahoua, 
and immediately after, on this side of a Rivulet, there are 
Cadjours, or wild Palm-trees, planted only in that place, to 
denote the beginning of the Kingdom of Golconda, wherein the 
insolence of collectors is far more insupportable than in the 
confines of Mogolistan ; for the duties not being exacted there, 
in the Name of the King, but in the Name of private I^ords, 
to whom the Villages have been given, the Collectors make 
Travellers pay what they please. We found some Officers, 
where they made us give fifty Roupies, in stead of twenty, 
which was their due, and to shew that it was an Extortion of 
the Exactors, they refused to give us a note for what they 
had received, and in the space of three and twenty Teagues 16 Officers 
betwi'xt Calvar and Bagnagar, we were obliged with extream ^ 
rigour, to pay to sixteen Offiicers ; Bramens are the Collectors 
of these Tolls, and are a much ruggeder sort of People to do 
with, than the Banians. 

Ill our way from Calvar to Bagnagar we found no other The Road 
Town but Buquenour,^ but there are others to the right and Calvar 
left ; we passed by eighteen Villages. The Nadab^ or Governour ^gar} 
of the Province, lives in the little Town of Marcel/ and we made Malaredpet 
that Journey in six days of Caravan : In short, there are few 
or no Countries, that delight Travellers with their verdure, Bouquenour 
more than the Fields of this Kingdom, because of the Rice and a Towtiw 
Corn that is to be seen every where, and the many lovely g 
Reservatories that are to be found in it, from Mala^ 

The Capital City of this Kingdom is called Bagnagar, the 'Degelpeli e 
Persians call it Aider-ahad / it is fourteen or fifteen Teagues Teag. from 
from Viziapour, situated in the Tatitude of seventeen Degrees 
ten Minutes,® in a very long plain, hemmed in with little Hills, £eag. 
some Cosses distant from the Town, which makes the Air of 
that place very wholesome, besides that, the Countrey of ^efg^^from 
Golconda lies very high. The Houses of the Suburbs, where MarceL 
we arrived, are only built of Earth and thatched with Straw, namr 
they are so low and ill contrived, that they can be reckoned 
no more than Huts. We went from one end to the other of Aider-abad. 
that Suburbs, which is very long, and stopt near the Bridge 
which is at the farther end of it. There we stayed’’ for a 
note from the Cotoual to enter the Town, because of the 
Merchants Goods of the Caravan, which were to be carried to 
the Coiouals House to be searched: But a Persian named Ak- 
Nazar/ a favorite of the Kings> who knew the chief of the 
Caravan, being informed of its arrival, sept immediately a Man 
with orders, to let us enter With all the Goods, and so we past 
the Bridge,® which is only three Arches over. It is about three 
Fathom broad, and is paved with large flat Stones : The River 
of Nerva^^ runs under that Bridge, which then seemed to be but 
a Brook, though in time of the Rains, it be as broad as the 


Indian T!iavbl$ Of THEVlENOf 

Seine before the Louvre at Paris. At the end of the Bridge, we 
found the Gates of the City, which are no more but Barriers : 
Being entered, we marched a quarter of an hour through a long 
Street with Houses on both sides, but as low as those of the 
Suburbs, and built of the same materials, though they have 
very lovely Gardens. 

We went to a Carvanseray called Nintei-ulla,^^ wliicli has 
its entry from the same Street : Every one took his lodging 
there, and I hired two little Chambers, at two Roupies a Month. 
The Town makes a kind of Cross, much longer than broad, 
and extends in a streight line, from the Bridge to the four 
Towers but beyond these Towers the Street is no longer 
streight, and whilst in walking I measured the length of the 
Town, being come to the four Towers, I was obliged to turn 
to the left, and entered into a Meidan, where there is another 
Street that led me to the Town-Gate, which I looked for. 
Having adjusted my measures, I found that Bagnagar was five 
thousand six hundred and fifty Paces in length, to wit, two 
thousand four hundred and fifty from the Bridge to the Towers, 
and from thence, through the Meidan to the Gate which leads 
to Masulipatanj three thousand two hundred Paces. There is 
also beyond that Gate, a Suburb eleven hundred Paces long. 

Meidan There are several Meidans or Publick places in this Town, 

of Bagnagar. the fairest is that before the Kings Palace : It hath to the 

East and West two great Divans very deep in the Ground, the 
Roof whereof being of Carpenters work, is raised five Fathom 
high, upon four Wooden Pillars ; this Roof is flat, and hath 
Balisters of Stone cast over Arch-ways, with Turrets at the 
corners. These two Divans serve for Tribunals to the Cotoual, 
whose Prisons are at the bottom of these Divans, each of them 
having a Bason of Water before them. The like Balisters go 
round the Terrass-walks of the place : The Royal Palace is to 
the North of it, and there is a Portico over against it, where 
the Musicians come several times a day to play upon their 
Instruments, when the King is in Town. 

In the middle of this place, and in sight of the Royal 
Palace, there is a Wall built, three Foot thick, and six Fathom 
Fightingsof height and length, for the fighting of Elephants, and that 
}3lephants. Wall is betwixt them, when they excite them to fight ; but so 
soon as they are wrought up to a rage, they quickly throw 
down the Wall. The ordinary Houses there, are not above two 
Fathom high ; they raise them no higher, that they may have 
the fresh Air during the heats, and most part^^ of them are 
only of Earth ; but the Houses of Persons of Quality are pretty 

The Palace which is three hundred and fourscore Paces in 
The Palace length, takes up not only one of the sides of the Place, but is 
o agnagar. continued to the four' Towers, where it terminates in a very 



loftly Pavillion. The Walls of it which are built of great 
Stones, have at certain distances half Towers, and there are 
many Windows towards the place, with an open .Gallery to see 
the shews. They say it is very pleasant within, and that the 
Water rises to the highest Appartments : The Reservatory of 
that Water, which is brought a great way off, is in the top 
of the four Towers, from whence it is conveyed into the House 
by Pipes. No Man enters into this Palace, but by an express 
Order from the King, who grants it but seldom ; nay, commonly 
no body comes near it, and in the place there is a circuit staked 
out, that must not be passed over. There is another square 
Meidan in this Town, where many great Men have well built 
Houses. The Carvanseras are generally all handsome, and the 
most esteemed is that which is called Nimet-ulla in the great 
Street opposite to the Kings Garden: It is a spacious square, 
and the Court of it is adorned with several Trees of different 
kinds, and a large Bason where the Mahometans performe their 

That which is called the four Towers, is a square building, The four 
of which each face is ten Fathom broad, and about seven high : lowers. 
It is opened in the four sides, by four Arches, four or five 
Fathom high, and four Fathom wide, and every one of these 
Arches, fronts a Street, of the same breadth as the Arch. There 
are two Galleries in it, one over another, and over all a Terrass 
that serves for a Roof, bordered with a Stone-Balcony ; and at 
each corner of that Building, a Decagone Tower about ten 
Fathom high, and each Tower hath four Galleries with little 
Arches on the outside ; the whole Building being adorned with 
Roses and Festons pretty well cut: It is vaulted underneath, 
and appears like a Dome, which has in the inside all round 
Balisters of Stone, pierced and open as the Galleries in the 
outside, and there nre several Doors in the Walls to enter at. 

Under this Dome there is a large Table placed upon a Divan, 
raised seven or eight Foot from the Ground, with steps to go 
up to it. All the Galleries of that Building, serve to make the 
Water mount up, that so being afterwards conveyed to the 
Kings Palace, it might reach the highest Appartments. 
Nothing in that Town seems so lovely as the outside of that 
Building, and nevertheless it is surrounded with ugly shops 
made of Wood,^^ and covered with Straw, where they sell Fruit, 
which spoiles the prospect of it. 

There are many fair Gardens in this Town, their beauty Gardens 
consists in having long walks kept very clean, and lovely Fruit- 
trees ; but they have neither Beds of Flowers nor Water-works,’^® 
and they are satisfied with several Cisterns or Basons with 
Water. The Gardens without the Town are the loveliest, and 
I shall only describe one of them, that is reckoned the pleasantest 
of the Kingdom. At first one enters into a great place which 



is called the first Garden ; it is planted with Palms and Areca-^ 
treeSj so near to one another, that the Sun can hardly pieice 
throug:h them. The Walks of it are streight and neat, with 
borders of white Flowers which they call Ghoul Dctoudij the 
Flowers of David, like Camomile-Flowers ; there are also Indian 
Gilly-flowers, with some other sorts. The House is at the end 
of this Garden, and has two great Wings adjoyning the main 
Body of it : It is two Story high, the first consisting in three 
Halls, of which the greatest is in the middle, the main Body of 
the House, and in each Wing there is one, all three having 
Doors and Windows, but the great Hall has two Doors, higher 
than the others, which open into a large Kfoch or Divan, 
supported by eight great Pillars in two rows. Crossing the Hall 
and Divan, one goes down a pair of Stairs into another Divan 
of the same form, but longer, which (as the former) hath a 
Boom on each side, opened with Doors and Windows. The 
second Story of the Building is like the first, save that it hath 
but one Divan ; but it hath a Balcony that reaches the whole 
length of that front of it. The House is covered with a flat 
Boof of so great e-xtent, that it reaches over the outmost Divan 
of the lower Story, and is supported by six eight-cornered 
Wooden Pillars, six or seven Fathom high, and proportionably 

From the lower Divan, a Terrass-walk two hundred Paces 
long, and fifty broad, faced with Stones runs along all the 
Front of the House ; and two little groves of Trees, that are 
on the sides of it. This Terrass that is at the head of the 
second Garden, (which is much larger than the first,) is raised 
a Fathom and a halfe above it, and has very neat Stairs for 
going down into it. The first thing that is to be seen (looking 
forwards,) is a great square Beservatory or Tanquie, each side 
whereof is above two hundred Paces long ; in it there are a 
great many Pipes that rise half a Foot above Water, and a 
Bridge upon it, raised about a Foot over the surface of the 
Water, and above six Foot broad, with wooden Bailes. This 
Bridge is fourscore Paces long, and leads into a Platform of an 
Octogone figure in the middle of the Beservatory, where there 
are Steps to descend into the Water, which is but about a Foot 
lower than the Platform : There are Pipes in the eight Angles 
of it, and in the Pillars of the Bailes, from whence the Water 
plays on all sides, which makes a very lovely sight. In the 
middle of the Platform there is a little House built two Stories 
high, and of an Octogone figure- also ; each Story hath a little 
Boom with eight Doors, and round the second Story therd is a 
Balcony to walk in : The Roof of this Building which is flat, 
is bordered with Balisters, ^d covers the whole Platform also i 
That Roof is supported by sixteen wooden Pillars, as big^^ as 
a Mans Body, and about three Fathom high, (if you comprehend'* 



their Capitals,) and there are two of them at each Angle, of 
which one rests upon the Wall of the House, and the other 
is near the Railes that go round it. 

The Garden wherein this Reservatory is, is planted with 
Flowers and Fruit-trees : All are in very good order, and in 
this, as well as in the first Garden, there are lovely Walks well 
Gravelled, and Bordered with divers Flowers : There runs a 
Canal in the middle of the great Walk, w^hich is four Foot 
over, and carries away what it receives from several little 
Fountains of Water, that are also in the middle of that Walk, 
at certain distances : In short, this Garden is very large, and 
bounded by a Wall which hath a great Gate in the middle that 
opens into a Close of a large extent, Planted with Fruit-trees, 
and as neatly contrived as the Gardens. 



There are many Officers and Men of Taw at Bagnagct/r, xhe Inhabi 
but the most considerable is the Coioual : He is not only tants of 
Governour of the Town, but also chief Customer of the * 

Kingdom. He is besides. Master of the Mint-House, and 
Supream Judge of the City, as well in Civil as Criminal matters ; 
he rents all these places of the King, for which he pays a good 
deal of Money. There are in this Town many Rich Merchants, 

Bankers and Jewellers, and vast numbers of very skilful 
Artisans. Ailiongst the Inhabitants of Bagnagar, we are to 
recken the forty thousand Horse, Persians^ Moguls, or Tartars, 
whom the King entertains, that he may not be again surprised, 
as he hath been heretofore by his Enemies. 

Besides the Indian Merchants that are at Bagnagar, there 
are many Persians and Armenians, but through the weakness 
of the Government, the Omras sometimes squeeze them ; and 
whiFst I w^as there, an Omra detained in his House a Gentile 
Banker whom he had sent for, and made him give him five 
thousand Che quins ; upon the report of this Extortion, the 
Bankers shut up their Offices, but the King Commanded all 
to be restored to the Gentile, and so the matter was taken up. 

The Tradesmen of the Town, and those who cultivate the 
Tand, are Natives of the Country. There are many Franks also 
in the Kingdome, but most of them are Portuguese, who have 
fl.ed thither for Crimes they have committed: However the 
English^ and Dutch^ have lately setled there, and the last make 
great profits. They established a Factory there, (three years 
^mce) where they buy up fo;- the Company, many Chiles and 



other Cloaths, which they vent elsewhere in the Indies, They 
bring from MasulipatcLn upon Oxen, the Goods which they 
know to be of readiest sale in BagnaguT ; and other Towns of 
the Kingdom, as Cloves, Pepper, Cinnamon, Silver, Copper, 
Tin, and Lead, and thereby gain very much ; for they say, they 
get five and twenty for one, of profit ] and I was assured that 
this profit amounted yearly to eleven or twelve hundred 
thousand French Livres, They are made welcome in that 
Countrey, because they make many Presents, and a few days 
before I parted from Bagnagar, their Governour began to have 
Trumpets and Tymbals,*^ and a Standard carried before him, 
by Orders from his Superiours. 

Publick Women are allowed in the Kingdom,® so that no 
Publick body minds it when they see a Man go to their Houses, and 
Women. they are often at their Doors well drest, to draw in Passengers : 

But they say most of them are spoiled. The common People 
The liberty give their Wives great Liberty : When a Man is to be Married, 
of Wives in the Father and Mother of his Bride, make him promise that he 
Go con a. Wife go and walk through the Town, 

or visit her Neighbours, nay and drink Tary, a drink that the 
Indians of Golconda are extreamly fond of. 

When a Theft is committed at Bagnagar, or elsewhere, 
they punish the Thief by cutting off both his Hands ; which is 
the Custoine also in most Countries o£ the Indies J 
The Money The most currant Money in this Kingdom, are the Pagods/ 
oi Golconda. jioupies of Mogul, the halfe Roupies, quarter Roupies and 
Pechas. The Pagods are pieces of Gold, of which there are old 
and new ones ,* when I was at Bagnagar, the old were worth 
five Roupies and a half, that’s to say, about eight French 
Livres, because they were scarce then, and the new were only 
worth four Roupies, that’s about six Lvvres ; but both rise and 
fall, according as People stand in need of them : And the 
Roupies which in MoguUstan are worth but about half a Crown, 
Pechas. pass in Golconda for five and fifty Pechas, which are worth six 
and forty or seven and forty Sols. This Money of Pechas is 
Coyned at Bagnagar ; but the Dutch at present furnishing the 
Copper, these Pechas are for them, which afterward by the way 
of Trade they change into Pagods and Roupies. 

The Price Seeing the Kingdom of Golconda may be said to be the 

of Countrey of Diamonds,® it will not be amiss to know the Price 

moxids. ^ that is commonly given for them proportionably to their weight. 

aweSit^ The chief weight of Diamonds, is the Mangelin it weighs five 

grains and three fifths, and the Carat weighs only four Grains, 
and five Mangelins make seven Carats. Diamonds that weigh 
but one or two Mangelins, are commonly sold for fifteen or 
sixteen Crowns the Mangelin ; such as weigh three Mangelins, 
are sold for thirty Crowns^^ the Mangelin ; and for five Crowns 
one may have three Diamonds, if all the three weigh hut a 

The sepulchre of the King of Golcunda 



Mangelin : However tlie price is not fixt, for one day I saw 
Crowns a Mangelin payed for a Diamond of ten MangelinSj, 
and next day there was but four and forty a Mangelin, payed 
for another Diamond that weighed fifteen Mangelins : Not long 
after, I was at the Castle with a Hollander who bought a large 
Diamond weighing fifty Mangelins, or threescore and ten Carats, 
he was asked seventeen thousand Crowns for it ; he bargained 
for it a long while, but at length drew the Merchant aside to 
strike up a bargain, and I could not prevail with him to tell 
me what he payed for it. That Stone has a grain in the middle, 
and must be cut in two. He bought another at Bagnagar, which 
weighed thirty five Mangelins or eight^^ and forty Carats, and 
he had the Carat for five hundred and fifty five Guilders 



The Castle where the King commonly keeps his Court, is Golconda 
two Leagues from Bagnagar ; it is called Golconda,^ and the ^ Castle. 
Kingdom bears the same name. Cotup-Cha the first, ^ gave it 
that name, because after his Usurpation seeking out for a place 
where he might build a strong Castle, the place where 
the Castle stands was named to him by a Shepheard, who 
guided him through a Wood to the Hill where the Palace is at 
present ; and the place appearing very proper for his designe, 
he built the Castle there, and called it Golconda, from the 
word Golcar/ which in the Telenghi Language signifies a 
Shepheard : all the Fields about Golconda were then but a 
Forest, which were cleared by little and little, and the Wood 
burnt. This place is to the West of Bagnagar ; the plain that 
leads to it, as one goes out of the Suburbs, affords a most 
lovely sight, to which the prospect of the Hill that rises like a 
Sugar-loaf in the middle of the Castle, which has the Kings 
Palace all round upon the sides of it, contributes much by its 
natural situation. This Port is of a large compass,^ and may 
be called a Town ; the Walls of it are built of Stones three 
Foot in length, and as much in breadth, and are surrounded 
with deep Ditches, divided into Tanquies, which are full of 
fair and good Water. 

But after all, it hath no works of Fortification but five 
round Towers, which (as well as the Walls of the place) have 
a great many Cannon mounted upon them, for their defence. 

Though there be several Gates into this Castle, yet two only 
are kept open, and as we entered, we crossed, over a Bridge 
built over a large Tanquie^^ aii4 theij went through a very narrow 

The cutting 
of Saphirs. 



To take a 
spot out 
of a 




place betwixt two Towers, which turning and winding, leads 
to a great Gate® guarded by Indians sitting on seats of Stone, 
with their Swords by them. They let no Stranger in, if he 
have not a permission from the Governour, or be not acquainted 
with some OflScer of the Kings, Besides the Kings Palace^ 
there is no good building in this Castle, unless it be some Officers 
lodgings ; but the Palace is great, and well situated for good 
Air, and a lovely Prospect ; and a Flemish Chirurgeon® who is 
in the Kings service, told me, that the Chamber where he waited 
on the King, hath a Kiock, from whence one may discover not 
only all the Castle and Countrey about, but also all Bagnagar, 
and that one must pass through twelve Gates before one comes 
to the appartment of the Prince. Most part of the Officers lodge 
in the Castle, which hath several good Bazars, wffiere all things 
necessary, (especially for life) may be had, and all the Omras, 
and other great Tords have Houses there, besides those they 
have at Bagnagar, 

The King will have the good Workmen to live there, and 
therefore appoints them lodgings, for which they pay nothing : 
He makes even Jewellers lodge in his Palace, and to these only 
he trusts Stones of consequence, strictly charging them not to 
tell any what work they are about, least if Auran-Zeb should 
come to know that his workmen are employed about Stones of 
great value, he might demand them of him: The Workmen 
of the Castle are taken up about® the Kings common Stones, 
of which he hath so many that these Men can hardly work for 
any body else. 

They cut Saphirs with a Bow of Wire ; whiPst one Work- 
man handles the Bow, another poures continually upon the 
Stone very liquid solution of the Powder of white Emrod^^ 
made in Water ; and so they easily compass their Work. That 
white Emrod is found in Stones, in a particular place of the 
Kingdom, and is called Coriud in the Telenghy Language : It 
is sold for a Crown or two Roupies the pound, and when they 
intend to use it, they beat it into a Powder. 

When they would cut a Diamond to take out some grain 
of Sand, or other imperfection they find in it, they saw it a 
little in the place where it is to be cut, and then laying it upon 
a hole that is in a piece of wood, they put a little wedge of Iron 
upon the place that is sawed, and striking it as gently as may 
be, it cuts the Diamond through. 

The King hath store of excellent Bezoars:^'^ The Moun- 
mins where the Goats feed that produce them, are to the North- 
East of the Castle, seven or eight days Journey from Bagnagar ; 
mey are commonly sold for forty Crowns the pound weight. 
The long are the best : They find of them in some Cows, which 
are much bigger than those of Goats, but of far less value, and 
thpse which of ^11 others are most esteemed^ are got out qf 

Of the castLe of golconoa 


a kind of Apes that are somewhat rare, and these Bezoars are 
small and long. 

The Sepulchres^^^of the King who built Golconda, and of The 
the five Princes who have Reigned after him, are about two 
Musquet-shot from the Castle. They take up a great deal of Kings and 
Ground, because every one of them is in a large Garden ; the Princes of 
way to go thither is out at the West Gate, and^ by it not only 
the Bodies of Kings and Princes, but of all that die in the 
Castle are carried out ; and no interest can prevail to have them 
conveyed out by any other Gate. The Tombs of the six Kings 
are accompanied with those of their Relations, their Wives, and 
chief Eunuchs. Every one of them is in the middle of a Garden ; 
and to go see them, one must ascend by five or six steps to a 
walk built of those Stones, which resemble the Theban. The 
Chappel which contains the Tomb is surrounded by a Gallery 
with open Arches : It is square, and raised six or seven Fathom 
high ; it is beautified with many Ornaments of Architecture, 
and covered with a Borne, that at each of the four corners has 
a Turret ; few people are suffered to go in, because these places 
are accounted Sacred. There are Santo^s who keep the entry, 
and I could not have got in, if I had not told them that I was 
a Stranger. The floor is covered with a Carpet, and on the Tomb 
there is a Satten Pall with white Flowers, that trails upon the 
Ground. There is a Cloath of State of the same Stuff a Fathom 
high, and all is lighted with many Tamps. The Tombs of the 
Sons and Daughters of the King are on the one side, and on 
the other all that Kings Books, on folding seats, which for the 
most part are Alcorans with their Commentaries, and some other 
Books of the Mahometan Religion, The Tombs of the other 
Kings are like to this, save only that the Chappels of some are 
square in the inside as on the outside, and of others built in 
form of a Cross ; some are lined with that lovely Stone I have 
mentioned, others with black Stone, and some others with 
white, so Varnished as that they appear to be Polished Marble, 
nay, some of them are lined with Purslane. The Tomb of 
the King that died last is the finest of all,^^ and its Dome is 
Varnished over with Green. The Tombs of the Princes their 
Brothers, of their other Relations, and of their Wives also, are 
of the same form as their own are ; but they are easily to be 
distinguished, because their Domes have not the crescent which 
is upon the Domes of the Monuments of the Kings. The 
Sepulchres of the chief Eunuchs are low and flat Roofed -without 
any Dome, but have each of them their Garden: All these 
Sepulchres are Sanctuaries, and how criminal soever a Man 
may be that can get into them, he is secure. The Gary^^ is 
rung there as well as in the Castle, and all things are most 
exactly regulated amongst the Officers. That Gary is pretty 
pleasant, though it be only rung with a stick, striking upon a 



large Plate of Copper that is held in the Air ; but the Ringer 
strikes artfully, and makes Harmony with it ; the Gciry serves 
• to distinguish time. In the Indies the natural day is divided 
into two parts. The one begins at break of day, and the other 
at the beginning of the night, and each of these parts is divided 
into four Quarters, and each Quarter into eight Parts, which 
they call Gary. 



The King that Reigns is a Chiaf by Religion, that’s to 
say, of the Sect of the Persians ; he is the seventh since the 
Usurpation^ made upon the Successour of Chaalem King of 
Decan/ and he is called Abdulla Cotup-Cha. I have already 
observed, that the name of all the Kings of Golconda is Cotup>- 
Cha, as Edel-Cha is the name of the Kings of Viziapour. This 
King is the Son of a Bramen Uady,^ who hath had other Princes 
also by the late King her Husband, and was very witty. He was 
but fifteen years of Age® when his Father (who left the Crown 
to his Eldest Son) died ; but the Eldest being less beloved of 
the Queen than Abdulla his younger Brother,® he was clapt up 
in Prison, and Abdulla placed upon the Throne. He^ continued 
in Prison until the year One thousand six hundred fifty eight 
when Auran-Zeb coming into the Kingdom with an Army, the 
captive Prince had the boldness to send word to the King, that 
if he pleased to give him the command of his Forces, he would 
meet the Mogul and fight him. The King was startled at that 
bold proposal, and was so far from granting him what he 
demanded, that he caused him to be poysoned. 

The number The King of Golconda pays above Five hundred thousand 

of Soldiers. Soldiers;^ and that makes the 'Riches of the Omras, because 
he who has Pay for a thousand Men, entertains but Five hundred, 
and so do the rest proportionably. He allows a Trooper (who 
ought to be either a Mogul .or Persian) ten Chequins a month, 
and for that Pay, he ought to keep two Horses and four or 
five Servants. A Foot-soldier (of these Nations) hath five 
ChequinSj and ought to entertain two Servants, and carry a 
Musket. He gives not the Indians (his own Subjects) above 
two or three Roupies a month, and these carry only the Eance 
and Pike. Seeing the late King gave his Soldiers better Pay 
than this do’s, he was far better served ; He entertained always 
a strong Army, and the number of Men he payed was always 
compleat. By that means he easily. hindred the Great Mogul 

Of the king Of golcOndA thAT reigns 


from attempting any thing against him, and was not tributary 
•to him as his Son is.® 

Heretofore the King went ever now and then to his Palace 
of Bagnagar, but he hath not been there this eight years ; since 
Auran-Zeb (who was then but Governour of a Province) sur- 
prized him in it, having marched his Forces with so great 
diligence, that they were at the Gates of Bagnagar, before the 
King had any News that they were marched from Aurangeabad, 
so that he easily made himself Master of the Town : ^ Never- 
theless, the King in disguise, escaped by a private door, and 
retreated to the Fort of Golconda. The Mogul plundered the 
Town and Palace, carrying away all the Riches, even to the 
Plates of Gold, wherewith the Floors of the Kings appartment 
were covered. The Queen Mother (at length) had the Art to 
appease the Conquerour ; she treated with him in name of the 
King, and granted him one of his Daughters in Marriage for 
his Son,^® with promise that he should leave the Kingdom to 
him, if he had no Male issue, and he hath none. Had it not 
been for that Accommodation, he was upon the point of losing 
his Kingdom, and perhaps his life too. Since that time he is 
apprehensive of every thing ; and next to the Queen-mother, 
he trusts no body but Sidy Mezafer^'^ (his favourite) and the 
Bramens, because that Queen is of the Bramen caste, and con- 
tinually surrounded by them. The King knows of nothing but 
by them, and there are some appointed to hearken to what the 
Vizier himself, and other Officers have to say to the King ; but 
his fear is much encreased since the Great Mogul hath been in 
War with the King of Viziapour,^^ whom in the beginning he 
assisted with Two hundred thousand Men, commanded by an 
Eunuch, who was almost as soon recalled as sent, upon the com- 
plaints made by the Moguls Embassadour at Golconda, The 
King (to excuse himself) said, that that Army was sent with- 
out his knowledge ; and he is still in great apprehension of 
having the Moguls upon his back, if they succeed against the 
King of Viziapour, who hath hitherto defended himself very 
bravely. This shews the weakness of that King ; he dares not 
put to death his Omras, even when they deserve it ; and if he 
find them guilty of any Crime, he condemns thein only to pay 
a Fine, and takes the Money, Nay, the Dutch begin to insult 
over him, and it is not long since they obliged him to abandon 
to them an English Ship,^® which they had seized in the' Road 
of MasuUpatan, though he had undertaken to protect her. 

There is a Prince also at his Court, who begins to create 
him, a great deal of trouble, and it is he whom they call the 
Kings little Son-in-law,^^ who hath married the third of the 
Princesses his Daughters, because he is of the Blood Royal : 
He pretends to the Crown, ■ what promise soever hath been 


iNDiAf4 TRAVELS 6 f THEVfiN6']:' 

A Moorish 




made to the Great Mogul ; he makes himself to be served as 
the King himself is, who hitherto loved him very tenderly ; 
but at present he is jealous of that Son-in-law as well as of 
the rest, and fancies that he intends to destroy him, that he 
himself may Reign, tho* he be reckoned a Man of great inte- 
grity. There was in Bagnagar a Moorish Sanio^^ that lived 
near the Carvansery of NimeUUlla, who was held in great vene- 
ration by the Mahometans ; the House he lived in was built for 
him by a great Omra, but he kept his Windows shut all day, 
and never opened them till towards the Evening, to give his 
Benedictions to a great many people, who asked them with 
cries, prostating themselves,^® and kissing the ground in his 
presence. Most part of the Omras visited that cheat every 
evening ; and when he went abroad (which happened seldom) 
he went in a Palanquin^ where he shewed himself stark naked 
after the Indian fashion, and the People reverenced him as a 
Saint. The great Lords made him Presents, and in the Court 
of his House he had an Elephant chained, which was given him 
by a great Omra. Whil’st I was in my Journey to Carnates, the 
Kings little Son-in-law gave to this Santo a great many Jewels 
belonging to the Princess his Wife, Daughter to the King ; and 
since no Man knew the motive of so great a Present, which 
perhaps was only some Superstitious Devotion, it was presently 
given out that it was to raise Forces against the King, that with 
the concurrence of the Santo he might invade^^ the Crown* 
Whether that report was true or false, it is certain that the 
King sent to the Santo^s House, to fetch from thence his 
Daughters Jewels and the Elephant, and ordered him to depart 
out of the Kingdom. The Kings eldest Daughter was married 
to the Kinsman of a Cheik of Mecha the second married 
Mahmoudj eldest Son to Auran-Zeh,^^ for the Reasons I men- 
tioned already ; and the third is Wife to the little Son-in-law 
Mirza AhduUCossin^ who has Male-Children by her and 
they say, the fourth is designed for the King of Viziapour.^^ 

The King of Golconda has vast Revenues ; he is proprietory 
of all the Lands in his Elingdom, which he Rents out to those 
who ojffer most, except such as he gratifies his particular Friends 
with, to whom he gives the use of them for a certain time. The 
Customs of Merchants Goods that pass through his Countrey, 
and of the Ports of Masulipatan and Madrespatan^^ yield him 
much, and there is hardly any sojtrt of Provisions in his Kingdom, 
from which he hath not considerable dues. 

The Diamond-Mines pay him. likewise a great Revenue,^® 
and all they whom he allows to digg in ; those that are towards 
Masulipatan pay him a Pagod every hPur they work there, 
whether they find any Diamonds or not. His chief Mines are 
in Carnates^^ in divers places towards Viziapour, and he hath 
Six thousand Men continually at work there, who daily find 



near three Pound weight, and no body diggs there but for the 

This Prince wears on the Crown of his head, a Jewel ^ ^rich 
almost a Foot long, which is said to be of an inestimable value ; ^ 

it is a Rose of great Diamonds, three or four Inches diameter ; Golconda. 
in the top of that Rose there is a little Crown, out of which 
issues a Branch fashioned like a Palm-Tree Branch, but is round ; 
and that Palm-Branch (which is crooked at the top) is a good 
Inch in Diameter, and about half a Foot long ; it is made up 
of several Sprigs, which are (as it were) the leaves of it, and 
each of which have at their end a lovely long Pearl shaped like 
a Pear ; at the Foot of this Posie, there are two Bands of Gold 
in fashion of Table-bracelets, in which are enchased large 
Diamonds set round with Rubies, which with great Pearls that 
hang dangling on all sides, make an exceeding rare shew ; and 
these Bands have Clasps of Diamonds to fasten the Jewels to 
the head : In short, that King hath many other considerable 
pieces of great value in his Treasury, and it is not to be doubted, 
but that he surpasses all the Kings of the Indies in pretious 
Stones ; and that if there were Merchants (who would give him 
their worth,) he would have prodigious Sums of Money. 



The Omras are the great Lords of the Kingdom, who are 
(for the most part) Persians, or the Sons of Persians ; they are 
all rich, for they not only have great Pay yearly of the King 
for their Offices, but they make extream advantage also by the 
Soldiers, scarcely paying one half of the number they are 
obliged to entertain ; besides that, they have gratifications from 
the King, of Lands and Villages, whereof he allows them the 
Use, where they commit extraordinary extractions by the 
Bramens, who are their Farmers. 

These Omras generally make a very handsome Figure ; 
when they go through the Town, an Elephant or two goes 
before them, on which three Men carrying Banners are mounted; 
fifty or sixty Troopers well cloathed, and riding on Persian or 
Tartarian Horses, with Bows and Arrows, Swords by their sides, 
and Bucklers on their backs, follow them at some distance ; and 
after these come other Men on Horse-back, sounding Trumpets, 
and playing on Fifes. 

After them comes the Omra on Horse-back, with thirty or 
forty Footmen about him, some making way, others carrying 
Jyances, and some witji fip.^ Napkins driving away the Flies, 



Gemla, or 

One of them holds an Umbrello over his Masters head, another 
carries the Tobacco-Pipe, and others Pots full of water in 
hanging Cases of Canes. The Palanquin carried by four Men, 
comes next with two other Porters for change ; and all this 
pomp is brought up^ by a Camel or two, with Men beating of 
Timbals on their backs. 

When the Omra pleases, he takes^ his Palanquin, and then 
his Horse is led by him.^ The Palanquin is sometimes covered 
with Silver, and its Canes or Bambous tipt with Silver at both 
ends ; the Lord is to be seen lying in it, holding Flowers in his 
hand, smoaking Tobacco, or else chewing Betle and Areca, 
shewing by that soft and effeminate Posture a most supine dis- 
soluteness. All (who have any considerable Pay, whether 
Moors or Gentiles) imitate the Gentiles, and are carried through 
the Town in Palanquins well attended ; and the Dutch Inter- 
preter at Bagnagar (who is a Gentile,) goes at present with such 
an equipage,' save only that instead of Camels, he hath a 
Chariot ; but (at least) there is not a Cavalier, but hath his 
Umbrello bearer, his two Flie-drivers, and his Cup-bearer. 

The Betle"^ (which these Gentlemen chew in their Palanquin) 
is a Leaf not unlike to an Orange-Tree Leaf, though it be not 
so broad ; the Stalk of it being weak, it is commonly planted 
near the Areca-Tree, to which it clings ; and indeed, the Indians 
never take Betle without an ^reca-Nut, and they are sold 
together. The Areca is very high, and much like to an ordinary 
Palm-Tree ; it carries its Nuts in clusters, and they are as big 
as Dates, and insipid. This Betle and Areca keep all the Indians 
in countenance, and they use it in the Streets and every where. 
They pretend that it is an excellent thing for the Stomach, and 
for the sweetness of Breath. 

All that are called Omras at Golconda, have not the ability® 
of those whose Train and Equipage I have now observed ; there 
are those who being not so rich, proportion their Train to their 
Revenue ; besides, the quality of Omra is become so common, 
and so much liberty allowed to take that Title, that the Indians 
who guard the Castle and the outside of the Kings Palace, to 
the number of a Thousand, must needs be called Omras also, 
though their Pay be no more than about a Crown a month : 
But in short,® some of the great Omras are exceeding rich. 
There was the Omra, or rather the Emir Gemla,"^ the Son 
of an Oyl-man of Ispahan, who had the wealth of a Prince : 
He left the Service of the King of Golconda, went over to the 
Mogul, and died Governour of Bengala, It is well known, 
that he had a design to make himself King of Bengala, where 
he was very powerful, and that he only waited for a fabourable 
occasion to get his Son® from the Court of the Great Mogul, 
where he was detained as an hostage. He had twenty Mans 
weight of Piamonds, whiqh ms^k^ po^r . hqndred and eight 



Pounds of Hollands weight ; and all this Wealth he got by the 

Plunder he formerly made in Carnates, when he was at the 

head of the Army of the King of Golconda, at the time when 

that King (in conjunction with the King of Viziapour) made 

War against the King of Bisnagar, This General took a great 

many places there in a short time, but the Fort of Guendicot^ Guendicot. 

standing upon the top of an inaccessible Rock, put a full stop 

to his Conquests. The Town is upon the side of the Hill : 

one must (in a manner)^® crawl up to come to it, and there is 

no way to enter it but by one narrow Path. Mir-Gemla being 

unable to force it, made use of his cunning and Money, and so 

managed those (whom the Naique sent to him to negotiate a 

Peace,) that he wheedled out the Governour, under pretext of 

entring into a League with him for great Designs ; but no sooner 

was he come to the place of meeting, but the Omras made sure 

of his Person, contrary to the Promise he had given, and kept 

him constantly with him till he put him in possession of 

Guendicot, This place is within ten days Journey of St. Thomas, 

upon the main Land. 

I had been two months in the Countrey when Winter came Winter in 
on ; it began in June by Rain and Thunder, but the Thunder 
lasted not above four days, and the Rain poured down with 
great storms of Wind till the middle of July, though now and 
then we had some fair weather : The rest of that month was 
pretty fair ; in August, September and October, there fell great 
Rains, but without any Thunder ; the Rivers overflowed so 
prodigiously that there was no passing over the Bridges, no not 
with the help of Elephants. The River of Bagnagar^^ beat down 
almost two thousand Houses, in which many People perished. 

The Air was a little cold in the night-time and morning, there 
was some heat during the day, but it was as moderate as it is 
in France in the month of May, and the Air continued in this 
temper until February the year following, when the great heats 
began again. 

These Rains render the Land of this Kingdom exceeding 
fertile, which yields all things in abundance, and especially 
Fruits. Vines are plentiful there, and the Grapes are ripe in 
January, though there be some that are not gathered but in 
February, March or April, according as the Vines are exposed 
to the heat ; they make White-wine of them. When the Grapes 
are gathered, they Prune the Vines, and about Midsummer thay 
yield Verjuice. In this Countrey also they have two Crops a 
year of Rice, and many other Grains. 





a stately 

The Road 
from Bag-^ 
m^ar to 

Having stayed long enough at Bagnagar, I had a design to 
see some Countries of the coast of Coromandel ; and notwith- 
standing it was Winter, I resolved to set out for Masulipaian. 
Seeing there was no Travelling neither in Coach nor Chariot, 
because of the badness of the Ways, and the frequent over- 
flowings of the Rivers and Brooks, I hired a Horse for my 
self, and two Oxen for my Servant and Baggage, and I parted 
with some Merchants. We came to a Bourg called Elmas- 
Kepentch,^ eight Leagues from Bagnagar : They who have a 
mind to go to the Diamond-mines of Gany/ take their way by 
Tenara,^ where the King has a stately Palace, consisting of four 
large Piles of Stone-building, two Stories high, and adorned with 
Portico’s, Halls and Galleries, and before the Palace there is a 
large regular Square ; besides these Royal Appartments, there 
are Habitations for Travellers, and unalienable Rents for enter- 
taining the poor, and all Passengers that please to stop there. 

Having no business at these Diamond-mines, which are six 
or seven days Journey from Golconda, we went the other way. 
In all our Journey, we found but three small Towns, which are 
Panguel,^ Sarchel^ and Penguetchepoul ;® but we met with 
several Rivers, the most considerable of which are Kachkna^ 
and Money we went through sixteen or seventeen Villages, 
about which the Fields are always green and pleasant to the eye, 
though the way be very bad. There I saw Trees of all kinds 
that are in the Indies, and even Cassia-^ees,^ though they are 
scarce in other Countries of the Indies ; at length (in ten days 
time), we arrived at Masulipatan,^^ the whole Journey makes 
about fifty three French Leagues, and in fair weather they 
perform it in a weeks time, 

Masulipatan lies on the coast of Coromandel, in sixteen 
degrees and a half North-Latitude, This Town is Situated upon 
the Gulf of Bengala East South-East from Bagnagar, though 
the Town be but small, yet it is well Peopled ; the Streets are 
narrow, and it is intollerably hot there from March till- July. 
The Houses are all separated one from another, and the Water 
is brackish, because of the Tides that come up to it ; there is 
great Trading there in Chites, because, besides those that are 
made there, a great many are brought from St. Thomas, which 
are much finer, and of better Colours than those of the other 
parts of the Indies, 

Elmas-Quipentche, eight Leagues from Bagnagar. Tchellapcli 6 
Leag. from Elmas. Fdnguel, a Town, Amanguel 6 Leag. and a half 
from Tchellapeli. Swcheh^uipentche, ^ ^own. Half a Lea^. from 

FROM bagnAgar to mAsUlipatAn i 4 l 

Amen. Mousi, a River. Gougelou 3 Leag. from Sarchel. Anendeguir ]y[asuU- 
4 I/eag. from Gougelou. Penguetchpoul, a Town, 5 Leag. from Anende- patan.^^ 
guir. PantelcR, 5 Teag. and a half from Penguetch. Matcher, 4 Leag. 
from Pantela. Quachgna, a River. Ovir 4 Teag, from Matcher. Milmol, 

4 Leag. from Ovir, Goroupet, 2 I^eag. from Milmol. Masulipatan, half 
a Teag. from Goroupet. 

The Coast is excellent/^ and therefore Ships come thither 
from all Nations, and go from thence into all Countries. I 
saw there Cochinchinese^ Men of Siam^ Pegu, and of many- 
other Kingdoms of the East. 

The Countrey of Masulipatan (as all the rest of the Coast) idolaters, 
is so full of Idolaters, and the Pagods so full of the lascivious 
Figures of Monsters, that one cannot enter them without horrour ; Figures of 
it is exceeding fruitful, and Provisions are very cheap there. Monsters. 
The people of our Caravan had a Sheep for Twelve pence, a 
Partridge for a Half penny, and a Fowl for less than Two pence ; 
it is the same almost all over the coast of Coromandel^ wherein The extent 
there is no more commonly comprehended but what reaches 
from the Cape of Negapatan to the Cape of Masulipatan: But del. 
some Authors carry it further, and will have it to reach from 
Cape Comory to the Western mouth of the Ganges , though others 
make it to end at the Cape, which the Portuguese call Das The Cape 
P almas DasPaim^s. 

There are several Towns on this Coast, some of which are 
good, and amongst others Negapatan, which lyes in the Latitude Negapatan. 
of twelve degrees Trangabar, which is almost in the same Trangabar. 
Latitude ; Meliapour or St. Thomas which lyes in the heighth Meliapour 
of thirteen degrees and a half, and which the Moors (with the 
assistance of the Dutch) took back from the Portuguese in the 
year One thousand six hundred sixty two. 

The Kingdom of Golconda reaches not above two Leagues 
beyond St. Thomas. They say that St. Thomas suffered 
Martyrdom in that Town which bears his name ; at St. Thomas 
they make Lime of such Shells as are brought from St. Michael 
in Normandy, and for that end they burn them with Hogsdung. 

The Small-pox is very frequent in that Countrey ; but there 
is another more violent Distemper that commonly commits 
greater ravage there. It is called Akeron,^^ and only seizes Akefon, a 
Children ; it is an inflammation of the Tongue and Mouth, pro- distemper, 
ceeding from too great heat ; their Parents are careful to cool 
them from time to time with Herbs that are good against that 
Disease, for otherwise it seizes the Guts, reaches to the Funda- 
ment, and kills the Child. There are many Naiques to the 
South of St: Thomas, who are Sovereigns : The Naique of piques 
Madura is one ; he of Tangiour is at present a Vassal to the Soverefgns. 
King of Viziapour. Naique properly signifies a Captain ; hereto- 
fore they were Governours of Places, and Officers of the King,; 
but having Revelled, they made themselves Sovereigns. 



Poiiacau Poliacate^^ is to the North of St. Thomas, and the Factory 

(which the Dutch have established there) is one of the best they 
have in the Indies, by reason of the Cotton-cloaths, of which 
they have great Ware-houses full there. At PoUacate they re- 
Salt-Petre. fine the Salt-Petre which they bring from Bengala, and made 
the Gun-powder, with which they furnish their other Factories 
they refine the Salt-Petre that they send to Europe in Batavia. 
Gueldria. The Governour of Gueldria,^^ which is the Fort of PoUacate, 
has of the Dutch fifty Crowns a month Pay, with fifty Crowns 
more for his Table, Provisions of Wine and Oyl, and his 
Cloaths, which he can take when he pleases out of the Com- 
panies Ware-houses. The current Money at PoUacate, are 
Roupies and Pagods, which are there worth four Roupies, that 
Fanons, is almost six French Rivres ; they have Fanons^^ also which- are 

Money. small pieces, half Gold and half Silver ; they have the same 

Stamp as the Pagods have ; six and a half of them (with half a 
Quarter-piece) make a Roupie, and six and twenty and a half a 
Gazer, Paged : They have also Gazers,^^ which are small Copper-pieces, 

Money. as big as a Fanon, forty of which go to a Fanon ; and the Dutch 

at present Coin all these pieces of Money. 

Falicole. Their Company has a Factory also at PalIcole,^° two days 

Dacheron. Journey Northward from Masulipatan, and another at Dacheron^^ 
on the same Coast. Bimilipatan^^ is four days Journey North- 
wards of Masulipatan. The TrafiEick of those parts consists in 
Rice, fine Cloaths, Iron, Wax and Racre, which is as good as 
at Pegu ; and from abroad they import Copper, Tin, Read and 
Bimilipaian. Pepper: From Bimilppatan to Cicacola?’^ it is fifteen hours 
Cicacola. travelling by Rand, and that is the last Town of the Kingdom 
of Golconda, on the side of Bengala. The Govemours of that 
Countrey are great Tyrants, and if any one threaten to inform 
the King of their exactions they’ll laugh at it, and say that he 
is King of Golconda, and they of their Governments ; from 
Cicacola to Bengala it is a months Journey by Rand. 

In many places of the Kingdom of Golconda the people 
are much infested by Serpents ; but one may cure himself of 
their Sting, provided he neglect not the wound, and hold a 
burning Coal very near the part that is stung ; the Venom is 
perceived to work out by degrees, and the heat of the Fire is 
not at all troublesome: They m^e use also of the Stone of 
Cobra, which hath been spoken of before. 

When I thought my self sufificiently informed of the places 
on the Coast of Coromandel, I returned from Masulipatan to 
Bagnagar, and stayed there three .weeks longer, because I 
would not go from thence but in company of Monsieur Bazon, 
who had some business still remaining to make an end of ; so 
that I had as much time as I needed to see the Celebration of 
The Festival the F^tival of Hussein, the Son . of Aly,^> which fell out at 
to Golconlia. Moors of Golconda celebrated it with more 



Fopperies than they do in Persia ; there is nothing but Mas- 
quarades for the space of ten days ; they erect Chappels in all 
the Streets with Tents, which they fill with Tamps, and adorn 
with Foot-Carpets ; the Streets are full of People, and all of 
them almost have their Faces covered with Sifted ashes ; they 
who are naked cover their whole Body with them, and they who 
are cloathed their Apparel ; but the Cloaths they wear on these 
days are generally extravagant, and their Head-tire much more ; 
they all carry Arms ; most part have their Swords naked, and 
the poor have Wooden ones ; several drag about the Streets 
long Chains as big as ones Arm, which are tied to their Girdle ; 
and it being painful to drag them, they thereby move the pity 
of Zelots who touch them, and having kissed their Fingers, 
lift them up to their Eyes, as if these Chains were holy Relicks* 
They make Processions, wherein many carry Banners, and others 
have Poles, on which there is a Silver-Plate that represents 
Husseins hand ; some with little Houses of a light wood upon 
their heads, skip, and turn at certain Cadences of a Song ; 
others dance in a round, holding the point of their naked Swords 
upwards, which they clash one against another, crying with all 
their force Hussein: The publick Wenches themselves come in 
for a share in this Festival, by their extravagant Dances, Habits 
and Head-tire. 

The Heathen Idolaters celebrate this Feast also for their 
diversion, and they do it with such Fopperies as far surpass 
the Moors ; they drink, eat, laugh, and dance on all hands, and 
they have Songs which savour little of a doleful pomp,"'” that the 
Moors pretend to represent : They observe only not to shave 
themselves during the ten days ; but though it be prohibited 
to sell any thing except Bread and Fruit, yet there is plenty 
pf all things in private Houses. 

This Festival is hardly ever celebrated without Blood-shed ; 
for there being several Sunnis who laugh at the others, and the 
Chyais not being able to endure it, they often quarrel and fight, 
which is a very proper representation of the Feast ; and at that 
time there is no enquiry made into Man-slaughter, because the 
Moors believe, that during these ten days the Gates of Paradise 
are open to receive those who die for the Musselman Faith. 
At Bagnagar I saw one of these quarrels raised by a Tartar, 
who spake some words against Hussein : Some Chyais being 
scandalized thereat, fell upon him to be revenged, but he killed 
three of them with his Sword, and many Musket-Shot were 
fired : A Gentleman (who would have parted them) received 
a wound in the Belly that was like to have cost him his Hfe, 
and seven were killed out-right: Nay, some of the Servants 
of the Grand Vizir were engaged in it ; and this chief Minister 
passing by that place in his Palanquin, made haste down that 
he might get on Horse-back and ride away. Next day after 



the Feast they make other processions, sing doleful Ditties, and 
carry about CofBns covered with divers Stuffs, with a Turban 
on each Cofin, to represent the interment of Hussein and his 
Men, who were killed at the Battel of Kerbela by the Forces 
of Calif Yezid.^^ 



No sooner was this Feast ended, but Monsieur Bazon 
advertised me to prepare for my return to Surrat, which I did, 
so that November the thirteenth we parted from Bagnagar, with 
a Pass-port he had obtained from the King, to pay no Duties 
throughout the whole Kingdom ; but we went another way 
than we came. When we came to Danec’- they demanded 
Duties for three Villages, but with so much eagerness, that it 
seemed we were in the fault that we had not our Money ready 
in our hands to give it them ; however, when the Man (whom 
Sidy Muzafer had given Monsieur Bazon to make good the 
Passport) had shew’n it to the Collectors, they were satisfied and 
only asked some small gratuity to buy Betle ; and it was just 
so with ts in all places where Toll is payed. We continued our 
Journey by most ugly ways ; and after seven days March arrived 
at the Town of Beder, mentioned before which is but two and 
twenty Leagues distant from Bagnagar. In this Road we foimd 
the Rivers of Nerva, Penna and Mousi, two little Towns, called 
Moumin and Pendgioul/ and a great many Villages. The 
Kingdom of Golconda ends on this side, betwixt the Bourgs 
Couir and Senjavour'd.^ 

Campings From Bagnagar to Danec five Cosses. Nerona, a Riv. To Tclielcour 

fLiif I Cosses. Penu, a River. To Squequerdeh 6 Cosses. To Yacout-Kepentch 

namr to' Yenquetala 6 Cosses. Monnuin. a Town. Pendgioul a Town. 

Seder. ^ To Co«ir 8 Cosses. Senjavour^d. To Dediqui 6 Cos. To Beder 4 Cos The 

Cosses reduced make 22 Reag. and a half. Lodgings from Beder to 
Fairy, To Etour 12 Coss. Manjera a River. To Morg 8 Coss. To 
Oudeguir 6 Coss. to Helly 6 Coss. to Rajoura 6 Coss. to Saourgaon 6 
Coss. Careck a River. Ganga a River. To Caly 8 Coss. to Raampouri 
6 Coss. to Patry 8 Coss. the whole 33 Leagues.' The way from Patry 
to Brampour. To Gahelgaon 9 Coss. Doudna a River. Patou a Town 
6 Coss. Ner a Town, 6 Coss. Seouny 8 Coss. Chendequer a Town’ 
2 Coss. Ourna a River. Zafravad a Town, 10 Coss. Piply lo Coss’ 
Deoulgan 6 Coss. Rouquera a Town, 6 Coss. Melcapour a Town 2 
Coss. Nervar a River. Pourna River. Japour 12 Coss. Tapty Riv 
Brampour a Town, 2 Coss. The whole 39 Leag. and a half.' 

We parted from Beder the twentieth of November, and I 
travelled thirty three Leagues more with Monsieur Bazon ; but 



because he had business at Aurangeabadj and I at Br amp our, 
we parted the thirtieth of Nove^nber at the Town of Patry/ 
after we had passed the Rivers Marujera, Careck and Ganga,^ 

We found upon our Road the Towns of Oudeguir,^ Rajoura^^ 
and Patry, where the Governours took great care to guard them- 
selves from the Parties of the King of Viziapours Army, with 
whom the Mogul was in War, For my part, (having taken 
another Servant) I took my way by the Towns of Patou, Ner, 
Chendequer, Zafravad, Rouquera and Melcapour, all which six 
are not so good as one of our ordinary Cities ; and on Thursday 
the ninth of December I arrived at Br amp our, which I have 
described before. In my way from Patry to Brampour, I found 
the Rivers Doudna, Nervar, Pourna and Tapty,^^ and I spent 
nine and twenty days in that Journey, though in another season 
of the year it be performed in two and twenty. . 

I parted from Brampour (the Capital City of the Province of 
Candiche) to return to Surrat by the common Road, and falling 
sick of a Cholick by the way, I learned a cure for it. The 
Portuguese call the four sorts of Cholicks that people are 
troubled with in the Indies (where they are. frequent) 
Mordechin}^ The first is a bare Cholick, but that causes sharp Mordechin, 
Pains ; the second, besides the Pain causes a Toosness. They 
who are troubled with the third, have violent Vomitings with 
the Pains ; and the fourth prodxices all the three Symptomes, 
to wit, Vomiting, Toosness, and extream Pain ; and this last 
I take to be the Cholera morbus. These distempers proceed 
most commonly from Indigestion, and cause sometimes such 
cutting Pains, that they kill a Man in four and twenty hours. 

The Remedy which is used in the Indies against it, is to heat a. Remedy 
a Peg of Iron about half as big as ones Finger red hot, clap it ^ the 
to the sole of the Patients heel, and hold it there till he be no ^ ° 
longer able to endure it, so that the Iron leave a mark behind 
it : The same must be done to the other heel with the same red 
hot iron, and that Remedy is commonly so effectual that the 
Pains instantly cease. If the Patient be let Blood with that 
burning, his life will be in evident danger ; and several People 
have told me that when they let Blood before they burn the 
heel, the Patient infallibly dies, just as many days after he 
hath been let Blood, as he was ill before ; but Blood-letting is 
not dangerous two days after the Operation : There are some 
who make use of Ligatures for this distemper, and bind the 
Patients head so fast with a Swathing-band, as if they had a 
mind to squeeze out his Brains ; they do the same with his 
Back, Reins, Thighs and Legs ; and when the Patient finds 
no good of this Ligature, they think him past cure. 

A Flux alone is also a common and very dangerous dis- A Flux or 
temper in the Indies, for many die of it, and the least over- J 

heating brings it upon one. The Remedy is to take two Drachms foy a 



of terrified Rhubarb/^ and a Drachm of Cttmmin-seed all 
must be beat into a Powder, and taken in lyimon-water, or (if 
that be wanting) in Rose-water. The common people of the 
Indies have no other remedy against this distemper, but Rice 
boyled in water till it be dry, they eat it with Milk turned sower, 
and use no other Food as long as the distemper lasts ; the same 
they use for a Bloody Flux/® 

I travelled from Brampour to Surrat with a Banian and a 
Mula that came from Court. This Mula having represented his 
poverty to the King, obtained a Pension from him of Five 
hundred RoupieSj which amount to about seven hundred and 
fifty French Tivres, which was assigned to him upon a Village. 
It is three-score and fifteen Teagues from Brampour to Surrat, 
and we spent a fortnight in the Journey ; we found many Towns 
and Castles on our Road, and were never an hour without seeing 
some Bourg or Village ; and seeing Lions many times happen 
to be in the way, there were Sheds or Cottages under Trees, 
whither the Indians betook themselves in the night-time ; we 
crossed also some Mountains and eight Rivers ; I saw nothing 
else but what was very common. We were put in fear of the 
Troopers of the Raja of Badur, who skulk in the Mountains of 
Candiche, and roam about every where, though at present their 
Master renders obedience to the Great Mogul ; but we met 
with none of them, and arrived safely at Surrat, 

J amemmb / . 


bam AM 

fi assaim 

* 1 beo«wa<>« 

‘°^*Nriia aAFnAVAT 

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**'»ri-5yj«*UCELOO I 

* 1^^MS*»6CUIR I 


^>->VVVpantela I 



S?*" "is 


of SCi ^ 




Roundthe WORLD 

By Dr. John Francis Gemelli Carerl 


Containing the most Remarkable Things 

he saw in INDOSTAN. 

G / P O 


L i: I a 0 r i o ji{ 


G E M E L L 1 C A R E K I. 

T t. *Ps 7 . ^4 

Contenente kcofe pi u 


IN N A r O 1. T. 

Kelh StampctU di Cjiiifeppc R ofcli^ 
Conikcfjza ds' ^upenari* 




Contaiiiing the most Remarkable Things he saw in 





Never was Traveller better pleas’d, after enduring many GemaiH, 
hardships, for a considerable time in far distant Countries, in 1695. 
being safely rtutor’d to his native Soil,^ enjojing the company 
of dearest Friends, and relating what he had seen ; than I. 
was at my Landing in Indosian, which made me fcarget the 
Toils of my troublesome Voyage. If it be extraordinary delight- 
ful to feed the Ears with the Relation of what precious things 
Nature has bestow'd on that wealthy Country, for the ease of 
humane Life ; you may judge how great a satisfaction it was to- 
me, to be upon the spot where I might actually see and be 
acquainted with them. Being therefore lodg’d in the Monastery 
of the AugusUnims* in Datmm* and having a little rested me 
after my Voyage, on Munday* the Hth of January 1Q8B,' I 
apply’A my self to landing of my Eiquipage, The Foriuguese 
Factor, was so civil that as at BaAder*Congo^ my Portmantues 
had not been search’d for the sake of the Commissioner s” so 
neither were they open’d at DaiAam through his courtesy. He 
obligingly told me, ha could wish I had breraght the value 
of lOOOQO Crowns ; for in regard I waS a stranger he would not 
have taken any Custom of me ; for had I beto a PpriugueseJ 
I must have paid 10 Per cent.* (which to say the Truth would 
have been consid^able) to the Gentils,^ who farm’d the 
Customs. When T acquainted F. FraAds''*- with this Generosity 
of the Factors, he told me, that notwithstanding his being a 

iNbiAN travels 6f cArEW 













Religious Man, having brought two Bales of Carpets, for the 
service of their Church, the Custom-house Officers had stopped 
them for their Duties, I apply’ d my self to the Factor, to 
have them restor’d to him, representing F. Francises great 
worth, and how much he was esteemM at Ispahan by all the 
great ones ; so that at length through my inter-cession he 
recover’d his Bales. 

The City Damam is seated on- the left side of the River of 
that Name,® in 20 degrees of latitude. Tho’ but ill peopled, 
it is Beautiful enough, and built after the Italian manner. Three 
broad Streets divide it in length, and four across them ; all so 
regularly built, that the corners of the Houses (which are for 
the most part trench’d about)® do not jut out an Inch one beyond 
another ; ’tis true most of them have only a Ground Floor, very 
few having any Rooms above, and they are generally Til’d. 
Instead of Glass their Windows are made of Oyster Shells 
curiously Wrought and Transparent. Every House has its 
Garden or Orchard with Fruit Trees. 

The Air of Damam is very good, being North of Goa ; and 
tho its Summer and Winter be at the same time as it is at Goa^^ 
(for whilst I stay’d it was Summer in those parts, and the Winter 
is from May till the end of September, with continual Rain 
and Storms) yet during that time I call’d Summer, there is some 
sort of Coolness in the 'Morning, which is not at Goa, 

It has four modern and well Built Bastions but ’tis 
somewhat irregular, and ill provided with Cannon. The 
Compass is about two Miles, without any Ditch on the East 
and South sides, but with a low Work, or Intrenchment Breast 
high. On the other sides the Ditch is fill’d by an Arm of the 
River, towards which there are two Gates, and before the first 
a Draw-Bridge. All the Walls are back’d with Ramparts. 

The Government is in a Captain, or Commandant, “ and 
it is kept by a good Garrison. The Factor before mention’d 
has the charge of the King’s Revenue. It is inhabited by 
Portugueses, Mestizos,^^ who are born of white Fathers and 
black Mothers, Pagans and Mahometans ; but these two last 
are not allow’d the free exercise of their Religion. Th^re are 
several good Monasteries, as those of the Jesuits, the Recolets,^^ 
the Augusiinians, and the Parish Church ,* but none of them 
has above three Altars opposite to the Door. The Monasteries 
are convenient enough for the religious Men. That of 5. 
Augustin, where I resided, had an excellent square Cloister, 
with twelve good Stone Columns, besides the four great Pillars, 
at the Angles. Above in the Dormitory there are twenty eight 
smaller Columns, 

All that has been here mention’d belongs to ne^v Damam ; 
for the old is on the right of the aforesaid River, consisting 
of poor low Houses, or rather Cottages with Mud Walls, and 



cover’d with Palm Tree Teaves. Here^ most of the Moors and 
Gentils live, having their Shops of several Trades along the 
ill contriv’d Streets, 

Between the old City and the new is the Harbour made The Port, 
by the River Damam ; but no Vessels either great or small 
can come in but at Flood, during six Hours of the Day, as 
was said in the foregoing Book, as it is at Ostend in Flanders^^ 
and Calis in Picardy^"^ The Stream is so rapid at Ebb that 
no Oars can stem it, but they must needs come to an Anchor 
(unless the Wind sets in very hard,)^® and stay till the next 
Flood. This is to be understood of Vessels of small Burden ; 
for great Ones can neither go in or out but twice a Month, 
that is, when the Moon is new and at the full, because of the 
Spring Tides, which there they call great Tides. 

The Entrance into this Harbour is defended by a small 
Castle seated on the side of old Damam, It is longish^® and 
has three Bastions, well enough furnish’d with Cannon. On 
the North side of the City is a small Suburb, consisting of 
Cottages cover’d with Palm-Tree-Leaves, and inhabited by 
Christian Blacks ; and at a small distance from it, a Village 
of Gentils j with a Bazar, 

In the Year 1535. Martin Alfonso de Sousa^^ took and Maiff, Hist, 
destroy’d Damam in three Days, In 1559. D. Constantin Son 
to the Duke of Braganza^^ Viceroy of India, retook it from mfr, 

Asid Bosita Abyssino/^ who had revolted from his Sovereign, 
and made it of considerable Strength. The great Mogul has 
attempted to reduce it several times and particularly fifty 
Years^® ago Aurenge-Zeh-Alanguir afterwards King, lay’d Siege 
to it with an Army of eighty thousand Men but the 
Portugueses defended it so bravely, making a terrible Slaughter 
of the Enemy with their continual Sallies at Night, that he was 
forc’d after l 3 dng three^^ Months before it, to march off with 
the loss of half his Army. The occasion of it was, that the 
Moguls resolving to make the last Effort to take it, and having 
to this purpose plac’d two hundred Elephants in the Front 
with long sharp Swords in their Trunks ; the Beasts frighted 
with the Fire of the Portugueses Muskets,^® ran disorderly upon 
the Mahometan Army, cutting in pieces abundance of Men, 
with the same Weapons they were Arm’d to destroy the 
Christians. The Barbarians being but in a bad condition by 
their own Contrivance ; the Portugueses retiring into the Town, 
began in scorn to throw Cockle-shells,^® which the Mahometans 
abhor, into the Enemies Camp, with an Engine they call 
Paf>agayo/^ made of Pastboard strengthened with Canes, and 
carry’ d up into the Air by. the Wind and guided by a Rope, 

The Portugueses Live very great®^ in India, both as to Portugueses 
their Tables, Cloathing, and number Of Cafres,^^ or Slaves to 
^erye them ; having som^‘ of th^s? to carrjr th^m in Palahchines 








oti their Sbdulders, and others great Umbrelloes ' of Palm-Tree 
I^eaves* The Palanchine is like a Wooden Bier painted and 
gelt, seven Spans long, and four in breadth, with two well 
wrought Risings at both ends. On it they lay a Persian Carpet, 
and over that a piece of Russian Leather, that it may not heat 
their Bacics, and two Silk Pillows, on which they lie along.®^ 
There are Ropes, or Iron Rings fastned to the ends, through 
which they run a Bamhda/^ or thick Indian Cane, to lay on 
the Shoulders of the Blacks, twO bedfote, and two behind, all 
in a Row or File ; very few being carry ’d by two. The Person 
in the Palanchine is covered with an Umbrelloe of eight Spans 
Diameter, carry ’d by a Slave, or else fastned to the Bamhoa 
that crosses the Palankin^, and may be turn’d to that side the 
Sun is on. . In rainy Weather they use another sort of Carriage 
call’d Andora,^^ with a Covering made of Palm-Tree Leaves, 
sloapitig like the Ridge of a House, fix’d upon the Bamhoa; 
there are two small Windows or Doors on the sides, that may 
be open’d to see who goes along the Street. The Andora 
differs from the Palankike in nothing, but the Bamhoa ; 
because the latter has a crooked one, that he who is carry’d may 
sit up ; and that of the Andora is strait, so that he must lye 
•along as if he Were in Bed. This Would be a convenient way 
of Travelling on those soft Rillows for an effeminate European, 
who should find fault with the joulting of the Neapolitan 
Sedans, and would desire to travel in Safety and Sleep, They 
are generally Us’d there by Women, Religious Men, and all 
other Persons ; a Religious Men [sic.] of any note, never being 
seen abroad in India, but in an Andora or Palankine, attended 
by many Slaves, there being but few Converts. Besides, the 
Charge is very incousid^able, for they that have no Slaves, 
pay fdur Indnm but twelve CosUnes of Naples^^ a Month for 
carryifig them. 

When they go out of ToWU, or travel some Days Journey, 
th^ use a sort of Coach drawn by Oxen, guided by a Cord 
run through’ thfeir Hoslrilsi These Coaches are square like a 
Chair, and can hold but two ; the top of it is commonly cover’d 
with three of the sides Open, and the back clos’d with 

CaUes interwoven, one within another. 

They have no good Flesh to Eat in Damam ; because the 
Beef and Pork is ill tasted : They seldom kill Sheep or Goats * 
and every Body cannot go to the Price of Fowls. Fish is als.6 
scarce, and none of the best ; besides they have no Oil of Olives 
to dress it, but instead thereof make Use of that of C(7c<7-Nuts. 
The Bread®® is Extraordinary good, even that they make of 
Rite. Thus a Stranger at Damam, who is not entertain’d by 
some Bbdy, has but un^ill time :of it, if he expects for his Mony 
to furnish himself in die Market 5 becAUse the Gentry have 
all’titeir Ptovisious iu.di^r HeUses, and the Waner Sort makes 



a shift with Rice and Sura/^ that is, Palm-Tree Wine, scarce 
ever tasting Bread all the Year about. 

There is not any one sort of our European Fruits, but all Fruits and 
Indian^ as Coco-Nuts,^® Mansanas, Giamhos, Undis, AnanasaSj 
Atas^ Anonas, and others we shall describe in their proper 
Place, and give the Cuts of them. As for Herbs there are many 
of the European, and of the Country ; among which the Roots 
of that caird Cassaras/^ being like white Tartuffs, or Pignuts ; 
of the bigness and taste of a Chestnut, are excellent. 

Damam is also very famous for all sorts of Game ; for Beasts, 
besides all the European Creatures of^^ wild Boars, Wolves, 

Foxes, and Hares ; in the Mountains there are those they call 
Baccareos,^^ in shape like Bucks, and in taste like Swine ; 
Zarvhhares,^^ whose Bodies are like Oxen, and their Horns, and 
Feet like those of a Stag ; Gazelles which are like Goats ; 

Dives"^^ like Foxes ; Roses, with the Body like a Cow, so calFd 
from a Rose they have on the Breast ; the Male of the Species 
is call’d Meru, and has Horns half a Span long, and the Body 
and Tail like a Horse Wolves like Stags with hairy liorns 
European Stags ; black wild Cats with Wings^® like those of 
the Bats, with which they skip and fly from one Tree to 
another, tho’ they be far distant ; wild Horses and Cows. There 
are three sorts of Tigers, call’d Biho,^^ Cito/^ and the 
Royal, each differing from the other in bigness of Body, and 
variety of Spots. It being their Property to be continually in 
search of wild Boars, these taught to defend themselves by 
Nature, tumble in the Mire, and dry themselves in the Sun so 
often, till the Mud is crusted hard on them. Being thus arm’d, 
instead of being made a Prey, they often gore the Tygers with 
their sharp Tusks ; for they working with their Claws on the 
hard Mud, are a long time pulling it off, and by that means 
give the Boars time to kill them. 

The Portugueses have two ways of killing Tygers, one is 
lying conceal’d in a Ditch, neat the Water where they come 
to Drink ; the other going in a Cart drawn gently®® through 
the Wood by Oxen,®^ and thence shooting them. But they 
use all their Endeavours to hit them on the Forehead, for if 
the Tyger falls not the first Shot, it grows so enrag’d with the 
Plurt, that it certainly tears the Hxmter in pieces. 

Besides four footed Beasts, there is great plenty in the Birds. 
Woods of Peacocks, Patridges of two sorts. Ducks, Pigeons, 
Turtle-Doves, Swallows, Rooks, and other sorts known in 
Europe, They for Pastime keep a sort in Cages about as big 
as a Thrush, call’d Martinhos^^ of the City, and of the Country. 

The first are black and white ; the latter of nn ash Colour, with 
a red Breast. 

A Man®® in India must be very regular in Eating, or he will 
fall into some incurable Distemper ; or at least such as must piseases, 




be ctire[d] after the Country fashion"" with Fire ; Experience 
having shewn that European Medicines are of no use there. 
The Disease they call Mordazin^^ is a complication of Fever, 
Thevenot Vomiting, Weakness in the Timbs, and Head-ach. It always 
'Voyage disc, proceeds from too much Eating, and is curM by burning both 
Indies c. 10 the Heels with a red hot Spit, till the Patient feels the heat of 
the Fire, That they call Bombaraki, and Naricut/^ swells and 
causes a violent pain in the Belly, and to cure it, Fire is also 
apply’ d to the Swelling, so that those who have the 
good Fortune to recover carry the signs of the Fire afterwards 
on their Belly, For this reason the Physiti'ans that go out of 
Portugal into those parts, must at first keep company with the 
Indian Surgeons to be fit to Practice ; otherwise if they go 
about to cure those Distempers, so far different from ours after 
the European manner, they may chance to Kill more than they 
Cure. For fear of these Diseases on Flesh Days they only eat 
Flesh at Dinner, and generally Fish at Night. 

Habit, Th^ Habit of the Portugueses that have setled their aboad 

in India^^ is very odd, for under their Coats or Vests they wear 
a sort of Breeches, call’d Candales/^ the like whereof I never 
saw in any part of Europe ; for when they are ty’d they leave 
something like the tops of Boots on the Teg. Others under a 
short Doublet, wear wide Silk®^ Breeches ; and some have them 
hang down to their Ankles, so that they serve for Hose. 

The Gentils wear a long Silk Garment, gather’d about the 
Wast like a Petticoat. It is ty’d with Ribbons before upon 
the Breast, and under the left Arm like the Persian Cahayas 
and with a Girdle about the middle ; under it they have long 
Breeches down to their Heels. On their Shoulders hangs a 
piece of Silk or Woollen,®^ which they wrap about their Head 
when it is cold, the Turbant being but very small. Others 
go naked, only covering their Privities with a Clout. 

The Women have no other Garment but a long piece of 
Stuff, wherewith they cover all their Body, except their Legs 
and part of their Belly. Some add a little sort of Smock with 
half Sleeves ; adorning their bare Arms with Bracelets, and 
Strings of Glass and Latton their Ears with large Silver 
Pendents, and their Ankles with Rings of the same Metal. 

Wednesday 12th, I went to visit the King’s Factor, being 
much oblig’d to him for his Civility. The same Day I went 
with F. Constantin to old Damam for Pastime. Thursday 13th, 
we went to take the Air in a Garden of the Augustinians, as 
well the religious Men, as their Guests and others, in five of 
the Country Coaches, F. Francis treated us generously.®" 
Coming home I saw them on the Shore building a Vessel they 
call Galavetta,®" which was all Pinn’d with Wood, and Caulk’d 
with Cotton, 

voyage to SURATTE 





Having a curiosity to see Suratte^ and it being easie to 
go thither ; because the Convoy was ready to sail for Camhaya 
and other Parts, ^ I went on Friday 14th, to give a visit to the 
Commadore of the Galliots that were to Convoy the Trading 
Vessels, and desirM him to give me my Passage aboard his, 
which was built Frigot^ fashion and carry’ d twenty Guns. He 
civilly granted it, so Courteous is the Portuguese Nation, and 
therefore having return’d thanks I went home to make ready. 
Saturday 15th, after Dinner, leaving my Euggage with F. 

Francis to avoid all Trouble of that severe Custom-House, I 
imbark’d with my Man aboard the Commadore’s Galliot, and 
the great Stream carrying us out of the Harbour presently after 
Noon,^ we Sail’d with a fair Wind which continu’d all Night. 

Sunday 16th, about break of Day we came in sight of the 
Bay of Suratte, that City being but sixty Miles from Damam, 
and entring it with a fair Wind, came to an Anchor at Suali,^ 
twelve Miles from the City. I immediately went a Shore with 
the Commadore’s Nephew, where the Custom-House OflS.cers 
search’d our Bags narrowly for Pearls, or ZecchinesA Then 
I went to see the Director of the French Company,® who kept 
me with him.®^ 

Suratte is seated in twenty Degrees of Eatitude, and a Suratte 
hundred and five of Eongitude,’' at the Mouth of the Bay of City. 
Cambaya and Kingdom of Guzardite. It is not large, enclose’d 
by a weak Wall, built after it was Plunder’d by Savagij or 
Kacagi.^ The Castle is no better, having four Towers but no 
Ramparts, but either coming from Sea or Eand it must be 
pass’d by to come at the City- The Governor of it only com- 
mands the Garrison Souldiers ; the City being govern’d by a 
Nababj^ who receives the King’s Taxes throughout the whole 
Province. The private Houses are built with Mud mixt with 
Cows Dung, and small Brush-wood broke ; there are not above 
a dozen good ones belonging to French, English, Dutch and 
Mahometan Merchants. Nevertheless Suratte is the prime Mart 
of India, all Nations in the World Trading thither, no Ship 
sailing the Indian Ocean, but what puts in there to Buy, Sell, or 
Eoad ; for in the Port of Suratte, there is a Trade not only 
for all sorts of Spice, and among them for Ginger, but of very 
rich Gold and Silk Stuffs, of very fine Cottons and other Com- 
modities brought thither from remote Parts. Therfe are such 
rich Merchants, that they can load any great Ship out of one 
of their Ware-Houses. I may say without enlarging, that all 
the rich Silks and Gold Stuffs curiously wrought with Birds and 





Bar 0 see 

Tree and 

Fachires or 


Flowers ; all the Brocades, Velvets, Taffetas, and other sorts 
made in Amaddbdt,^^ are convey’d to Surattej which is but 
four Days Journey from it. I say those of Amadabat^ which is 
the greatest City in Indid, and nothing inferior to Venice for 
this Trade y tho’ its Houses are low and made of Mud and 
Bamboo ; and the Streets Narrow, Crooked, and full of Dirt. 
But I forgot the fine Muslins of Cambay a, and the Curiosities 
made in the most valuable Agate that is brought into^^ Europe, 

Cambaya the Metropolis of that Kingdom was a large and 
rich City, whilst the Portugueses were possess’d of it, Baroche 
and Suratte for this brave Nation govern’d it well enough, 
the Gate being still standing that People made for its security ; 
but after they abandon’d it and retir’d to the Sea^® it lost much 
of its Splendor and Magnificence ; for the Vessels Anchor 
twelve Miles from it, and cannot come up to the City but with 
the Flood ; which is so violent and swift that a Horse can scarce 
outrun it. For this reason the Ships often do not go up, because 
they must do it against Wind, to check the violence of the Tide 
that drives so impetuously. 

Barosce^^ above mention’d is famous for its excellent white 
and stain’d Calicoes, as also for Ginger, and the best Market 
for its Commodities is at Suratie^^ ten miles distant from it. 
Its Port is the River,^’’ which falls into the Sea fifteen Miles 
lower, up which small Barks can go with the Tide. 

I purposely omit to mention particularly so many Countries, 
which like Rivers to the Sea convey all their Wealth to Suratte, 
because of the good Vent they find for it there ; this being a 
matter well known to Europeans. But there would be a much 
greater Resort, were its port better, and that the Vessels when 
they have run six Miles up the River, were not forc’d to lye 
at Suali, ten Miles from the City ; whence and whither Com- 
modities are convey’d in small Boats. 

Monday 17th, I saw the Church of the Capucins^^ which 
is decently adorn’d, and their House convenient, those good 
Men having built it after the maimer of Europe. 

Tuesday 18th, I went to see the Tree of the Gentils, we 
call Banians, under which they have the Pagods of their Idols, 
and Meet to perform their Ceremonies. It is of the same bigness 
and sort as that describ’d at Bander-Congo ; but the Pagods 
differ, for under this I found four, one call’d of Mamaniva,^^ 
which has a mighty Front ; two others of Rio-Ram,^'^ and the 
fourth a retiring Place for Fachires that do Pennance \ whereas 
under the Tree at Bander-Congo there is but one. 

Under this Tree and in the neighbouring Parts there are 
many Men, who have enjoym’d themselves and do perform such 
dreadful Pennances, that they will seem fabulous to the Reader, 
and impossible to be gone through without the assistance of fhe 

voyage to sueatte 


Devil. You may see one hanging by a Rope ty’d under his 
Arms and to the Tree, only his Feet touching the Groiind, and 
the rest of his Body being Bow’d, and this for many Years with- 
out changing Place or Posture Day or Night. Others have their 
Arms lifted up in the Air, so that in process of Time there 
grows such a Stiffness or Hardness in the Joynts that they can- 
not bring them down again. Some sit with their Hands lifted 
up without ever moving them. Others stand upon- one Foot, 
and others lye along with, their Arms under their Heads for a 
Pillow. In short, they are in such Postures, that sometimes 
a Man can scarce believe his Eyes, but fancies it is an Illusion* 

Thus they continue N||.?:ed all Seasons of the Year, with vast 
long Hair, and Nails grown out, expos’d to the Rain, and 
burning Rays of the Sun, and to be stung by Flies, whom they 
cannot drive away. Other Fachirs who take that Employment 
supply their Necessities of Eating and Drinking* These Peni- 
tents are not asham’d to go quite Naked, as they came out 
of their Mothers Wombs. The Women go devoutly to kiss 
those Parts Modesty forbids us to name, and tho’ they take 
them in their Hands they feel not the least Motion of Sensuality, 
but they roul their Eyes in a most dreadful manner without 
taking notice of them, as I saw one on Wednesday 19th, beset 
by some silly Pagan Women, who paid their R,espects to him 
with great Humility. 

Thursday 20th, a young French Man conducted me to see An Hospital 
an HospitaP^ of the Geniils, where abundance of < irrational for Birds 
Creatures were kept. This they do because they believe the^^ Beasts. 
Transmigration of Souls, and therefore imagining those of their 
Forefathers may be in the vilest, and filthiest living Creatures 
they provide them with Food. Thus the wild Monkeys come to 
eat what is provided for them. Besides the prodigious number 
of Birds and Beasts maintain’d there, particular care is taken 
of the Eame and Sick. But that which most amaz’d me, tho’ 

I went thither to that purpose, was to see a poor Wretch naked 
bound Hands and Feet, to feed the Bugs or Punaises, fetch’d 
out of their stinking Holes to that purpose* The best of it 
is that any Man should voluntarily expose himself to be so 
devour’d, for a small reward given him, according to the Hours 
he will continue under it. 

Friday 21th, going home, after walking about a while, I A Foolish 
saw abundance of People got together before a Pagan Merchant’s 
Shop, and in the midst of them a jugling Fellow with a Hen 
in one Hand and a Knife iii the other. Inquiring into the 
meaning of it, they told me, that Man was a Rogue, who when 
he had a Mind to get Mony, carry’d that Hen through the 
Streets where the Gentils liv’d, threatning to kill it, that they 
inight give him Mony to save its life, each of them believing 
the Soul of some of his Kindred might be in that Hen. In 


short, I saw him receive some Mony, and go on still threatning 
the same. 

Saturday 22d, all the Vessels from Diu, Camhaya, Baroche 
and other Places being come together to Sail for Goa and other 
Dominions of Portugal, and the Galiots being ready to Convoy 
them, I again went aboard the same that brought me. Sailing 
out of the Mouth of the River with a fair Wind we got into 
the open Sea, and after lying by two Hours for the small Vessels 
to go a head of us, we held on our Course gently all Night. 

Sunday 23d. at break of Day we found our selves many 
Miles from Damam and too late to hear Mass. The Galiots came 
to an Anchor after Noon^"^ without tl|p Mouth of the River, 
some small Barks going up it. I found F. Francis expected me 
with Impatience, who receiv’d me with Expressions of great 

Monday 24th, I took leave of Friends that had been kind to 
me, there being an opportunity to Imbark for Bazaim. 



Having long since resolv’d to see Goa, on Thursday^ 25th, 
I caus’d my Baggage to be carryM down to the Shore by Boes/ 
so they call Porters in India, and thence® into a Vessel at Diu 
that carry’d Oars, lying without the River, as the Fathers 
Francis, and Constantin had done. Having with them taken 
leave with Thanks of the Prior and Religious®^ of the Monastery, 
we went down to the Shore, and thence in a Boat to the Navillo, 
which was a long Boat of the King’s, with six Oars and a 
square Sail in the middle, having^ one Falconet aboard, and 
seventeen Portuguese and Canarine Souldiers. At Ebb, which 
fell out® when the Moon was vertical, we set forwards with the 
help of a small Gale, and of the Tide that set towards Bazaim ;® 
for from the Time the Moon first appears above the Horizon 
till she comes to the mid-Heaven the Flood runs towards 
Suratte ; and when the Moon goes down, towards Bazaim. 

Wednesday ,26th, at break of Day we were off the Town 
and Fort of Trapor,'^ a Place well Inhabited, with Monasteries 
of Dominicans and Recolets. Ten Miles from this® the Portu- 
gueses have another inrpregnable Castle call’d Asserim for 
besides its being seated on tlie Top of the Hill, where there is 
no other higher Ground to command it, a crooked Path cut 
out of the Mountain, along which two Men cannot go abreast, 



leads up to it, and is defended by several Guards, who may 
withstand an Army only rowling dowm the Stones plac’d there 
to that purpose. 

The Wind continuing fair we Sail’d by the Fort and Village Maim, 
of and several other Towers and Dwellings, and then 

by the little Island De la Vaca,^^ or of the Cow, three Miles 
in Compass, and not far distant from Bazim. Much Time being 
lost waiting for the Barks, and^^ Parahcos^^ that came under 
Convoy and were mere Slugs, we could not reach Bazaim after 
seventy Miles Sail till Midnight. We came to an Anchor 
before the Channel form’d by the small Island^^ and the Conti- 
nent, for fear of running a Ground in the dark, and^® Thursday 
27th, went in with the Flood. 

There being no Houses of Entertainment in the City, we 
were receiv’d by F, Felicianus of the Nativity, born at Macao 
in the Kingdom of China^ and Prior of the Monastery of the 
Augustinians, who treated us all very courteously and like a 
true Portuguese. 

Bazaim a City in the Kingdom of Cambay a is seated in Bazaim 
19 deg, of latitude, and 104 of Longitude.^® Nuno de Acuna}'^ 
in the Year 1535 took it for King John of Portugal, from 
Badar^^ King of Cambaya, who terrify’d by the Valour of the 
Portuguese Nation, surrendered it to them with the neighbour- 
ing Islands, whilst Martin Alfonso de Sousa, undauntedly 
attack’d and took Damam and its Fortress, cutting in pieces all Maff. Hist. 
the Turkish Garrison, and afterwards levelling the Castle with page 252^^* 
the Ground in 3 Days. The Compass of Bazaim is 3 Miles, and 
has eight Bastions,^® not all quite finish’d. On them I saw 
some Pieces of Cannon, with the Arms of Philip the 4th,^^ of 
happy Memory King of Spain. On the North-side the Walls 
are rampard, and the other Fortifications are not yet finish’d ; 
on the South side towards the Chanel, there is only a single 
Wall, that Place being less expos’d to the Danger of Enemies, 
and sufficiently defended by the Ebb and Flood. One third of 
the City towards the North is Unpeopled, by reason of the 
Plague which some Years rages in it.^® The Streets are wide 
and strait, and the great Square or Market has good Buildings 
about it. There are two principal Gates, one on the East and 
the other on the West, and a small one towards the Channel 
or Streight. The Harbour is on the East side, form’d as was 
said, by the Island and Continent. 

The Government is in a Captain,^® as they call him, or 
Governor, and the Administration of Justice in a Veedor,^^ 
and the Desembargador,^^ who is a Gown Man, and Judge of 
Appeals from all the Veedors of the Northern Coast ; along 
which in every City there are Factors and Treasurers for the 
Rey^nue gf th^* C^owu^ of Portugal. The Portuguese Gengrat 


A Monster. . 

Habit of the 

The Gentils. 





Houses of 

resides at Bazainij with sovereign Authority over the Captain 
of that and all the other Northern Places, whence he is call'd 
General of the North. 

Friday 28th, I Walk'd about the City with the Fathers,^^ 
but saw nothing so extraordinary, as I did on^® Saturday 29th, 
which was a Pagan born in Indiaj who had an Infant sticking 
fast to his Navel, with all his Limbs, perfect except the Head, 
which was in the Man's Belley, and made its Excrements apart 
like every other perfect Creature. Whether the Man or Infant 
was struck, they both felt the Pain. 

, Sunday 30th, Mass was sung at the AugusUnians with 
Musick, which being in India. 'wo.s not disagreeable, and much 
Gentry was there. The Heat was greater than at Damam ; so 
that as well Wornen as Men went about the Streets naked ; the 
Men covering their Privities with a Clout, and the Women their 
Bodies and Thighs with a piece of Linnen. The People of 
Fashion at that Time wear Silk and^^- very thin Muslins, having 
long®® Breeches down to their Heels so that they need no 
Stockings. Instead of Shooes they wear Sandals like the Fryars. 

All the Gentils bore their Noses to put Bings through, as 
they do to the Buffaloes in Italy. Every Beggar, much ‘more 
those that are well to pass, rubs his Teeth every Morning 
betimes with a Stick,® ^ and spends two Hours at that Work, 
according tP the Custom- of the Country. They use no Quilts 
because of the Heat> but lay Blankets®® and Sheets on the Bed, 
made of®® Cords without Boards, as is us'd by the Persians of 
Lar®^ and Bander-Congo. 

Monday the last of the Month, I went with F. Peter of the 
MaHyrs^^ to the Village of Madrapur/^ to see some vagabond 
Moors, who vaulted and perform'd feats of Activity®^ like our 
Tumblers and Rope-Dancers. , The most wonderful thing was 
to see a Man who turn'd round upon a Cane, held up by another 
on his Girdle ; and what most amaz’d me was that he who 
supported the Cane we:nt on without putting his Hands to guide 
it, and he that was on the top of it did not help himself with 
his Hands neither, and, yet the Cane or Bamboo was thirty 
Spans high. At last after giving two skips in the Air he lighted 
on a very high Beam, fix'd to that purpose ; I know not how he 
could do all this without some supernatural Assistance. 

Tuesday the first of February, a Messenger from the Nabab^ 
or Governour of Suratte came in a. Palankine with thirty 
Souldiers, to treat about some Business with the Governour, 
and deliver him two Letters. 

Wednesday 2d,®® I went in an Andora of the Monastery to 
see the Cassabd/^^ which is. the only Diversion at, Bazaim t 
nothing appearing^ for fifteen Miles but delightful Gardens, 
PI^nte4 yrith several sprfs of the Country Fruit Trees, as^ Palm, 


Fig, Mangas, and others, and abundance of Sugar Canes, The 
Soil is cultivated by Christian, Mahometan^ and Pagan Peasants, 
inhabiting the Villages thereabouts. They keep the Gardens 
always Green and Fruitful, by Watering them with certain 
Engines ; so that the Gentry allur’d by the cool and delightful 
Walks, all have their Pleasure Houses at Cassabd, to go thither 
in the hottest Weather to take the Air, and get away from the 
contagious and pestilential Disease call’d Carazzo,^^ that uses 
to infect all the Cities of the Northern Coast. It is exactly like 
a Bubo, and so violent that it not only takes away all means 
of preparing for a good End, but in a few Hours depopulates 
whole Cities, as witness, Suratie, Bamama, Bazaim, Tanaf^^ and 
other Places, which often suffer under this Calamity, 

In this Territory of Cassabd I saw the Sugar Canes Press’d 
between two great wooden Roulers, turn’d about by Oxen, 
whence they came out thoroughly squeez’d. Then the Juice is 
boil’d in Cauldrons, and being set out to cool at Night in 
earthen Vessels it hardens into white Sugar. 

Thursday, 3d, I went to visit the Image of our Lady Be los 
Remedies, standing in a Parish Church belonging to the 
Bominicans,^^ on the Road to Cassabd. About five Years since 
this Church was Burnt by Kacagi,^^ a Geniil Subject to the 
Great Mogul, who with a great Multitude of Outlaws, and four 
thousand Souldiers, w^ent about like a Rover, Plundering and 
Burning Villages. Thence I went to see another miraculous 
Image of our Lady da Merce,^^ in a small Church founded and 
serv’d by an Augustinian who did the Office of Curate. 

Friday 4th, I saw the Church of the Je$uiis,^^ in India Jesuits. 
call’d Paulistas.^^ It is richly Gilt, not only the three Chappels, 
but the Walls and Arch ; but the Worknien knew not how to 
make that rich Metal shew it self to the best advantage. The 
Dormitory and Cloister are the best in the City.'^’^ In the Garden, 
besides the Indian, there are some sort of European Fruit ; 
and among the rest Figs and Grapes, which the F. Rector told 
me came to Maturity twice a Year, that is, in December and 

Saturday 5th, I visited the Monastery of the Dominicans, Dominicans. 
with the famous Dormitory. The Church was large and had 
but three Altars, as we said was us’d in India, opposite to the 
great Gate, and all well adorn’d, 

Sunday 6th, I heard Mass in the Church of the Miseri- Franciscans, 
cordia^^^, which is the Parish of the City ; and continuing to visit 
Churches came on Monday 7th to that of the Franciscans.^^ 

Both Church and Monastery are built after the manner of 
Europe, the Church having many Chappels, contrary to the 
Custom of India. 





Tuesday 8th, I heard Mass in the Parish of our Lady de la 
Fida/" where there are three very good Altars well adorn’d. 
The Monastery of the Fathers, Hospitallers, “ or S. John de 
Dios, where I was on Monday, 9th,®^ is so Poor that it can main- 
tain but three Fryars. 

Thursday 10th, understanding there was a Wedding of 
People of Quality at the Church of our Lady de la Vida, went 
to see the Ceremony. I observ’d the Bridegroom did not give 
his Bride the right Hand, and thinking it an extravagant custom, 
as being only us’d by Crown’d Heads, I ask’d the reason of it 
of some Poriugueses ; who told me the same was practis’d in 
Portugal, and this that the Gentlemen might have his right 
Hand at liberty, to put to his Sword in Defence of the Lady. 
The Bride was richly clad, after the French fashion ; but some 
Trumpets went along, founding such a doleful Tone, as little 
differ’d from that they use in conducting Criminals to Execu- 
tion. I return’d to the Monastery in the Andora ; and here it 
is to be observ’d that the manner of saluting those they meet, 
when they are carry’d in this sort of conveniency, in Italy would 
be taken for an affront, and laugh’d at ; for in token, of respect 
they shut to the little Door of the Aindora upon them. This 
in Naples would certainly produce a Duel, and in India is done 
out of respect even to the Vice-Roy himself. 

Friday 11th, I heard Mass in the Parish Church of our 
Lady da Se,^* where there are several Altars, and two Chappels. 

There are no Doctors of the Civil Law throughout the 
Portuguese Dominions in India, and. those few Canarins, who 
follow this Employment, through their Ignorance prove bad 
Advocates, or Councellors, and Sollicitors, and some times Plead 
both for Plaintiff, and Defendant. Besides, for the most part 
Causes are decided by Ignorant Captains or Governors without 
the approbation of an Assessor. This happens for want of an 
University and Colleges to teach the Law ; and because the 
Portuguese Doctors will not go so far from their Country, by 
reason of the little profit they should make in India. F. Feli- 
cianus the Prior understanding that I was a Doctor of the Civil 
Law, bn Saturday i2th, propos’d a Match to me with a Portion 
of 20000 pieces of Eight,®* and with a Promise that I should be 
Advocate to the Monasteries, and to Some. Families of Note, 
which would yield about 600 piec^ of Eight a Year. Having 
no inclination to live in those hot Countries, I answer’d, that 
tho’ he had offer’d me.lOOOOO Pieces of Eight Portion, I should 
never be induc’d to quit .Europe for ever* 





The Pagod or Temple of the Canarin/ whereof I intended 
to give an exact and true account, is one of the greatest wonders 
in Asia ; as well because it is look’d upon as the Work of 
Alexander the Great,® as for its extraordinary and incomparable 
Workmanship, which certainly could be undertaken by none but 
Alexander, What I most admire is that it is almost unknown 
to Europeans ; for tho’ I have made much enquiry, I do not find 
that any Italian^ or other European Traveller has writ of it 
and it is very strange to me that so Ingenuous a Man as our 
Peter de la Valle^ should omit to see both this Pagod, and the 
Palace of Darius,^ with the Antiquities of Celmenar/ that were 
but a few Leagues out of his way, since he trayelPd for his 
Pleasure, and made nothing of spending Thousands of Crowns 
to satisfy his Curiosity.® Tho’ a poor Man I spar’d no Cost or 
Labour, that I might see all and inform the Publick. As for 
Tavernier/ it is no wonder he minded not to see these things, 
because his principal End was Trade, and buying of Jewels, and 
therefore he only went to those places where his business lay, 
and he could make most profit ; and tho’ he made several 
Voyages to India, he minded not to see Antiquities tho’ he 
pass’d close by them. 

I had a mind to go to Tana, and pass over from thence to Gormandel 
the Pagod ; but the Fathers Visitor and Prior dissuaded me. Village, 
saying, it was better going by Deins Accordingly Sunday 
13th, hiring a Boat I went over to the Village of Gormandel,^^ 
in the Island Salzete, The Houses are scatter’d on both sides 
of the Mountains, on the top whereof is the Palace of the Lord 
of the Village. I went thence upon the Streight to the Village 
of Deins, belonging to the Nuns of S. Monica at Goa, 6 Miles 
distant from Bazaim : F. Edward an Augustinian Procurator 
to those Nuns, receiv’d me into his House on account of a 
Letter of recommendation I had from the F. Visitor. 

Being hot and dry,^^ F. Edward brought out two Citron 
Peels preserv’d ; and I without considering eat one and drank 
a great Glass of Water ; but he afterwards offering me the 
other, I call’d to mind, I had swallow’d down some Hundreds 
of Pismires, which cover’d the said Peels and perhaps dislodg’d 
the Souls of so many dead Idolaters residing in those little 
Bodies. I therefore refus’d the other with Thaiiks, desiring 
him to keep that Sweat-meat, which was as old as the Village, 
to treat some other Gnest ; because I would not upon any 
account be guilty again of such a Slaughter of Ants. After 

INDIAN Travels Op OarEri 

a Rock. 


this Poor Refreshment I went to the Village of Monoposser,^^ 
a Mile distant, to see a Church tinder Ground/^ formerly a 
Pagod cut in the Rock, on which stands the College and 
Monastery of the Franciscans It is a 100 Spans long, and 
in Breadth thirty. The side Walls, as has been said are of the 
natural Rock, and only the Front is made by Art. Close by 
is another Pagod cut in the Rock, formerly serving for their^® 
Idolatrous Worship. 

The Church and Monastery are like all the rest in India, 
Five Religious Men live there, to whom , the King of Portugal 
allows 200 Murais^'^ of Rice, all which they give to the Poor, 
except only as much as serves for their own sustenance. One 
of these Fathers^® does the Office of a Curate, in the Village 
of Cassi,^^ two Miles distant, and has a good dwelling there. 
On the Mountain near the said College is another Hermitage, 
with a Chappel. 

Returning to Deins, F. Edward told me, that tho* he had 
us’d all his endeavours he could not find Men to carry me in 
an Andora, for his People were fled, and there were no others 
at Monoposser ; by which perceiving that the Father was an 
Exception of the general Civility of the Portuguese, I was 
forc’d to take up with an ill House.^® 

Monday 14thi the Owner who was a Pagan, brought me 
the Horse very late, because none of them goes out of his 
House, till he has perform’d his Idolatrous Ceremonies, and 
thinking to take some little Meat^^ before I set out, good 
sparing F. Edward told me the Bread was not come yet ; and 
I answering I would send to buy some, he reply’d it was not 
yet bak’d ; and I might dine in a Village half way. Desiring 
him further to appoint some Peasant to shew me the Pagod, 
because the Gentil knew not the way well,^^ he would neither 
send a Country Man, nor one of his Servants ; whereupon I set 
out in Danger of losing my way for want of a Guide, travelling 
on a Mountain full of Monkeys, Tygefs, Dions, and other wild 
Beasts and venomous Creatures. Coming to the Village, where 
I design’d to eat, I found nothing but a little Rice half boil’d 
in fair Water ; the place consisting of only four Cottages in 
the thickest of the Wood ; so that I went on fasting. By the 
way I met strange Birds. Some were Green and as big as a 
Thrush, and Sang very well ; others bigger, black as Velvet, 
and with vast long Tails ; others Red and Green ; some Black 
and Green, as big as a Turtle-dove, and many more never seen 
in Europe ; there were also an innumerable company of Parrots, 
and Monkeys, and Apes, with very long Tails leaping from 
Tree to Tree. 

After riding eight Miles thfo^ the thick Wood, we knew 
not where the Pagod was, or what way to take to find it. It 

{>ag6d of canArin 

pleas’d Providence, we hapned to meet witli some naked Pagan 
Women, carrying Loads of Wood, who put us into the Road.^® 

Being come to the Foot of the Rock, I was worse puzzl’d for 
want of some Body to hold my Horse, the Idolater being to 
guide me through the Labyrinth of so many Pagods, At last 
I found a Peasant wandering about the Mountain, and giving 
him the Horse to hold, I climb’d the bare^^ Craggy Rock with 
the Idolater, at the top whereof on the East®® side the great 
Pagod is hewn out, with other small ones by it. 

Lhe first piece of Workmanship that appears, consists of The wonder- 
two large Columns,®® 2 Spans®^ high, the third part of them Po.gad. 
from the bottom upwards is square, the middle part Octangular, 
and the top round. Their Diameter is six Spans ; they are 
fifteen Spans distant from one another, and each of them eight 
from the Rock, which is cut after the same manner. These 
Columns support a Stone Architrave forty four Spans long, 
four in thickness and eight in breadth ; cut like the rest out 
of the same Rock. These 3 Porticos lead into a sort of Hall 
or Passage Room, four Spans®® long, cut in the same Rock. At 
the end of it are three Doors, one fifteen Spans high, and 
eight in Breadth, which is the middlemost, and two others four 
Spans square on the sides, which are the way into a lower 
place. Over these Doors is a Cornish four Spans broad, of the 
same Stone ; over which thirty Spans above the Ground, there 
are other such Doors, or Windows cut in the Rock. At the 
same height, there are little Grots,®® or Dens, six Spans high,®® 
of which the middlemost is the biggest. Thirty four Spans 
above the Ground, in the same place is such another Grot. It 
is no easy matter to conceive what the use of all this was. 

Advancing ten Paces towards the Right, I saw a sort of 
Grot, open on two sides, twenty four Spans in length, and 
fifteen in breadth, over which was a round Cupula fifteen 
Spans high, and ten wide, with a square Cornish, like that about 
the Grot. Here there is an Idol cut in the Rock, in half Relieve, 
which seems to hold something in its Hand, but what it is 
does not appear.®^ The Cap it has on, is like that of the Doge 
of Venice, By it stand two Statues in a submissive Posture, 
as if they were Servants. They have Conical, or Sugar-Loaf 
Caps on. Over their Heads are two small Figures, like the 
Angels we Paint in the Air ; below two little Statues, holding 
their Hands on a Staff, and two Children by their sides, with 
their Hands put together, as if they pray’d ;®® on their Backs 
is something like a piece of Wood. Close by is another round 
Cupula all of one Stone, and shap’d like the other, but the 
top of it is broke. Both this and the other are suppos’d to 
have been Sepulchres of the Antient Gentils ; but there is no 
Ground to make this out^ no opening appearing to put in the 
. Bodies or ^shes ; but on the contrary it is visible they are 



not hollow within, but only cut without, in the shape of 
Cupulas. About this second,^^®- there are 4 great Figures 
Carv’d in half Relief, holding in the left Hand something like 
a Garment, and the same sort of Caps on their Heads, with 
small Figures at their Feet, and 2 above. Opposite to them, 
there are three little ones sitting, and 6 other large ones, and 
3 of a midling Size standing, all cut in the Rock after the 
same manner : But that in the middle, which seems to be the 
Idol, in its left holds a Tree with Fruit on it.®^^ On the other 
side there are 16 Figures, all sitting with both Hands on 
their Breasts, and the same Caps ; one of them seems to be 
superior to the rest, because there are two Figures standing by 
its side,^^^ and two Children above. 

At a small distance Northward is a little Grot eight Spans 
square, and in it, as it were a Bed of the same. Stone, four 
Spans broad, and eight long. On the other Frontispiece is a 
Statue sitting on its Tegs, after the manner of the East, with 
the Hands together on the Breast ; and another standing with 
the Branch of a Fruit-Tree in its Hand, and above a wing’d 

Beyond the Grot, and on the same Front, which runs sixty 
Spans within the Rock, there are two Statues sitting after the 
same manner, their Hands plac’d the same way, with Conical 
Caps on their Heads, and two like Servants standing by them.®^*^ 

On the same side is the Famous Paged of the Canarin.^^ 
The Entrance to it is through an opening forty Spans long, in 
a Wall of the same Stone, fifty Spans long, and eight Spans 
thick,^^ on which there are three Statues.®® On the right Hand 
before you go into the Paged, is a round Grot, above fifty Spans 
about,®® in which round the Wall, there are many Statues 
sitting, and some standing, and one on the left, is bigger 
than the rest. In the middle rises a round Cupula, cut out of 
the same Rock, like a Pillar of the same Stone, with several 
Characters carv’d about it, which no Man can ever explain.®®® 
Going into the first Porch of the Paged, which is 50 Spans 
square, there are on the sides two Columns 60 Spans high, with 
their Capitals, and six Spans Diameter. On that upon the Right 
Hand coming in, there are two Xions, with a Shield by them ; 
on the other upon the left two Statues. Beyond these Columns 
at the entrance of a Grot, on the left there are two great 
Statues standing, and looking at one another. Still further in 
are 2 vast big Statues on the Teft, and one on the Right of 
the Door, all standing, with several little Statues by them, only 
within the space of that Porch ; for going into the adjoyning 
Grot, which is 24 Spans square, there is nothing worth observ- 
ing. On the right Hand, where the Tions are, there are no 
Statues, but two large Vessels upon convenient Pedestals. 



Hence there are^^ three equal Doors thirty Spans high, and 
eight broad, but that in the middle even with the Floor, those 
on the sides five Spans above it, into another plain®® Place. 
Here there are four Columns twelve Spans high, standing on 
the Rock it self, between the five Windows that give Light to 
the Pagod. On the right side of the Door there are some 
unknown Letters worn with Age,®®^ as is all the rest of the 
Work. In this Place on the sides, besides several small Figures, 
there are two vast Statues of Giants standing,®® above twenty 
five Spans high ; shewing their right Hands open, and holding 
a Garment in the left, on their Heads the same Caps, and in 
their Ears Pendents after the Indian Fashion. 

At the Entrance of the great Gate of the Pagod, which is 
fifteen Spans high, and ten in breadth, there are on the Right 
four Statues standing, one of which is a Woman holding a 
Flower in her Hand ; and twelve other less, some sitting and 
some standing, with their Hands on their Breasts, and some- 
thing in them. On the left are four other Statues, two whereof 
are Women, with large Rings about their Ancles of the same 
Stone, and sixteen little Statues on their sides, some sitting, 
some standing, and some with their Hands on their Breasts, as 
was said before. Over the said Door there are other two great 
ones, and as many opposite to them, with three little ones 
standing. On the left Hand within is another Inscription in 
the same Character i®®®- Over the Arch of this Door is a Window 
forty Spans wide, which is the width of the Pagod, with a Stone 
like an Architrave in the middle, supported on the inside by two 
Octangular Pillars. 

The Pagod is ArchM, forty Spans in breadth, and one 
Hundred in length, and rounded at the end, besides the four 
Columns at the Entrance, there are thirty more within, which 
divide it into three Isles; seventeen' of them have Capitals, 
and Figures of Elephants on them, the rest are Octangular and 
Plain. The space between the Columns and the Rock, that is, 
the breadth of the side Isles^® is six Spans. At the end of the 
Pagod, there is a sort of round Cupola, thirty Spans high, and 
sixteen of my Paces about, cut in the same Rock, but not 
hollow within. I believe it served for some use, which we 
being Ignorant of the ancient Customs of those Times cannot 
guess at. I know not what Judgment Portuguese Authors 
make of it, because their Books are scarce at Naples ; but they 
it is certain are well acquainted with it, the Viceroys themselves 
sometimes coming from Goa to see it ; yet it is most likely they 
could never^^ discover the Truth. 

All that has been hitherto Describ’d is Cut in the very 
.Rock, without any Addition to the Statues, or any thing that 
may be parted. But on the Floor of the Pagod there are several 
:b9w’4 .Stones^, which perhaps serv’d for Steps to. some Structure, 



Camitig out of the Paged, and ascending fifteen Steps, all 
cut in the Rock, I found two Cisterns of Rain-Water, good to 
Drink ; and as many Steps above that, a Grott sixteen Spans 
square, and a great one further on with much Water standing 
in it. Mounting twenty Spaces higher, I found another Grott 
twenty Spans square, which led to another of the same Dimen- 
sions, and that into one of twelve. In the first was a rising 
Window with Steps to it cut in the Rock, with two Columns 
near a small Cistern, 

At a small distance from these Grotts is another Pagod,^^ 
with a handsome plain Place before it, and little Walls about 
to sit down, and a Cistern in the middle. Five Doors cut in 
the Rock lead into the first Arch ; and between them are four 
Octangular Pillars ; all but the middle Door are two Spans 
above the Ground, On the sides of this Arch, whose length 
is the breadth of the Paged, that is, eight Spans,^^ there are 
on the left several Statues sitting, like those above mention’d, 
and others on the right standing-* All about the Frontispiece 
there are many sitting and standing, no way different from the 
rest already Describ’d. Then there are three Doors to the 
Paged, that in the middle twelve Spans high, and six in breadth, 
the two on the sides ten Spans high, and four broad. The 
Paged is sixty Spans square, no way proportionable, being but 
twelve Spans high. On both the sides, and over the Entrance 
there are above 400 Figures great and small carv’d, some 
sitting, some standing, like those before spoke of ; but two on 
the right bigger than the rest are standing, as is that in the 
middle of the Frontispiece, which is of the biggest Idol ; and 
another on the left in the same Posture ; but all worn with Age, 
which destroys every thing. On both sides there are two 
Grotts fourteen Spans square, with a low Wall within two 
Spans above the Ground, 

Going up ten Steps further Northward is a Grott, and 
within that another less. On the right is another like it, with 
another little on within it, in which is a low Wall like those 
before mention’d. The great one is about twenty Spans in 
length, and ten in breadth ; the other ten square, and all of 
them with small Cisterns. On the right side is another of the 
same bigness, with two small Pillars before it, two little Grotts, 
and three Cisterns, one on the right, and two on the left ; and 
another adjoining to it, with another within it, and a Cistern 
of the same Dimensions of the other, It is likely these were 
the Dwellings of the Priests of the Paged, who there led a peni- 
tential Fife, as it were in a Pagan Thehaida, 

Descending from that great height, fifteen Steps cut in the 
Rock, there is a little Paged, with a Porch before it thirty Foot 
square, which leads into it throug-h three Doors, between which 
there are two square Pilasters r On the left Hand there are four 



Statues ; two sitting:, and two less in the middle standing. On 
the right Hand a little open Grott, and another Pagod, with a 
Cistern before it, the way into which is first, through a Door 
ten Spans in height, and six in breadth, into a Room twenty 
Spans square ; which has on the right another very dark Room 
twelve Spans square, which makes the Pagod somewhat Dark. 
In the midst whereof is a round Cupola of one solid Piece, 
fifteen Spans high, which is the height of the Pagod. Descend- 
ing fifty upright Steps, there is a plain Space cut in the Rock, 
which is not very hard, and eight Octangular Columns twelve 
Spans high, which leave, nine Intervals to ascend five Steps that 
lead into an Arch. In this Place on the left side, which is ten 
Spans, is a great Idol sitting Bareheaded ; two other great Statues 
standing, and some small ones ; on the right side two other 
Statues sitting, and two standing, besides many little ones about 
them. Then the way into the Pagod is through three* Doors, 
twelve Spans in height, and six in breadth with two Windows 
over them. The Pagod is 100 Spans in length, fifty in breadth, 
and ten in height. About it runs an Arch eight Spans broad, 
with ten square Columns. Here are four Rooms, or Grotts, 
twelve Toot square ; besides seven in the Front, and left side 
of the Pagod, where the Cistern is ; all which I suppos’d, to be 
Rooms for the Priests of the Temple. In the Niche of it, which 
is ten Foot square, is a great Idol sitting, with two Statues 
standing, and another sitting on the left, by which also there 
are two Statues standing, and several small Figures in half Relief 
about it. Ascending ten Spans over against it is a little Grott, 
supported by two small Columns, ten Spans high. There is a 
Door ten Spans high, and four in breadth out of it into a Room, 
or Grott sixteen Spans square, and thence into another of twelve, 
where there is a large Idol sitting, holding his Hands on his 

Then descending twenty Steps there is a plain Space, whence 
four Steps on the left lead up into an Arch, where there are 
four Pilasters twelve Spans high, the Distances between which 
are the way into three little Rooms cut in the Rock. Twenty 
Steps lower there are other Grotts cut in the Rock, with small 
Cisterns, but for what use cannot be imagin’d unless we suppose 
all these Cavities were Dwellings of the Idolaters, It is only 
reported, That this wonderful Work was made with a vast 
Expence, by Alexander the Great, who was of the same Religion* 

Descending from the high Rock, I mounted a Horse-back, 
with a good Stomach, having fasted that Day against my Will, 
and made haste away to satisfy Hunger. By the way I saw 
abundance of Monkeys, and Apes, and being about to kill one, 
the Pagan pray’d rqe not to Hurt them. Near the Road were 
two Palm-trees, rising out of the Trunk of one great Tree five'^^ 
Spans, and spreading abroad thw fruitful Branches, . 




Near the Village of Canarin, which gives its Name to the 
Pagod, here describ'd, is a Rock 100 Paces about, with several 
Grotts and Cisterns under it, which might formerly be 
Dwellings ; the antient Gentils affecting to have their Habita- 
tions in Rocks, to save the Rxpence of Materials in Building. 
On the East side before the largest Grott is a great Idol sitting, 
with his Hands a-cross on his Regs. 

Returning to Deins, I met F. Edward of St. Antony 
walking. He instead of getting me something to Eat, began to 
Discourse after an odd manner ; inquiring concerning Particulars 
of the Pagod ; but I left him to Prate by himself, telling him 
it was not time to Talk upon an empty Belly. Alighting, and 
going up to my Chamber, the first thing I said to the Servant 
of the House, was to ask him. Whether there was any thing to 
Eat. He told me there was none ; and bidding him go fetch 
me a little Bread at least, he set before me a small Eoaf, with 
the same Citron Peels cover’d with Pismires, these Vermin 
leaving nothing untouch’d in India ; for which reason the 
Indians, to save some Preserves, set them under^® a Table, whose 
Eeet are in wooden Bowls full of Water, to keep them off. 
I made but two Mouth-fulls of the Bread ; yet had not the 
Courage to do so by the sweet Meat, which I fancy was made 
when first Preserving was invented ; and therefore I bid the 
Servant keep that Rarity from the Pismires, against his Master 
had some other Stranger to Entertain. The worst of it was, 
the wretched Village afforded nothing for Mony to satisfy^’^ 
Hunger, and therefore being spent with Weariness and Easting, 
I lay down on the Bed, expecting Supper. F. Edward in the 
mean while, having walk’d about a long time, without thinking 
of me ; at length, two Hours and a half after it was Night,'*® 
came to the dark Room. I hearing a Noise between Sleeping 
and Waking, and not seeing who it was, ask’d, WTio was there, 
and he very soberly answer’d Truly, Sir, I did not think you 
were here (tho’ we talk’d*® together when I came into the 
Village) and being told I had Eaten nothing but a little Bread, 
he order’d the Cloth to be laid. This Word made me recover 
my faint Spirits ;®“ when I saw two Plates of small firy’d Fishes 
appear, and that which had the least was set before me, the other 
with the larger before the Father. I was twice about®* rhan ging- 
Plates with him, but Modesty prevail’d, and I arm’d my self 
with Patience. After Supper F. Edward kept me up till Mid- 
night, with a Thousand idle Tales, not satisfy’d that he had 
spent three Hours in needless Chat, with the Peasants ; and I 
having given him the Hearing against my Will, at last fell a 
Sleep without making any Answer. When I awak’d, fitviing 
he was gone. I stripp’d a pace, and went to Bed, quite spent 
with Hunger and Weariness, wishing for the next Day, that I 
might fly from that -wretched Place, 



The Island Salzete, in which the aforesaid Paged is seated, Salzete 
is about seventy Miles in compass, twenty in length, and fifteen Island, 
in breadth. Being very low, it is cut by several Channels run- 
ning in from the Sea ; but there are high Mountains in it cover’d 
with Trees. The Soil is very fruitful, and produces abundance 
of Sugar-Canes, Rice, and Fruit ; such as Mangos, Cocos, 
Transolins,^^ Giacccharas/^ Tamarinds, Ananas,^^ Papais,^^ and 
other Sorts, which shall be describ’d elsewhere. There are in 
it several Villages of Poor wretched Gentils, Moors, and 
Christians, Tiving in Houses Built with Wattles crusted over 
with Mud, and cover’d with Straw, or Palm-tree Leaves. They 
go Naked, both Men and Women covering their Privities with 
a Clout, and their Breasts with another, or else with a short 
Jerkin that does not reach below the Navel, leaving the Arms, 

Thighs, and Legs bare. On their Arms they wear Bracelets of 
Silver and Glass, and thick Silver Rings about the Legs. The 
Peasants are worse than Vassals to the Lords of the Villages ; 
for they are bound to Till the Land, or to Farm as much as may 
put them in a Condition to Pay the Landlord ; thus like Slaves®® 
they fiy from one Village to another, and®® their Landlords 
bring them back by force. They generally Pay for their Land, 
four, six, or twelve Morais of Rice, so call’d when the Husk 
is oS, and Vate^'^ when it is on, which is the way they usually 
deliver it. A morais is 25 Paras, and the Para 24 Pounds 
Spanish ; Measures the Portuguese use for Provisions, as they 
do the Covedo,^^ for long Measure.®® If the Peasants take the 
Land to Till in the Place of their Abode, they Pay no other 
Duty to King or Landlord (tho’ some Exact some Days of 
personal Service) ; but those that hold in Fee, Pay an Imposition 
according to what they are worth®® every four Months to the 
Kings Factors or Treasures, residing in all the Northern Cities. 

These Villages are given iu Fee to Soldiers who have Serv’d 
long ; or to other Persons that have well deserv’d of the Crown, 
for three Lives, aftet which they generally endeavour to Renew ; 
but to the Church they are given for ever. 

Besides so rpany Villages, there are in this Island several BomHaim, 
Places of Consequence ; and among the rest the City and Fortress 
of Bomhaim,^^ which is several Miles about. It is parted from 
Salzete by a Channel,®^ which at low Water is Fordable. This 
Island was given by the King of Portugal, in Dower to Queen 
Catherine of England, and accordingly that King has been 
Possess’d of it, ever since the Year 1662.®® There are also in 
Salzete the Forts of Bandora,^^ and Versa'va^^ with their 
Villages ; as also Tana^ about which there are five small Forts 
gairison’d and furnish’d with Cannon. The Country, tho’ open, 
is excellent good for India, and has three Monasteries of 
Dorrviriicans, AugusHnians and Recolets, It is famous for 
Calicoes,®® no Place in the Portuguese Dominions exceeding it 

Tana . ' 

'Jo. Bapt. 
Nicol. Hist. 
p. 3. Verb. 

180 in&iAn Travels of carEri 

in this Particular, even for Table Service.®^ Eight Years since 
one Brother kill’d another at Tana, about the Possession of a 
Village. The Jesuits are Possess’d of the best part of this Island 
of Salzete, having almost all the Point that looks towards the 
East, and the Channel of Bazaim; and it is reported for a 
certain Truth, that they have more Revenues in India, than the 
King of Portugal. 

From Bazaim to Tana, and from Tana to Bombaim runs a 
Channel of Salt Water, in some Places half a Mile over, in 
others more or less ; and because near Goadel,^^ it runs through 
the midst of a Rock, the Portugueses generally say, That 
Alexander the Great, coming, as some will have it, several times 
to Bazaim, caused the Rock to be cut through to give a Passage 
to the Water and that it was he who had the neighbouring 
Paged of the Elephant®^ cut out of the solid Rock. 

Tuesday 15th, as soon as ever Day began to appear I set 
out. Coming to Gormandel, I found no Boat to carry me over 
to Bazaim, and going further, I saw one setting out ; therefore 
running down to the Shore, I made Signs to the Moors and 
Gentils in it to come back, and take me Aboard, which they 
refusing, rather than be left to endure more Hardship on the 
Shore, I made use of the Portuguese Authority, making as if I 
would Fire at them with my Gun, which they perceiving, came 
about to take me up. I went over to Bazaim, and^° being ask’d 
by the Father’s Visitor, and Prior how F. Edward had treated 
me, I answer’d their Recommendation had but an ill Effect ; 
and they desiring to hear all Particulars, I took out my Pocket 
Book, and Read to them all that has been here said concerning 
F. Edward's ill Usage. The Fathers Eaugh’d heartily, but 
were inwardly much Displeas’d that his extravagant Behaviour 
should blemish the Reputation of the Portuguese Civility. 

Wednesday 16th, the Count de Villa Verde, Viceroy of 
India,’'^ Sailing by with four great Ships, and ten small ones 
towards Diu, visiting the Northern Coast, the City saluted him 
with all its Cannon. He answer’d with seven Guns, and the 
City again fir’d round.*^^ By the way he had gain’d a Victory 
over the Arabs of Mascate,'^^ after this manner. These 
Barbarians discovering the Portuguese Ships ; stranded three 
of their Vessels in the Bay and River of Zanghisara,'^^ being 
in the Territory of Savagi, and carrying off in the Night what 
was most Valuable in two of them, fortrfy’d the third, planting 
Cannon on the Shore to defend it. The Portugueses could not 
Attack them on the same Day, because it was late ; but the 
next Morning, being the 25th of January, fell on, and whilst 
the Fire set to them by the Arabs themselves Burn’d the other 
two Vessels, they run in with eight Eong-Boats full of Men, 
because the great Ships could not come up, and after a long 
Fight, and much Blood spilt in the Attack of the third Vessel, 



and Arabs on the Shore, they Boarded, and made themselves 
Masters of her, cutting in Pieces some Hundred of Barbarians, 

They took in her 14000 RoupieSj and thirty Pieces of Cannon. 

Only four Portugueses were kill’d in the Action, and twenty 
wounded ; and so great a Number of the Enemy, that the River 
and Shore were all dy’d with their Blood. ^ 

The return of some small Vessels that went to carry Refresh- A barbarous 
ments to the Viceroy, brought us certain Intelligence of the 
Murder of Antony Machado de Brito/^ Admiral of the 
Portuguese Fleet, which hapned on the 30th of December^ 1694. 
after he had behav’d himself with unparallell’d Bravery against 
his Enemies. His sharp Tongue had gain’d him the ill Will of 
almost all the Gentry of Goa, and along the Coast, but more 
particularly of the Family of Melo/^ which was powerful in 
Kindred, and great by Birth. Plis Affronts becoming insupport- 
able, they conspir’d to the Number of fifty to Murder him, and 
having agreed on the Time, Place, and Manner of Executing 
their Design, they made several Eoop-Holes in the Houses of 
the Quarter and Parish of St. that they might Shoot 

him with more Safety. The General, or rather AdmiraF® 
perswading himself, that Gentlemen could not harbour Thoughts 
of taking an ungenerous Revenge, tho’ warn’d to be upon his 
Guard, because there were treacherous Practices against him, 
would never admit any Soldiers to attend him, and Particularly 
two Captains that were willing to share in his Dangers. Thus 
being carry’d in a Palankine alone, only with one Black that 
carry’d his Umbrella, a Shot was made at him from a House, 
which giving him a slight Wound, he leap’d out of the Palankine^ 
and taking the Snuff he held betwixt his Fingers, said. Who is 
it you aim at} Tristan de Melo at these Words, coming out of 
his House, answer’d, At you j and fir’d a Blunderbus upon him. 

He with an undaunted Courage fended it with his Cloak, and 
bowing his Body ; then drawing his Sword, and falling on his 
Enemy, he struck him five times, but to no Purpose, because 
he had on a Coat of Mail ; whereupon he Cleft his Head, and 
with a back Stroak cut him over the Face, which made him 
fall. Then taking him by the Hair, he set his Feet on him, 
and was going to run his Sword into his Breast ; but Tristan 
begging his Rife, he generously Granted it ; saying he would 
not imbrew his Hands in such base Blood. In the mean while, 
out came Tristan^s Son, and a Mulatto^^ (so they call those 
that are got betwen Blacks and Whites) and Firing two 
Blunderbus’ s,®^ lodg’d several Bullets in the Admiral’s®® Breast, 
breaking in pieces the Cross he wore as a Badge of Knighthood, 
but still he stood, and defended himself ; when a Slave came 
up, and run him into the Side with a Javelin.®^ Nor did he 
go unpunished, for the General with a back Stroak ripp’d open 
his Belly, whereof he Dy’d at Night, Machado being ready to 

iNblAN travels of CARfiRi 


Expire, drew near to tte Palankine, and setting his Pernke to 
rights the best he conld, laid himself in it. The Murderers fear- 
ing he might yet Eive, one of them who was a Priest, came with 
a Blunderbuss in his Hand to make an End of him ; but seeing 
him ready to breath out his Soul, ask’d whether he would make 
his Confession. The Admiral call’d him Jew, and bid him go 
about his Business. Afterwards a Dominican^’^ coming to him, 
he gave Signs of Repentance, and grasping his Hands, Dy’d 
with these Words, The Blood of Christ save me. They found 
in his Breast about 30 Bullets ; whereupon People admiring 
his Valour, said, He must need have more vital Spirits fha-n 
other Mortals, since there must go so much to the killing of 
him. The Soldiers of the Fleet, who were most of them 
Aboard,®® hearing so many Shot, and afterwards that their 
Admiral waa kill’d, ran to the Place, and had®^ taken just 
Revenge upon Tristan de Melo, who was carrying®® by two 
blacks to the Archbishops, had. not a Judge stopp’d them to 
gain Time for Tristan to Escape, cry’d out to them. In the 
King’s Name to Stand. This hapned, because the Admiral’s 
ill Tongue, as was said, had gain’d him many Enemies.®* How- 
ever, the Judge was Imprison’d some time after. Machado was 
generally lamented, and Particularly by Me, who having 
TraveU’d with him, in 1699, from Madrid to Genoa, and 
receiv’d many Civilities from him, expected still greater in India. 
He was the Terror of the Moors and Arabs, and kept in Awe 
several Thousands of Vagabond Soldiers, who having Rebell’d 
in the Mogul’s Dominions, threatned to Plunder the Portuguese 
Dominions. He gain’d many Victories over the Fleet of the 
Arabs of Mascate, and the most considerable of them was in the 
Bay of Suratte, in April 1694, when with only three Ships he 
Fought fourteen Arabs a whole Day ; and not so satisfy ’d cast 
Anchor at Night, to renew the Battle the next Day ; but found 
the Arabs had stole away, with the Doss of some Hundreds of 
Men, and several of their Ships disabled. Several Boats full 
French, English and Dutch, went out to Sea to see this Fight, 
because it hapned opposite to Damam. 

Thursday 17th, we went with F. Francis, to Divert us out 
of Town ;** and on Friday l&fch, I saw a good Procession in 
Bazaim, and heard a Sermon in our Church. 





Saturday 19th, .the Convoy being ready to Sail, I caused 
my Baggage to be put Aboard a Vessel of War they there call 
a ManchucaV Aboard which, Nunc d* Acuna, the Captain of 
it very Civilly gave me my Passage. Sunday 20th, I heard Mass, 
and a Sermon in the Jesuits Church, and then went with the 
Procession of the Holy Cross that was going^ to the Church of 
St, Augustin, whence it set out the Day before. Monday 21st, 
the Fleet SaiPd an Hour before Day. It consisted of thirty 
six Parangas,^ two Galiots which were Admiral and Vice- 
Admiral, and four Manchucas of War. These Manchucas had 
such a Main Sail as the Leutis of Trapani,^ in the Kingdom 
of Sicily,^ 12 Oars, and four small Guns, with fifteen Portu-> 
guese Soldiers, the aforesaid Captain Nuno's Company being 
distributed Aboard them. The Korth, or Northwest Wind 
prevails almost all the Year in those Seas, so that it being 
seldom Fair for Goa, we made but little way. After eighteen 
Miles Sailing, we pass'd by the Island and Fort of Bombaim, 
seated on the Point of the Island of Salzete, being about nine 
Miles in length, and little less in breadth. Nine Miles further, 

I saw another small Island, or Rock as big as Nisida, at Naples ; 
and on it a Fort, with some Dwellings of Savagis, who being 
at War with the Great Mogul, are continually in Action against 
the Sydi,^ and Garrison of the Fort on the Continent. This 
Sydi is a Black Subject to the Great Mogul, who, has given 
him the Government of the Country between Bombaim and 
Chaul, to defend it against the Invasions of Sa'vagi, for which 
purpose he maintains 2000 Horse and Foot at his own Cost. 

These two Forts in the Island, and on the Continent are call'd 
Undrin,^ and CanderinJ 

Tuesday 22nd, after Sailing nine Miles further, we Anchor'd Chaul City, 
opposite to the City and Fentress of Chaul, It is seated on a 
Plain, six Miles froni the Sea, on the Bank of a River,® which 
at Flood will carry any Ships up to the City. It is enclos'd with 
good Walls, and other Works, and furnish'd with excellent 
Cannon. A Fort call'd El Morro,^ secures the Entrance of the 
Harbour, being Built by the Portuguese, in the Year 1520, on Mali desc. 
the Hill by their General Sequeira,^^ with leave of the T 3 rrant de I'Unis, 
Nizzamaluo who granted it upon Condition they should bring 
him over three hundred Horses at- reasonable Rates out of Persia, 
or Arabia, because of the Scarcity of them there was in India, Uaff, Hist. 
to Serve him in his Wars against HidalcanJ^ JasH,^^ Governour s. 

of Diu, hearing what the Portuguese were doing, sent fifty Sail 
to Obstruct the Building of the Fort, which Sequeira by his 
industry had alreadjr m^d^ Tenable, The had Several 



Savagi, or 

Engagements, but always with Loss to the Turks, so that at last 
they went back Disabled. Afterwards the Portuguese made 
themselves Masters of the City -with Ease. Its Territory does 
not Extend above six Miles in length ; on the South it borders 
on Savagi, and on the North with another Fort belonging to 
the Sydi. 

Wednesday 23rd, it was late before we Sail’d, waiting for 
some Vessels of Chaul ; and the Wind failing, made but little 
way. The Calm continu’d Thursday 24th, and we were oblig’d 
to lie close by the Coast of Savagi, who is a mortal Enemy^^ to 
the Portuguese, This Savagi, whom his Subjects call Raja, 
which signifies petty King, is so Powerful, that he maintains 
War at one and the same time with the Great Mogul, and the 
Portugueses, He brings into the Field 50000 Horse, and as 
many, or more Foot, much better Soldiers than the Moguls ; 
for they Liv^ a Day upon a piece of dry Bread, and the MoguVs 
will March at their Ease, carrying their Women, abundance of 
Provisions, and Tents, so that their Army looks like a moving 
City. The Raja, as to his Religion is an Idolater, as are most 
of his Subjects* All the Coast from Chaul to Goa, for the 
space of 250 Miles belongs to him, and from thence to Visapor,^^ 
he has several Forts, most of them among inaccessible Moun- 
tains, besides Cities and Towns, defended both by Art and 

This Prince’s Dominion is but of a late Date, for it began 
in Savagi*s Father,^^ to whom succeeded Samhagi,'^^ his Eldest 
Son, who was afterwards kill’d in Battle by the Great MoguVs 
General, and so Ramrao^^ now Reigning, ascended the Throne. 
Savagi first rais’d his Fortune by Serving under the King of 
Golconda then having gather’d vast Wealth, and scouring 
the Country with a great Number of Men like an Out-Law, h-e 
seiz’d some Places belonging to the King of Visapor, and forti- 
fying themselves in them among the Mountains, at length 
gather’d a mighty Army, then making War on the Mogul, the 
Portugueses, and other Princes his Neighbours, he usurp’d all 
he now stands Possess’d ’of* They say he was Born in Tana,^^ 
a Subject of the King of Portugal, and kept Shop there. But 
Ramrao pretends he is Descended from Rajapours,^^ and 
endeavours daily to enlarge his Dominions, along the Coast of 
Undrin, and Candrin, as far as the Bay of Galas besides what 
he has up the Land. His Subjects are Robbers both by Sea 
and Land, that being the Pay he allows them, and make it 
dangerous Sailing along that Coast, so that it is not to be done 
without a good Convoy ; for being^"^ to pass by their Forts, they 
run out in small Boats well Man’d, and Rob Friends and Foes, 
because, as has been said, their King gives them leave. Nor is 
the Voyage safe On- Account of the Malakars,^^ 



These are P 5 rrates of several Nations, as Moors, Gentils, Malabars, 
Jews, and Christians, and fall upon all they meet with a great 
number of Boats full of Men, Their large Country reaches from 
Mount Delhi/^ (bordering on the Kingdom of Ccunara, ever 
govern’d by a Queen, and never by a Man) to Madrastapatan/'^ 
a considerable City and Fort. They Live under several 
Monarchs, among which the most Powerful is the Emperor 
Zamori/^ and the King’s of Tanor,^^ Porca,^° and others. 

These People take poor Passengers, and lest they should have 
swallow’d their G-old, tho’ they have no need of it,^^ give them 
a Potion, which makes them Digest all they have in their Bodies, 
which done, they search the stinking Excrements to find the 
precious Metal, I was very much afraid of the Malahar 
Receipt,®^ having never taken any Purge, and therefore thought 
best to expect®® the Convoy. 

About Sun-set, the North-west Wind freshned, and brought Dabul 
us in sight of Dahul^^ This City is seated six Miles from the 
Sea, after the same manner as Chaul, and eight Miles from it ; 
both in the Kingdom of Decan, The Portuguese's took it under VUnivers, 
their General Almeida , from Hidalcan, who Reign’d at Goa, 
in the Year 1508, burning the City, and putting the Turkish^^ Majflnist, 
Garrison to the Sword. Now it is Subject to Savagi, 

3^. 4. p. 9. 

Friday 25th, the same Wind continuing, we came in sight UU d, 
of the Fort of Visapor, in which River®^ the Viceroy Burnt the 
three Arab Vessels before-mention’d. Then we pass’d by 
F'ambuna,^^ and the Fort of Maliandi,^^ belonging to Savagi, 
and after Mid-night the Ysleos-quernados,^° which are three 
Rocks, 36 Miles from Goa. 

The Wind freshning all Night, on Saturday 26th, at break 
of Day, we came to an Anchor in our Port, having Sail’d 280 
Miles from Chaul. Having put my Baggage into a Boat call’d 
a Ballon,^’^ to carry it up the Channel to Goa, I met two 
Ballons of the Custom-House coming to visit that I was in ; 
but having been fore-warn’d to wri'te a Superspription^® upon 
one of my Parcels for F. Salvador Galli,^^ a Milanese Thecitin,^ 
and Superior of the Monastery of Goa, they went away. Being 
come to the City, I caus’d my Eqipage to be carry’d to the 
Monastery,' where I was Courteously receiv’d by t|ie said 





Goa City. is seated in the ^Latitude of fifteen Degrees, and 

twenty Minutes, and 104 of I/ongitude,^ in an Island nine 
Leagues about in the River Mandova,^ which six Miles below 
Thevenot it falls into the Sea. It stretches two Miles in length along the 
voyage des Channel upon uneven Ground ; being but half a Mile broad. 
n es, c, 3. under the Torrid Zone, which the Antients thought 

Inhabitable,® by reason of the excessive Heat of the Sun ; but 
Providence, which has dispos’d all Things in the best manner, 
has qualify’d it with continual Rains, which fall so plentifully 
from Junej till September, or October, that the great Floods 
dam up the Harbour, and obstruct Navigation ; besides the 
Skies being darkned whole Weeks with the thick Clouds. 
When the Rains cease at Sun-rising, the Heat is intollerable ; 
and therefore it is most violent in April, and May, when the 
Sun is in the Zenith, and the Rains are not yet begun. 

Alfonso de Albuquerque,^ took Goa from Hidalcan,, with- 
out Blood-shed, in the Year 1508,^^ a Dominican Father setting 
up the Standard of our Holy Faith.- Hidalcan afterwards Re- 
took the City, but in 1510, Albuquerque recover’d it again, 
with the Slaughter of 7000 Barbarians, and Built a Fort there, 
as he did at Malaca, which was lost in 1641.® Then considering 
the goodness of the Country, and commodious Situation of the 
Place, he constituted it the Metropolis of the Portuguese Empire 
in India, To Establish his Master King Emanuel^ in the 
Possession, by gaining the Love of the Subjects, he moderated 
the Tribute they - paid to Hidalcan ; and to Breed up Soldiers 
for the Wars, he contriv’d that the Indian Maids should be 
Baptiz’d, and Marry’d to the Portugueses ; that the Indians 
might be united to his Nation by Affinity, and there might be 
no need of bringing fresh Supplies^ still, out of Portugal, to 
the Depopulating the Kingdom. Goa, the Center of all the 
Portuguese Conquests, grew in Wealth and Renown, being 
become the Key of all the Trade of the East, and the chief 
Mart of India, This plainly appears by the compass of its 
Walls, which Extend full four Leagues, with good Bastions, 
and Redoubts ; which from the Church of the Madre de Deos,^ 
or the Mother of God, rtm along for twelve Miles to the 
Powder-House,® passing by the Castles of St. Blase, and St. 
James a Work of a vast Expence ; as are the others next 
the Channel, which divides the Dominion of the Mogul, from 
that of Portugal, beginning at Fort St, Thomas, and ending 
three Miles off, at that of St, Christopher, It may be objected 
th^t these last Fprtifiqations^ were rais’d to defen4 the Borders, 


18 ? 

as is true, but the first Walls were made to no other purpose 
but to defend, and inclose the City, as the Marquiss de Villa 
Verde, the Viceroy inform’d me, when I enquir’d into it, 
thinking that City did not stand in need of such large Walls. 

But it is certain the City is not now what it was formerly ; for 
the great I^osses the Poriugueses sustain’d, whilst their Forces 
were employ’d in War at home, made their Trade decline, and 
impair’d the Wealth and Grandeur of the City to such a degree, 
that it was reduc’d to a miserable Condition. 

The Houses are the best in India, but at present it does Inhabitants 
not contain above 20000 Inhabitants of several Nations, Habits, 
and Religious. There are fewest of the Poriugueses, who go 
over with Employments, and then Marry and settle there : 
because the Indian' Women, by reason of the ill Qualities of 
those Born in India, chuse' rather to Marry a poor Portuguese 
Soldier, than a rich Country Man pf their own, tho’ Born of 
Portuguese Parents. The Mestizos are more numerous ; and 
those are so call’d that are Born of Portuguese Men, and 
Brachman Women, whom they marry ’d after reducing Goa; 
and tho’ the Canarine Women were Black, yet marrying 
Whites, their Race by degrees became lighter Colour’d. About 
the fourth Part of the People are Mulattas, that is, Born of 
Whites and Blacks. 

The Canarines^^ are^^ as black' as Ethiopians, but^ have Canarines. 

. long Hair, and good Faces. Many of them, both in Goa, and 
the Islands are Priests, Tawyers, Attorneys, Scriveners, and 
Sollicitors, and very Diligent in the Service of their Masters. 

They are Descended from several Generations^® of Gentils, and 
according to their Nobility, or Meanness,^^ they continue their 
Customs, Most of them are the Off -spring of Brachmans, 

Banienes, and Char ados, and these have good clear Under- 
standings, being apt to Team all Sciences, Sharp-witted, 

Ingenious, and Ready, and therefore every Body endeavours to 
have some of them for their Servants. On the contrary, those 
that are of low Extraction, as the Langottis, are the very 
Reverse of the Others. All Asia does not afford greater 
Thieves and RuflSans, or more faithless ilP® Christians than 
. they are. They go Naked, covering only their Privities with 
a Clout, which they call Langoii,^'^ and passing betwixt their 
Thighs, is ty’d behind with a Cord hanging down from the 
Waste. These Till the Tand, Fish, Row, carry Andoras, and 
follow such mean Employments ; but, as was said, they are so 
addicted to Thieving, and do it so Dexterously, that it is almost 
impossible to Escape them. Were it for the Tove of God they 
led so miserable a Tife, they would be accounted living Saints. 

They Sleep naked Day and Night on the bare Ground ,' they 
Feed on a little Rice swimming in the Dish ; never tasting 
Bread as long as they Tive, unless they be extreamly Sick. All 

INDIAN travels 6f CArErI 

this proceeds from their I^azitiess, for no sooner have they got 
as much Rice as will keep them a Week, but they give over 
Work, living Idly as long as that lasts. 

The Portugueses tell us, That these CanarineSj when they 
were first discover’d, went to Advise with their Idols, that is, 
the Devil, to know what they were to do with the new People 
that had subd’d them, and receiv’d for an Answer, that they 
were not able to deal with them by open Force, and therefore 
pretending not to understand the impertinent Portuguese^ they 
should give them Water when they ask’d for Bread, and Rice 
when they demanded Wine. Experience soon shew’d how 
frivolous the Advice was ; for the Portugueses readily found 
the way to cure them of their Stupidity, taking a Banvboo, 
which is a very hard Cane in IndiUj and beating them so 
severely, that afterwards they flew at every beck. And whilst 
I was at Goa, I perceiv’d the aforesaid Cane perform’d 
Wonders ; for being beaten, they understood a Man’s thoughts 
and serv’d readily, but to give them fair Words was time lost. 
Beating is so agreeable to these Wretches, that it makes up a 
part of their amorous Delight ; for when they Marry, the 
Couple lies down upon their hard Bed, and the Kindred and 
Friends come and thrash them,^® shewing them so much of this 
brutal Kindness, that they are unfit for any business for some 

Most of the Citizens and Merchants of Goa, are Idolaters 
and Mahometans, who live in a quarter of the Town apart, and 
without any publick use of their Religion* We shall speak of 
them both at large hereafter* There are also abundance of 
Blacks. Cafres and Blacks ; for there are Portugueses that keep thirty, 
or forty, and the least six or twelve ; to carry their Umbrella, 
and Andora, and other mean Employments ; nor are they at 
any other charge to keep them, but a Dish of Rice at Noon,^'’ 
and another at Night ; for they have no other Garments but 
what they brought out of their Mothers Wombs. These Slaves 
are carry’d to sell at Goa, and all along the Portuguese Towns,^® 
by the Company’s Ships belonging to Lishorn and India, who 
buy them at Monbaza, Mozambique, Zofala,^^ and other Part§ 
along the Coast of A'frick ; for those Nations being at War 
among themselves, take Slaves on both sides, whom they after- 
wards sell to the Portuguese, There are others whom their 
Parents out of ’meer V^ant sell, for only a Zecchine ; and others 
who in despair, Barbarously sell themselves. There would be 
abundaUce of this last sort, did not they foolishly conceit, 
that at Goa they make Powder of them. They being very cheap, 
that is, fifteen or twenty Crowns of Naples a Head, it is no 
wonder there should be such numbers of them, kad that the 
very Vintners keep them to sell their Wine; besides the 
Cwayines they have for other Uses* As to their Religidn they 



are Idolaters, but are easily induc’d to embrace the CathoHck 
Faith, there being no need of many persuasions, for they 
presently yield, and readily consent to be Baptiz’d. On the 
contrary, those of the Coast of Africk opposite to Spain are- 
perverse. There are some of them who besides eating one 
another, when it Thunders, shoot Arrows towards Heaven, 
bruti'shly challenging God to fight with them. 

But those Blacks we speak of, tho’ of an ill aspect, have 
some of them^® such a noble and genteel Disposition, that it 
were a Blessing that every European Gentleman were like them* a genteel 
D. Francisco de Taverno^ Earl of Alvor/^ who was afterwards Action of 
Vice-Roy of India, being Governor of Angpla/^ the Son of 
Neighbouring King, came once to visit him, and understanding 
that the Portugueses were precise in matter of Compliments, 
and that he should be receiv’d standing, as was accordingly 
done, he took along with him two Slaves well instructed what 
they were to do. Being come into the Governor’s Room, and 
seeing no Chair brought him, he caus’d his two Slaves to squat 
down and sate upon them. The Portuguese admir’d the Cafres 
Ingenuity, and presently order’d Chairs to be brought. After 
the visit the two Slaves stay’d in the Count’s House ; and their 
Master being told of it by the Count’s Servants, that he mighit 
call them away, he answer’d, he did not use®^ to carry away 
the Chairs he sate on. 

In the same Kingdom of Angola, two Brothers of the King Another, 
de las Pedras being made Prisoners by the Portugueses^ were 
sent to Lisbon, where in a visit they made to the Marquis of 
Marialva seeing no Chairs were brought them ; they drew 
them themselves and sate down, telling the Marquis, that he was 
a Marquis, and they Princes* 

As their Princes and Gentry are endued with Generous lining of 
and noble Thoughts, so the Commonalty are CouragioUs, and Elephants 
Cunning, for they with poor Weapons overcome Elephants,^® l^ions. 
and the fiercest Eions. To kill the first of these they make a 
narrow Path, along which they by means of several contrivances 
drive the Beast, and then dexterosly wound it with a Javelin 
from oil a Tree. When it has blead to Death and falls, all the 
Inhabitants of the neighbouring Village, resort to the place^ 
and live there in Tents till they have eaten all the Flesh. 

Others finding the Elephant lying on the Ground, get Upon 
him, and Stab him with a long Dagger, holding fast upon him 
till he is dead, which cannot be done without much Courage. 

They kill the Lions for sport J for when they see one astray in 
the Woods, one of them advances with two sniall Cudgels in 
his Hand, and clapping one of them into the Lions Paw, plays 
with the other : In the mean while the next Black to him 
very dextrously takes the Beast by the Testicles, and then they 
beat ’h im to death. So when •they would have a Lion quit a 


INDIAN travels Of CArEW 

Cow he hag seiz’d, they draw near, and saluting him after , the 
same manner as is us’d in Africk, to Persons of the greatest 
Note ; that is, lying down on their side, holding up one Foot, 
and at the same time making a Noise with Hands and Mouth. 
This was generally told me by the Portugueses ; the Reader 
. may believe what he pleases ; for I do not assert those things 
for Truths, which I have not seen. Since we are speaking of 
Inhuman these Blacks, it is to be observ’d that in Africk there are some 

Blacks. call’d Nudoy, Macua/^ who are so fierce and inhuman, that 

they eat the Flesh of the Enemies they take, or kill in Battle. 
They go quite naked, except their Privities ; and curl their 
thick Hair, winding it about small sticks, which makes them 
, look like Devils. They lye in the open Fields®® on Trees, being 
us’d to this dangerous Bed, for fear of the Wild Beasts that 
! Country is full of. No®^ part of the World is richer in Gold ; 
for in some Kingdoms it is found upon the surface of the Earth, 
so that there is no need of digging for it, and therefore instead 
of Iron they®^ use Golden Nails. 

The Port 1^0 return, after so long a digression, to Goa, its Port is 

of Goa. compar’d by Tavernier/^ to the best in our Continent, such as 
Constantinople, and Toulon. And to say the Truth, besides 
what Nature made it, the Portuguese have taken much Pains 
to Compleat, and Fortify it by means of many Castles and 
Towers furnish’d with good Cannon ; for at the Entrance on 
the left upon the point of the Island of Bardes,^^ is a good Fort 
call’d Aguada,^^ with strong Works, and Guns levell’d with 
the Water ; on the top of the Hill, near the Channel, is a long 
Wall, all planted with Cannon ; and opposite to it the Castle 
.call’d Nossa Sinhora do Cabo,^^ or our Eady of the Cope, built 
in the Island of Goa. Two Miles within the Channel, above 
the Island of Bardes, is another Castle call’d dos Reys,^'^ or of 
the Kings, well Fortify ’d and with Cannon level with the 
Water. Here the new Viceroys take Possession at their first 
.Arrival. Near this Fort is a Monastery of Franciscans.^^ 

. Opposite to it, and within common®®^ Shot, is the Fort of 
Gaspar Dias ;®® but two Miles distant from that of the King’s. 
Beyond these Castles the Channel grows narrower, sometimes 
to one, sometimes to two Miles, and its Banks set out with the 
best Fruit and Trees India affords, yield the finest Prospect 
imaginable. Besides, there are delicate^® Country Houses 
call’d Quinias,^'^ and abundance of dwellings of the Country 
People. The delightful Scene holds for Eight Miles up to Goa. 

Half way up on the right side is a Palace call’d Pas so de 
Daugi,^^ where formerly the Vice-Roys resided ; at present it 
serves to quarter the Garrison Souldiers. There begins a thick 
Wall two Miles in length, for^® a Foot-Path when the Country 
is overflow’d ; and there a great deal of Salt is gather’d : 
Opposite to this Wall, or Dike, is a Hill, on which the Jesuits 


101 - 

have their Noviceship/^ The Vice-Roy has his Palace call’d 
la Palvereira,^^ on the same Channel, and so has the Arch- 
bishop. Here begins the City, and so far Ships can come up 
after lightning some part of their Toad. 

This Channel that makes so noble^® a Port, runs many 
Miles up the Country, dividing it into several Fruitful Islands 
and Peninsulas, which do not only plentifully supply the City^^ 
with necessaries,^® but delight the Pallate with rich Fruit, 
afford a curious®® Prospect, and yield much profit to the Gentry, 
to whom for the most part they belong. In short, this Channel 
for Pleasure is no way inferiour to our Posilipo, as well on 
account of those advantages here mention’d, as for the many 
Boats there are on it to take the Air. 

Adjoyning to this Port is that of Murmugon^^ form’d by 
the other Channel that runs between the Island of Goa and 
Peninsula’s of Salzete ; to give a safe retreat to the Ships that 
come from Portugal and other Parts, when they are shut out 
of the Port, by the Sands the River Mandua brings down, 
when swollen by the first Rains of June, the Passage not being 
open till October This Port of Murmugon is defended by 
the Castle of the same Name, seated in the Island of Salzete, 
with a good Garrison and Cannon. 

These two Channels which meet at St. Laurence^^ make 
the length from East to West of the Island of Goa, which is 
twenty seven Miles in compass and contains thirty Villages. 

Entring the Port on the right Hand is the Peninsula of Salzete, 
which is sixty Miles about, and twenty in length, containing 
50000 Souls in fifty Villages, where the Jesuits administer the 
Sacraments.®^ On the left is the other Peninsula of Bardes, 
in which are the Forts of Aguada, and Reyes. It is fifteen 
Miles long, and about forty five in compass with 28 Villages, 

Govern’d in Spirituals®® by the Clergy. 

Saturday 26th, going to the Custom-house to find the 
Commander of the Manchuca, and tell him that his Men had 
stolen a Coat, and a Silver Case®® for the Table out of my 
Portmantue ; I saw F. Francises Man carry’d away Prisoner, 
for having spoke saucily to the Officer of the Customs on 
account of his Masters Goods. He was discharg’d upon my 
request ; and the Customer very civilly told me, that if I had 
any Baggage I might take it away without searching ; a piece 
of Courtesy not used towards Strangers in our Custom-houses. 

After Dinner, I went to see the Cathedral.®^ It is very Cathedral, 
large, ’ Arch’d, divided into three Isles®® by twelve Columns, 
and all curiously adorn’d with Figures, as are the Chappels. 

The Arch-bishop’s Seat is in the Choir^ but®® rais’d a great 
height above the Ground. The Palace is Magnificent and 
Spacious^ with curious G^llerie^ - and nobl^ Apartments, for 


The Great 


Angus ti- 


Sagu root» 


what India affords ; but the Archbishop, for the conveniency 
of the cool Air, lives in that we said was upon the Channel, 
near the Powder House. A few paces from the Cathedral is 
the little Church of the Misericordia^^ 

Sunday 27th, I went two Miles from the City to see the 
Monastery of the Recolets, calPd A Madre de Deos/^ or the 
Mother of God. The Dormitories are large and sightly, and 
their Gardens furnish’d with several sorts of European, and 
Indian Fruit. The Church tho’ small is Beautiful, with 3 
hand^om®^ Altars ; one in the middle rail’d in, and two on the 
sides. In the Garden where S. Jerome's Hermitage stands, 
there is a Fish-pond well stor’d, 

Near this Monastery, at the place call’d Daugi,^^ begins 
the Wall built by the Portuguese when the City®^ was in it. 
Flourishing condition along the Channel, to secure it from 
being invaded by Enemies. It is about four Miles along, 
reaching to S. Blase, S. Jameses Fort, and S. Laurence, with 
Towers at convenient distances furnish’d with Cannon. 

Returning home I went into the Church and Monastery 
of S. Dominick.^^ The first has three Isles,®® made by silc 
Columns on a side. The Arches are gilt, especially that of the 
Choir, where Gold glitters in every part. The high Altar and 
Chappel are well adorn’d. The Convent is Magnificent, for 
the long Arches of the Dormitories, Cloister and other Spacious 
places, necessary fpr a great number of Fathers. The Gardens 
are also pleasant and curious.®’' 

After Dinner I saw the Monastery of S. Augustin, seated 
on a high Ground, that commands the City. A large ascent 
of steps leads up to the front of the Church, where there are 
two high Towers with great Bells. The Church has but one 
Isle®® set off with good Images. As well the Altars of eight 
side-Chappels, as the high Altars, and only’^® on each Hand 
of it, are all richly gilt. The stately Choir is above, over the 
great Gate. The Monastery has a good Cloister with vast 
great Dormitories, and an infinite number of Cells. Add to all 
this the Beauty of the Gardens, always green, and beautify’d 
with the best Trees India produces. Near this Monastery is 
the College for Novices with a decent Church and dwellings. 

The little Church of the Theatins'^'^ is built after the Model 
of S. Andrew della Velle in RomeJ^ Four Columns support 
the Cupola, which is adorn’d with Images, as are the Arches. 
Both the high Altar and ‘ beautiful Chappies on the sides are 
gilt, The Choir is over the three Doors coming in. The 
Monastery also small, and has ^ Garden. 

Monday 28th, F, Salvador gave me a taste of the Root 
iSagii/® boil’d with Coco-nut, Milk and 6ugar. Tho’ when 
4r^ss’4 it looks libo *Qlew/^ 7 et it is yer^ Nourishing and w^ll- 



tasted. It comes from Malacq, and the Island of Borneo bruis’d 
small like Millet, and white. 

Tuesday the 1st of March, the Vice-Roy return’d from Barefoot 
visiting the Northern Coast. Two Vessels arriv’d from China, 
having spent a long time in their Voyage, for fear of the Arabs, 

I went to the Barefoot Franciscans, which is one of the 
best Churches in Goa ; For tho’ small it looks like one entire 
Mass of Gold, there is so much of this Metal about the high 
Altar, and Sepulcher for Maundy Thursday, and in the eight 
Chappels on the side. The Roof is curiously adorn’d with 

The Jesuits College, call’d S. Rock, has a small Church^® Jesuits 
with six: little Chappies ; but the House is large and capable 
of’'^ seventy Fathers, who live in it, there being but twenty 
five at the profess’d House, 

S. Monica^^ of the Augusiinian Nuns, is an arch’d Church, Augustinian 
with three gilt Altars. Here is a miraculous Crucifix. Sister 
Mary of Jesus"^^ dy’d in this Monastery with the reputation of 
Sanctity : She having the signs of our Saviour’s Wounds found 
upon her, and on her Head, as it were the goreing of Thorns ; 
whereof the Archibishop took authentick Information. 

After Dinner I went to St. the first Church founded S* 

by the Jesuits in India, whence they took the Name of Paulistas, 

Afterward they left it on account of the ill Air, and because it 
was out of the City, so that only two Fathers, reside there at 
present ; Having formerly been a College, the Dormitories still 
standing are magnificent. In the Garden there are 2 Jaqua,^^ 
and some Mango Trees caused to be planted by 5. Francis 
Xaverius, There is also a Chappel®^ built in Memory of the 
Extasy or Raptrue the Saint had in that place. In this Church, 
tho’ formerly Magnificent, there is at present only the high 
Altar, with two small ones on the sides. Here the Catechu- 
mens are instructed ; for whose sustenance the King allows 
four hundred Pieces of Eight a Year.' 

In India all Christians wear thedr Beads about their Necks, 
like Religious Men. The Jesuits instead of a Priest’s Cap, wear 
a long round one, broad at the top. 

Thte Miraculous Cross, is a Church built on the Hill, on Miraculous 
the place where a wooden Cross being formerly fix’d on a 
Stone foot ;; it is reported that seventy four Yeairs since the 
Crucifix was found with its back Miraculously turn’d towards 
Goa, which City from that time has very much declin’d. 

Wednesday 2d March, I went to the Church of S. Thomas St. Thomas 
of the Dominicans , a good Fabrick on the Bank of the Channel. Dominicans, 
It has seven Altars ; the Monastery is large, and Beautiful, 
inhabited by 25 Fath^s, 

2 ? 

S. Bonaven^ 
lure Fran- 
cis cans ^ 

of India 

Vita ' 


S. Bonaventure^^ of the Observants of S. Francis j is a small 
distance from it, has a little Church, and . indifferent Dormi- 
tories. It was the first built at Goa in Honour of S. Francis 
by Edward de Merses,^^. 

The Hospital of Goa^^ is small, and ill Govern’d,®’ tho’ 
the King allows it four hundred pieces of Eight a Year. For 
this reason, and through the Pestilential Ait of the. Country 
there dye Thousands of sick Persons in it, and particularly of 
wretched Portuguese Souldiers. 

Thursday 3d, I went in an Andora, to Our Eady of the 
Pillar,®® seated on a Hill six Miles from the City. This is the 
School of the Recolets. The Church though small is Beautiful, 
and has three gilt Altars. Returning home one of the Bues or 
Porters that carry’d me in the Andora being got drunk, I was 
forc’d to make the Peasants, I met by the way carry me ; they 
ol>eying readily upon sight of a Cudgel. 

It is to be observ’d that all the Monasteries in Goa and 
throughout all the Portuguese Dominions in India, have some 
allowance®® from the King, more or less, according to the 
number of the Religious. 



Vasco de Gama a Portuguese GentlemaUj, whose Statue is 
over one of the Gates of Goa/ was the first that perform’d this 
tedious Voyage / and King Emanuel of Portugal had the good 
Fortune to see that accomplish’d which his Predecessors had 
in Vain attempted for seventy five Years before. Gama had 
the Title of General, or Admiral of four Ships,® three whereof 
were well fitted .for War,^. and the fourth loaded with Provi- 
sions ; and being furnish’d with all necessaries for so long ■ a 
Voyage he sail’d from Lisbon on, the 9th’ of July 1947 / a 
Season, as afterwards was' found by experience, most improper 
" to go to India ; for want of those general Wind.s that forward 
- Ships on their way thither. After some dangerous Storms he 
touch’d at the Island of St. James, ^ the biggest of the ten of 
Cabo Verde, where having taken what he wanted, he continu’d 
his Voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, which he found very 
stormy, as Bartholomew Dias'^ had call’d it, as well by reason 
of its being in thirty four Degrees and a half of South Latitude,® 
as because the two Oceans here break one upon another. Never^ 
theless King John/ under “whop:^ ^discover’d it^ would pot 


have it calPd the Stormy Cape for fear of discotiragiiig Sailers 
for the time to come but on the contrary gave it the Name 
of the Cape of Good Hope. There a worse Storm than that 
of the Sea, was rais'd aboard the Ship by the Sailers against 
Gama, for they daunted with the present Danger, and fearing 
greater, if they went further, conspir'd together to throw him 
6ver Board and return home. Gama having Intelligence of it, 
clapt the chief of the Conspirators in Irons, and sitting down 
himself at the Helm, play'd both the parts of the Captain and 
Pilot, till he had weather'd the Cape, and brought them all out 
of that Danger. Then steering North East, still Coasting along 
A f rick, this Eastern ColUmhus came at last to the Island of 
Mozambique, and then boldly crossing a Gulph of 2500 Miles^^ 
on the 18th of May 1498, came to an Anchor in a Port thirty 
Miles from Calicut^^ a City in the Kingdom of Malabar, after 
ten Months Sail from Lisbon. - The Portuguese continu'd this 
same way to India for several Year% after, still going on*to the 
discovery of more remote Countries, as far as Chinaf^ and Japan; 
and to the Southward opened a way to the Infinite Number of 
Islands in that great Archipelago. Their Discoveries were, 
follow'd by Conquests, with an incredible increase as well of Portuguese 
Souls brought to the Faith, .as of Glory and Dominions added 
to the Crown of Portugal,' Having by repeated Voyages settled 
the means of getting the necessary supplies out of Europe^ 
the Portugueses began to subdue the Kingdoms of Decan„ 

Cambaya, and Guzaratte,^^ taking the Forts of Diu, Cambaya^ 

Suratte, Damam, Trapor, Maim, Bazaim] Tana, Chaul, Babul, 
and other places^® for Two hundred Miles along the Coast ; as 
also the Islands of Goa, Salzeie, Bardes, Andegiva,'^^ and others ; 
the small City of S. Thomas, the Kingdoms of Cochin and 
Calicut, and the Island of Ceylon, 

Further on towards China, they made themselves Masters 
of the important place of Malaco,^"^ of the Moluc'co'^^ Islands, 
and the Islands of Timor, and Solor,^^ building the Colony of 
Macao^^ with the consent of the Emperor of China, The" 

Dominion also extended on the Coast of Africk over Angola. 
and Mozambique, This last is an Island three Miles in. compass, Mozambique- 
and a Mile in length, where only the Jesuits have a Garden 
of Palm-Trees. The .Fort is seated on the Mouth of the 
Channel,^® which runs between the said little Island, and the 
Continent. The Castle has four good Bastions, with seventy 
four choice pieces of Cannon. The Governor is honour'd with 
the Title of General of the River of Senna, where he has 
his Eieutenant, which employment is worth to him several 
hundred thousand Crowns ; there are but a few Houses about 
the F'ort,^® the Inhabitants' keeping thdr effects on the Neigh- 
bouring Continent. But notwithstanding the narrowness of the 
place there are Monasteries of Jesuits, Dominicans, of S. John 





de Dios, besides the chief Church and that of the Misericordia. 
The Merchandize brought to this Port by the Ships of the 
Company,^® are bought at a set Price by the Royal Factory ; 
which afterwards sends them to Chilimam, the Mouth of the 
River of Senna, running three hundred Miles along the Coast 
in Galiots and small Vessels, because of the Flats. From 
Chilimani,^'^ the Goods are sent up the River against the Stream 
in Almandies^^ or little Boats,- which are ten Days going up, 
and but five coming down. It is very difficult going up for 
those that are not well acquainted with the Shallows, and 
Windings of the River. Cafres, or Blacks resort to this Port 
from Provinces and Kingdoms three or four Months Journey 
distant to buy or take up Goods upon Trust for so much Gold ; 
which they never fail to bring ptxnctually the next Year, unless 
Death prevent them. This Trade yields above cent, per, cent. 
so that the Portugueses may be said to have another India in 

Senna^^ is a little Town on the right Hand of the River, 
inhabited by fifty Portuguese Families, who make it Populous 
enough by the great Number of Blacks they keep. These till 
the Ground, and dig in the Mines, and by that means maintain 
their Masters instead of being kept by them. The Dominicans 
and other Missioners, when they return from this place carry 
away Gold, in Ingots and Plates, so great is the Plenty of it, 
especially a Months Journey up the Country, where they say 
the Beasts Shooes are set on with Gold Nails, as was said 

On the same Coast, fifteen Days journey from Mozambique, 
the Portugueses have the Fort of Zofala,^^ the first Place they 
discover in this part of Africk, as ailso the small Island and Fort 
of Momhaza. 

In Arabia Ficelix the Portugueses once had the important 
Place of Moscate,^^ and its Dependances ; the Kingdom of 
Ormuz,^^ the Islands of Recca, Kescimi,^^ and others in the 
Persian Gulph ; where they made the Island of Baharem^^ 
Tributary, as also the considerable City of Bassora,^^ which still 
pays five Thousand five Hundred Crowns and a Horse yearly 
Tribute t3o the King of Portugal ; besides two Zecchines a Day 
for the subsistence of the Portuguese's Factor ; but whensoever 
their Fleet, does nbt appear powerful in the Gulph the 
Madtometuris refuse to pay. 

Tirey also made themselves Masters in the Kingdom of 
Canqra of the Forts of Onor,^^ Brazalor,^'^ and Cambolin in 
the Country of the Ncdres of the Castles of Cananor,^^ Cman- 
parlor, Palepor,^^ and Coilon and of the Port of Mwmr on 
the Island of that Na#re.'^® • 


In tlie Island of Ceylon, of seven Provinces (or Carolas/^ Ceylon, 
as the Indians call them) three were brought under the PoriyL- 
gueses Dominion ; with the rich Country of the Cinnamon^ 
and the Forts of Calaturre/'^ Columbo,^^ Cilau/'^ Jafanapatan,^^ 

Trichil,^^ and Batticall and this by the last Will of 

the King of Acota/^ who was Sovereign thereof* The Dutch 
with the assistance of the neighbouring Kings afterwards made 
themselves Masters, if not of all, at least of a considerable Part 
of the said three Provinces* 

The Portugueses further subdu’d the City and Fort of Negapatan, 
Negapatan^^ in the Kingdom of Madura ; Tambulin^^ in the 
Kingdom of Bengala^ and Macassar^^ in the Kingdom of that 
Name. So that being become formidable to all the Princes of 
Asia, they had made all the Country about Tributary ; and 
being Sovereigns of that vast Ocean by means of their mighty 
Fleets, no Ship of any Nation whatsoever could sail those Seas 
without their Teave and Pass ; seizing the Ships and Goods, 
and Imprisoning the Men for presuming to Sail without their 
Protection.^^ This Authority the Portugueses, tho weak, still 
exercise over all Ships of Moors and Gentils ; for the Europeans 
are got above it. These Conquests gain’d at the Expence of 
many Eives, and with the effusion of much Blood scarce lasted 
an Age and a half ; for the Dutch falling into the India Trade,®’' 
instead of extending their Conquests among so many Islands 
and Kingdoms of Mahometans and Pagans, they only Robb’d 
the Portugueses of what they had gain’d with so much Valour ; 
making this ungrateful return to a Nation, which with so many 
Dangers and Sufferings, taught and secur’d to them that tedious 

Another cause of the decay of the Portugueses Power in Brazil, 
India was their Conquest of Brazil for finding there more 
Profit, they slighted India, and neglected to send thither 
sufficient Supplies®® to preserve what they had, much less to 
make new Conquests. This is so certain, that the King of 
Portugal was several times in the Mind absolutely to abandon 
it, which had certainly been done, had not the Missioners made 
him sensible®® that if he did so all the Christians of those 
Countries would again fall into Idolatry and Mahometanism, 

If we look upon what remains to the Portugueses at pre- pj^^sent 
sent in India, it is very inconsidarable, and instead of being Dominions 
Profitable scarce pays its own charge. At Goa they have the 
small Island of that Name, with those of Salzete, Bardes, 

Angediva, and others.®^ On the Northern Coast the Fortresses 
of Damam, Bazaim, and Chaul ; in the Kingdom of Guzaratte 
the City of Diu. Near China the Islands of Timor (abounding 
in SandalY^ and Solor ; and the Colony of Macao, Subject to 
the Emperor of China, In Africk, Angola, Sena, Sofala, 
M^-^nibique and Momhaza ; many in number^ but of no great 

INDIAN Travels of careei 




Courts or 



value. Those that envy the Honour o£ the Portugueses ascribe 
their losses to their want of Zeal for Religion, and their not 
persisting long in the propagation of it ; for they say that the 
Portugueses entring India with the Crucifix in one Hand and 
the Sword in the other, finding much Gold, they laid aside the 
Crucifix to fill their* Pockets ; and not being able to hold them 
up with one Hand they were grown so heavy, they dropp’d 
their Sword too. Being found in this Posture by those that 
came after, they were easily overcome* This is an excellent 
contrivance of ill Tongues ; but the chief cause of their Ruin 
was their having made so many Conquests so far divided from 
one another ; and next the War at home, which obstructed the- 
relieving of India, 

All that remains under the Portugueses Dominion from the 
Cape of Good Hope in Africk, to the City of Macao in China, 
is Govern’d by a Vice-Roy, with the Title of Captain General,®® 
who resides at Goa as the Metropolis of India, There are six, 
and sometimes eight Desemhargadores,^^ or Judges that attend 
the Government, as a sovereign Court or Council, who wear a 
Gown down to their Heels over a Cassock of the same length, 
the Gown with wide Sleeves down half way thefir Arms.®® They 
wear Golillas^^ and huge Periwigs after the French Fashion. 
The chief Court these Gown-Men sit in is call’d a Relacaon, 
which administers Justice in Civil and Criminal Cases ; having 
Power over all- Ministers, and tries all Appeals brought from 
any Parts of the Dominions. The Vice-Roy sits as Chief of 
this Court under a Canopy ; the Gown-Men sit on Benches 
plac’d on the plain Floor. The Council de Facenda,^'^ is like the 
Court of Exchequer, where one of the Gown-Men sits as the 
Vice-Roy’s Deputy. 

There is the Matriculor-General,^^ the Procurador-Mor-dos- 
Co7itos,^^ and the Committee of the new Company of Traders. 
These have put in several Sums to carry on the Trade of 
M'oza^nhique, Mombaca, Macao, and other Parts of the Portu- 
gueses Dominions ; and have the Privilege that none should 
Trade but they, because they pay the Salaries of the 
Governours. The Viceroy and Archbishop put in many 
thousand Par into 'this Company, to encourage others to 
do the" like ; but it can scarce last long, because the Stock is 
but small. The profit is to be divided every three Years* 


The Inquisition^^ is much respected and dreaded by the 
Christians at Goa, and about it'; as is the Archbishop, or 

The Viceroy goes by Water in a Ballon, or Barge row’d by 
twenty two Canarines, with Trumpets before him, and sits 
on a Velvet Se^t, .with several of his, Domesticks about him. 
"^hen he lands he is carry’d in a Sedan by four Men. He has a 


Guard of ten Horse, and several of the Gentry and Officers 
attend hini in Palanchines. 

Tfho^ the Portuguese Dominions be small ; yet the King 
appoints several Generals who have very little advantage be- 
sides the Honour. One of them is call’d of the Gulph of 
Ormuz y and commands four Ships ; another of the North, who 
is like a GeneraV^^ over all those Towns, and resides at Bazaim ; 
anqther of SalzetCj who commands in that Island ; one of China j 
who commads only in the Town of Macao ; one in the Islands 
of Timar and Solor ; and lastly one of Goa, who has the care 
of the Channels, that no Person may come in or pass by from 
the MoguVs Country. And this because it is a difficult Matter 
to secure the Passage between so many small Islands ; for 
besides those of Goa, Bardes and Salzete, there are, that of 
Charon,'^^ where are two Villages, the Noviciate of the Jesuits, 
and a Parish of Seculars ; Divar, or Narva'^^ with three Villages, 
where the Seculars have the Cure of Souls ; Capon,'^^ belong- 
ing to the Nuns of 5. Monica ; Combargiva, and Juvarf^ 
belonging to the Jesuits ; S, Stephen, where there is a Fort, 
Village and Parish of Seculars ; the small Island of Emanuel 
Loho de Silveira,'^^ with a few Houses on it ; that of Emanuel 
Motto,'^^ which is the Stews of Goa, being inhabited by Pagan 
Dancing- Whores ; and lastly the small Island of Dongarin^^ 
belonging to the Augustinians. These for the most part abound 
in Palm or Coco-Trees^ under which the Canarines and Gentils 
build Cottages to live in ; so that every Palm-Tree Grove looks 
like a little Village. They say the Breath of Man makes the 
Palm-Tree more Fruitful. 

Not only the Viceroy but all the Officers Civil and Military, 
and Church-Men have sufficient Allowance from the King to 
maintain them handsomely. The Viceroy’s Salary is 30000 
Pardaos, which are the. third part of a piece of Bight. The 
Archibishop 12000 ; the Officers of the Inquisition, Canons, 
Monasteries, and Parishes a Competency ; but all the Tithes 
belong to the King, 



’ It must not be thought strange that, being to speak^ of 
the Fruit and Flowers of so vast a Country as Indostan, I 
should bring it in immediately after Goa ; because all those 
sorts, which are found^ in the several Parts of that Tract; 
being to be had about Goa, and even some that are not else- 
^hqre f it is proper wq §hoiald give sm acQoqnt qf th^m before 






we leave that City. I will endeavour to explain their Portu-^ 
guese Names the best I can/ and add the Cuts of them/ that 
they may appear the plainer to the Reader. 

To begin then by the Painter a de Cocos or Coco-Tree, the 
first Place being due to that Plant which is most beneficial 
to Man : It is to be conceivM that this Tree fits out and loads 
a Ship for Sea, without borrowing any think^ elsewhere. Of 
the Teaves, which some of the People on that Coast use instead 
of Paper,® they generally make Sails ; of the Wood the Vessel : 
The Fruit, which is well known in Europe, yields Meat® and 
Drink, and a good Commodity besides its outward Case or 
Rind^^ steeped in Water is Spun to make all necessary Cordage 
for a Vessel, tho’ there are some sorts of it which they eat 
like other Fruit. This first Rind, when' Ripe is yellow ; the 
Shell which is hard, makes Dishes^® to drink Chocolate and 
for other Uses/^ Within it is a white Pulp or Nut sticking 
round the Shell about half an Inch thick, which tasts like an 
Almond.^® In the midst of it is a clear Water very good to 
drink. Of this same Fruit they make several sorts of Sweet* 
meats, and Oyl, both to Burn^® and Eat for want of Olives. 
Cutting a Branch of it and putting the end into a Vessel,^’' the 
moisture that should feed the Nut runs into it and is calPd 
Nira, and Sura. The Nira is white and sweet just of the taste 
of the Diquor made of the Grapes, by putting Water to them 
after they have been press'd, and is taken before the Sun rises. 
The Sura is the same Eiquor turn'd sower, and is taken after 
the Sun is up and has heated the Air. It must be put to the 
Fire before it is drank, or else its Coldness would give the 
Gripes. It is so nourishing that the Indians live upon it several 
Days without any other Sustenance. 

This Sura Distill'd makes Wine, and when it decays 
Vinegar ; but the Distilling being several times repeated it 
becomes a strong Water :^® Boil'd it turns to Sugar, and they 
use it as Eeaven to their Bread. Pressing the Pith of the Tree 
they draw Milk out of it, as we do from Almonds, to Boil 
Rice, and for several other uses.^® This Fruit keeps the Year 
about.®^ Thus the Coco-Trees yield the best Revenue in India, 
because the Country does not produce much Rice, Cotton, or 
Corn, They grow strait to sixty Spans in height, of an equal 
thickness from the Bottom to the Top. The Indians use them 
for Timber to build their Houses, and the Reaves to cover 
them,^^ or to burn. 

The Palm, or Date Tree®® in India bears no Fruit, but they 
draw Nira, or Sura from them. There are several other sorts 
of them that ^'Old little Fruit, One they call Palmeira de 
TransoUn,^^ whose Fruit is ripe in May. This is smaller than 
the Coco, the outside Rind to make Ropes black /® and full 
lyithiu of th^ s^e substance a3 the other Cocos, Every 



TransoUn bears three little Coco-Nuts in a Triangle ; the Pulp 
whereof press’d yields a cold white Water. This grows as high 
as the Coco-Tree, but is thicker of Leaves, which grow like a 
Broom, and produces Fruit but once a Year, whereas the other 
does four times. This Tree also affords Nira and Sura, both of 
them naturally excessive Cold. 

The Palma de Coco de Bugios,^^ or the Monkey Coco-Tree, Polma de 
has Boughs like large Disciplines. Of the Fruit they make 
curious Beads, because the Paters have a natural Work on them, 
than which nothing more curious could be made by Art. There 
are other Palm-Trees in India that do not bear, and the Indians 
run up and down them by the help of a Rope ty’d about the 
Tree, and the Man so nimbly that none can believe that has 
not seen it. 

The Arequeira, or Areca^'^-Tvee is like the Palm, but Areca 
slenderer and not so high. It bears^^ a sort of Fruit necessary 
for chewing with the Beile, like a Nutmeg and enclos’d in a * 

Case or Rind, like that of the Coco-Nut, and on a Bough as 
thick of them as that which produces Dates. This Fruit is 
gather’d four or five times a Year. 

The Figueira, or Fig-Tree^® is a Plant as soft as a Bulrush, Pig-Tree, 
as thick as a Man’s Thigh, and between fifteen and twenty 
Spans high, with Leaves above a quarter. Broad.®® It is gene- 
rally believ’d there that Adam and Eve cover’d what should 
not be seen with them in Paradice,®^ they being not only big 
enough to cover what should be hid, but to make a small Cloak 
for their Nakedness. The Indians use them for Dishes,®® and 
have new ones every Meal ; others for Paper to Write on.®® 

It bears Fruit but once, for when it has produced sixty, seventy, 
and sometimes a hundred Figs on a Branch, they cut down 
the Plant and a young Sprout grows out again. But there are 
two sorts of them. Those that are a Span long, and about the 
thickness and shape of an Egg, are call’d Figos de assar,^^ or 
roasting Figs ; and these are as sweet as a wild Fig, and very 
nourfehing, being eaten roasted with Cinnamon and Sugar, The 
Pulp or Flesh within is white and red, with some small tender 
black Seeds, which are also eaten. They are gather’d green, 
and ripen and turn yellow in the House, like Winter Melons. 

The other sort is call’d Figos de Orta/^ or Garden Figs ; these 
are sweeter, better tasted, and eaten Raw, but not so large as 
the others, tho’ they have the same Seeds. As for their Nature, 
these are Cold, and the others Hot ; both of them ripen at any 
time of the Year. 

The Manguera or Mang^j-Tree®"® is as high as a good Pear- Mango-- 
Tree, but has larger and softer Leaves. The Mango it bears 
is weighty and flat, and hangs downwards by a long Stalk. 

Without they are gteen^ and the Pulp withiq tho Shell wWte 










and yellow. There are several sorts of them and variously 

Some are called Mdftgds CcLTfciTcts and Mdlldicis, others of 
Nicholas Alfonso, others Sdtias,^'' and others by other Names, 
all of them exceeding any European Fruit in delicate Taste.®® 
They are Ripe in May, June and July,^^ tho’ there are some 
in January and February. They are of a very hot Nature, and 
are gather’d from the Tree like all other Indian Fruits, green, 
coming afterwards to their Maturity and Perfection in three 
Days keeping in the House. 

The Caramholeira, or Caramhola-^ree,^^ is as big as a Plum 
Tree, and bears such a Deaf. The Fruit call’d Caramhola, when 
Ripe is white within and yellow without, shap’d exactly like 
a Temmon, with four or five Kernels, and it has a sour Taste 
like a Lemmon. The Poriugueses preserve them because they 
are Cooling. The Tree Blossoms and bears several times a Year. 

The Anoneira, or Anona-Treef'^ is very large and produces 
the Fruit call’d Anona in March and April.^^ It is as big as a 
Pear, red and yellow without, whitish within, and full of a 
soft, sweet, and pleasant Substance, which is eaten with a 
Spoon ; but it has some hard black Kernels. I do not know 
how to describe it better ; because it is nothing like any sort 
of Fruit in Europe, 

The Aleird, or ^ia-Tree^® is as big as an Apple-Tree, but 
with small Leaves. Its Fruit call’d Ata is like that of the Pine- 
Tree, green without, and within white and soft with black 
Seeds, so that it is eaten with a Spoon. It is sweeter than 
the Anona, smelling both of Ambar and Rose-water. It Ripens 
in November and December. 

The Cajuyera, or Cajws-Tree^® is not very Tall, but thick 
of Boughs and Leaves. The Fruit is like an Apple red and 
yellow without. It is singular in this, that all other Fruit 
having the Stone within, this has it at the Top rais’d like a 
green Crest ; smelling to which a Spanish Preacher and 
Missioner told me did much help the Memory ; and that he 
by that means soon made himself Master of the longest Sermon. 
I never had experience of it, nor will I vouch for what he said. 
What I can safely attest is, that breaking the Stone, the Kernel 
within it roasted tastes like an Almond, and raw like a new Nut. 
This Fruit Ripens between February and May. Cutting it in 
quarters, steeping it in cold Water, and then chewing it, there 
comes from it a cool Juice, good for all Obstructions in the 

The Jamboleira, or JambaZon-Tree^® grows wild and has the 
Leaves like a Lemmon-Tree ; but the Fruit is so delicious, that 
an Indian Woman coming to Lisbon, loath’d all the best Fruit 
m ^urope^ rem^mbrin^ hfi: loy’d Jamlpglon, They hang oq 

FROltS AN& FLO^BrS 203 

the Boughs like Cherries, or Olives, and have the red Colour 
of the one and the Shape and Stone like the other. The Indians 
eat it with Salt, but I tasting them in the Garden of the 
Theatins where I was entertain’d, did not think them so pleasant 
to the Pallate of Europeans ; because they taste somewhat like 
a service Apple, and to eat many of them makes the Belly 
swell esrtreamly. Their Season is generally in April and May, 

The Jangomeira, or Jangoma^^ Tree is very large, all 'Jangofm- 
prickly, and with small Teaves. The Jangomas the Portuguese 
call Adames Fruit, being of the shape of a Walnut, Purple 
without and Red within, and has two Stones. The tast of it is 
a mixture of sour, sweet, and bitterish like a Medlar. They are 
in Season November, December, and January. 

The Brindeiera, or Brindon-Ttee^^ is as tall as a Pear-Tree, 
but has smaller Teaves. The Brindones or Fruit it bears in 
February, March and April, are a sort of Fruit like our Golden 
Pippins ; but their Rind his harder, tho’ the Pulp or Flesh of 
it is Red, Viscous and Sharpish, which they chew and suck 
the Juice, and has three soft Kernels within it. The Portuguese 
make Sauce of the Rind. 

The Carandeira, or Caranda^Tree^^ is Low and Thorny, Caranda- 
with Leaves like an Orange-Tree* The Fruit of it call’d 
Caranda is no other than wild Grapes of Indostan ; Reddish 
without and White within, with Seeds. It is Ripe in April, 
and May. 

The Jambos of Malaca^^ are tall Trees with long slender 
Leaves* The Fruit of it call’d also Jambos, are as big as small 
Apples and of the same taste, but smell like Rose-water. 

The outward Rind is Yellowish, within of a Cinnamon Colour, 
and there are two Stones loose from the Pulp. They begin to 
Ripen in January, and hold to the end of April. 

The Papayero?^ is a Plant that does not grow above twenty Papaya^ 
Spans high, and the Body of it is under a Span Diameter, but ^ree. 
so soft that it is easily cut with a Elnife, The Leaf is broad 
like that of a PompionJ^ The Papayas it produces, hang like 
clusters of Grapes about the top of the Trunk, where they 
Ripen and grow bigger, one after another. In the Portuguese 
Dominions in India they call these the Jesuits Melons, because 
they taste like Melons, and those Fathers like them s6 well, 
that they have them every Day at Dinner.^® They are shap’d 
like them a Berengena^^ (a Fruit well known in Spain, but not 
in EnglandY'^ but twice, or three times as big. As to Colour 
they are Green and Yellow without, and Yellowish within, 
with little black Seeds or Stones in them, like Elder-Berries. 

This Fruit grows all the Year about. 

The Jaquera or /agua-Tree®® is as big as a Laurel with Jaqua- 
Green and Yellow Leaves. The Fruit it produces is the biggest 
















in the World, or at least^® that ever I saw ; for no Man can 
carry above one of them ; and some of them are four Spans 
long, and a Span and a Half Diameter, It being impossible 
for the Boughs to bear such a weight, Nature has providently 
orders it should grow out at the Foot of the Tree ; and in the 
Island of Ceilon and at Malacaj under Ground upon the Root ; 
and they know when it is Ripe by the Smell that comes from 
it. The Rind is Yellow and Green, but Prickly, and with 
some stiff Points like those about the Collars of Mastiffs.®® 
Within it there are many yellow Separations like those in an 
Orange, with each of them a Kernel in it, like an Acorn 
which roasted tasts like a Chestnut. This Fruit is gather^ 
from May till Septemher^^ 

The white Jamboyera, or Jamho-Tree^^ of India is as high 
as a Taurel. The Toaf is small, the Blossom like the Orange- 
flower, and the Fruit like a Pear, White and Red without, and 
White within (with a Stone) of the smell and taste of a Cherry. 
They are Ripe in January, Ferhuary, and March ; and two or 
three times from the same Plant. 

The Pereira or Pear-Tree®^ is no large Tree, but thick and 
has small Leaves. The Fruit without is Green and Yellow, 
like a Pear ; within it is white and soft, with tender Seeds, and 
tasts like an over-ripe Peat. It makes excellent Conserve, or 
Preserve, and lasts all the Year. 

The Cinnamon-Tree,®^ tho’ it bears no Fruit is precious 
for its Bark ; which being taken off grows on the Tree again, 
to yield the Owner more Profit. The best grows in the Island 
of Ceylon ; for that of Manila and other Places is Wild, and 
has not so fragrant a Smell. 

The Toranja^^- is a Tree brought from A'frick, small and 
prickly. Its Fruit is like a large round Lemmon, with, a thick 
yellowish Rind, and Red within, of the taste of an Orange. 
^Tis in Season in October and November. 

The Bilimb eira^"^ is as big as a Plumb-Tree, with thin 
Leaves, and bears Bilimbiries all the Year. The Colour of it 
is greenish ; its shape like a long Pompion ; the tast sharp, 
and good to make Sauce, or Preserve. They are all eaten, 
because they have no Stone.®® 

The Amcaleira or 4mca^e-Tree®® is. as big as a Pear-Tree. 
The Fruit of it by the Portugueses calPd Amcale, grows out 
of the thick part of the Branches. Its shape is like a golden 
Pippin, ^ with streaks like a Melon on the outside ; the Flesh 
within is white, and has a Stone. They make good Sweetmeats 
of it, the natural tast being a pleasant Tartness. They are 
Ripe in February, March, and April! 

The Ananamzeiral^ is a Plant like our House-Leek,"^ pro- 
ducing Ananas, which the Spaniards call Pinas, one, two, 
three, or more according to the bigness of the Plant. This 

PRUITS An5 flowers 20S 

Fruit is round and prickly, a Span long, and above a Span 
Diameter,^® rising like a very great Artichoak/^ The pulp 
within which smells like Musk, is hard, yellow, and 
partly whitish. Its taste between sweet and sower, but very 
pleasant, especially if peeEd and put into Sugar and Water. 

Some gather it before it is Ripe, and make it very sweet 
with Sugar ; and from India they send great Quantities 
into Spain, where it is much valu'd. It is wholsom, but so 
hot, that if a Knife be left sticking in it a Day, it loses its 
Temper and is spoiled.^® The Season of Ripening is from 
April till July. 

The Mogoreira^^ is a Plant which from February, till the MagoHu’ 
'end of May, bears a most beautiful white Flower call'd Mogorin. 

Its Smell, tho' like it, is much more fragrant than that of the 
Jasmin's’ll besides this difference, that the Jasmin has but 
Teaves, and the Mogorin above fifty. F, Salvador 
Gain told me that several Plants were sent to Lisbon in 
earthen Pots, for some Portuguese Lords ; and particularly 
for the Duke of Tuscany, who had a great Mind to them ; 
but that it was not known whether they arriv'd there fresh, 
being to cut the equinoctial Line twice.’’® The Flower very 
well deserves to be®° in any Royal Garden, and the more 
because it is found no where but in Indostan. 

The Asafreira^^ is bigger than a Palm-Tree, and in India Safron- 
produces Safron,^^ The Flower has a yellow Bottom and six 
white Leaves, and serves the Portugueses as ours does in 
Europe to season their Meat, but is not so good. There is this 
singular in this Tree, that the Flowers come out in the Night, 
and almost all the Year about. 

The Pimenteira^^ is but a low Plant which grows against Pepper^ 
any Tree or Wall, and bears the Pepper in clusters like Grapes. 

When Ripe it is Red, but the Indians burn and make it Black, 
that it may not serve for Seed elsewhere.®^ It comes in March, 

April and May. 

The BeieleiraJ^ is a tender Plant like Ivy, which runs up BeteU 
a Stick. Its Leaf is the delight of the Asiaticks ; for Men and 
Women, from the Prince to the Peasant delight in nothing 
more than chewing it all Day in Company ; and no Visit begins 
or ends without this Herb. Before it they always chew the 
Areca above describ'd, that the coolness of this, as they say, 
may temper the heat of the other ; and they lay a little dissolv'd 
Lime on the BeteUlea,f to colour, and soften its biting Taste. 

It spends not so well in any part of Asia as in the Phillippine^ 
islands,®’’ where the Areca is soft and easie to chew, and the* 

Betel extraordinary good. The Spaniards make a Composition 
of both Herbs with Lime, which they call Buyo,®® and carry 
it in curious little Boxes, to chew it every moment aboard and 
at home.®® The Betei makes the Lips so Fine, Red, and 



















Beautiful, that if the Italian I^adies could they would pxurchase 
it for the weight in Gold.®® 

The Trees and Flowers hitherto describ’d are the best in 
Indosian ; but there are many more not to be despis’d. One 
of them they call Puna/^ so tall and strait that it may serve 
for Masts for Ships. It produces a red Fruit, in which there 
are twelve or more Seeds, as big as Acorns, and of the taste 
of Pine-Apple-Kernels. But they eat them boil’d that they 
may not cause the Head-ach. 

There are also Indian Apples®^ as big as a Walnut, with 
a Stone as a Plum, and ill tasted. The Tree is small and has 
very little Leaves. 

The Tamarinds^^ of Indosian are extraordinary good, and 
there is plenty of them about the Fields. The Tree is large 
and bears the Fruit with a Cod,®^ like our Beans. 

The Scararagam^^ Tree bears Fruit of a greenish Colour, 
and as big as a Walnut. They are call’d Undis, and are of a 
pleasant tast. 

The Chiampim^^ of China is an odoriferous white Flower, 
which Preserv’d, contrary to the nature of other Flowers, 
grows hard, and is sweet' and pleasant in the Mouth. This 
Tree is like a little Plan Tree. There is another sort of 
Chiampims with two Leaves strait, white, and long, and as 
many red winding about below, and this grows not on a Tree, 
but on a low Plant®’’ on the Ground. 

The Omlam^^ Tree bears a sort of Fruit like a ruddy 
Almond, and a long Flower beautiful®® and fragrant enough. 

Quegadam cheroza}^^ is an odd sort of a great yellow 
Flower, with long green and -prickly Leaves. 

The Majericam^^^ is a Flower of small esteem, green and 
growing out of a little Herb. 

The Padolim^^^ is a green Plant, producing a sightly^®® 
Flower, and a long Fruit, like an European Cucumber. ^®^ 

The Pachaa^^^ is also a green Flower, coming from a low 

The TmdoHm/®® is a Plant bearing a red Flower, and a 
Fruit of the same Colour, of the shape of a small Lemmon, 

The Inhama Cona}^"^ is a Fruit white within, growing under 
Ground like Potatas ; but much bigger and weighing many 
Pounds. Boil’d it is better^®® than Potataes. 

There are many more sorts of Fruit, besides those here 
mention’d, as well of the Country> as brought from other 
Parts ; as the Batatas/^^ the Inhame^ which boil’d or roasted 
taste like Chestnuts, Pomgranates, Lemmons, and some few 
Grapes ; and as for Garden-wear,^^® Berengenas (before mem 
tion’d) Pompions,^^^ Beets, Raddishes, Coleworts,^^^ Mellons of 
all sorts, Cucumers, and many more brought out of Persia and 




Containing the most Remarkable Things he saw in 





Having resolv’d with my seE ever since my first setting 
out, to see the Court and Camp of the Great Mogul, who is 
one of the greatest Princes in Asia, without regarding Danger 
or Expence ; tho’ Friends several times endeavour’d to 
Disswade me, by representing the many Hazards and Hardships 
I must meet with in Travelling over rugged Mountains, and 
among Pagan and Mahometan Princes ; yet I held my first 
Purpose, and resolv’d to venture upon it whatsoever hapned. 
In order to it, I hir’d a Begarine,^ or Canarine of St. Stephen, 
a Village near Goa, to carry my Provision for some Days, and 
Utensils® for Dressing of Meat ; being sure to find nothing by 
the way ; and because he Spoke not the Language of the Moguls, 
I took a Boy of Golconda ; who, besides his Mother Tongue, 
had learn’ d Portuguese, to be my Interpreter there. This 
done, I committed my Baggage to F. Hippolito Visconti, a 
Milanese, and regular Clergy-Man of the Theatins ; desiring 
him, during my Absence, to Change my Money into Pieces of 
Eight, to serve me, when I came back, in my Voyage to China ; 
carrying along with me no more than was just necessary for my 
Journey, as I was advis’d by F. Galli, who told me it would 
be all taken from me on the Mountains by the Custom-House 
Officers ; and that when his Mony was gone, they had taken 
from him the very Amdora. 

Friday 4th, the Porter and Interpreter coming to teU me 
gll w?i§ reader, I set out, leaving my own Servant in the Monas- 



tery, that I might have the less to Care for. I found the Pass 
of Daugi/ where I was to take Boat for Ponda^^ was stopp’d 
by Order of the Arch-bishop® ; who Governing during the 
Viceroy’s Absence, had directed that no Person should be 
suffer’d to Pass into the Infidel’s Country, without his parti- 
cular Iveave. Therefore leaving the Porter and Interpreter to 
look to my Things, I went in a Boat to Speak to that Prelate 
at his little Country-House ; where he presently gave me a Pass 
under his own Hand. Then taking another Boat about Noon, 
I coasted along the City Wall on the Channel, passing at the end 
of four Miles, by the Fort of St. Blase,^ on which there are eight 
Pieces of Cannon ; and two Miles further, by the Castle of 
St. James/ where there are twelve Guns. Here shewing the 
Governour my Pass, he gave me heave to cross the Channel into 
the MoguVs Country. 

We stay’d a long while in a Cottage belonging to the 
Guards, there being neither Man nor Beast to be found, to carry 
the Baggage of an Armenian, and a Moor that had joyn’d me. 
At last, seeing Night drew on, we forced some Gentils of the 
Village of ArcolnaJ to carry them. There being nothing 
to be Bought in this Place, the Armenian, and the Moor made 
shift with a little Rice half Boil’d, and so little of it that the 
Grains swam on the Water, which afterwards serv’d them for 
Drink.® I pass’d the Night under some Coco-Trees without 
Sleep, because of the great Noise of Drums, and Cries of the 
Idolaters, who Celebrated the Feast of Siminga,^^ at the full 

Saturday 5th, before we set out, the Armenian and Moor 
fill’d their Bellies with Cachiari which is a Composition of 
Rice, Kidney-Beans, and Dentils Pounded and Boil’d together, 
as was said, at the end of our second Part. For want of Beasts 
to carry my Duggage to Fonda, which was twelve Miles off, I 
took three Gentils ; and was forc’d against my Will to make 
use of a Cudgel upon them, because they will never do good 
Service either for fair Words, or Mony, but run away as soon 
as they can ; and on the other side, when Thrash’d, they will 
Dead themselves like Asses. 

^ The Sun was so hot, that at very short Distances we were 
oblig’d to Rest, and Refresh us with Melons, and Fruit of the 
Comtry. At MardoP^ it took us up much Time to Eat a Jacca, 
which was so large, that a Man could scarce carry it. The 
Idolaters would Eat none of it, for they will not Taste any 
thing that is Cut by us, tho’ Starving for Hunger ; and I was 
told some of them had been so Obstinate, as to continue five 
Days without Eating on this Account. 

In this Village of Mardol, there is a* famous Paged. The 
way into the Court is o-ror a cover’d Bridge of three Arches, 
up to which thicre are twp Stair^cases, On the right ^of thl^ 

A Paged. 



Court is an octangular Structure, consisting of seven Rounds 
of small Columns, with handsome Capitols, and little Windows 
in the Intervals, one of which serves for a Door. They say 
this was Built to put Tights in on the Festivals of their Idols, 
as was the other Place, like it, on the* left, not yet finishM. 
About the Porch, and before the Arches of the aforesaid Bridge, 
there are several Shops ; but all is gone to Ruin since the 
Mogul has taken that Country from the King of Visapor^ on 
account of the Wars with Savagi. The Pago A is at the further 
end of the Court. The first Room is like a little Hall, longer 
than it. is broad, the Roof supported by six small wooden 
Columns on each side, curiously carved with Figures on them, 
about them there are low Branches^® to sit down. Within it is 
another Room, like the first, but less ; and further on upon the 
right is a little Room curiously painted, with several Fig*ures, 
which have on their Heads, some of them Pyramidal Caps, and 
others a Crown like that the Pope wears. There is also a Figure 
with four Hands, two whereof hold a Staff, ' one a Looking- 
Glass, and the other rests on its side ; by it stand Women with 
five Vessels on their Heads, one upon another. There are 
besides several Monsters, Beasts and Birds ; as fiying Horses, 
Cocks, Peacocks, and others. The Pagod stands^^ opposite to 
the Door in a little dark round Room, at the Foot of a small 
Tower, where there is a carv’d Stone cover’d like a Tomb. 
There is a winding Way on the out-side up to the top of the 
Tower, and to the Chambers of the Idolatrous Priests. One 
side of the second Room I mention’d, before a little Door stood 
the Bier they use to carry their Idol in Procession. On the 
same side is another Pagod shut up, with a Cistern before it, 
cover’d with a Cupula, and has a small Room in the Middle. 
Behind the aforesaid Pagod, is one of, those Trees^® they call 
of the Banians, and under it the Bath, or Pool, with large 
Stone-steps^® about it for the Gentils to go down, and wash them 
of their Uncleanness. 

Setting forward again, after Travelling a long time over 
Mountains and Plains, I came late, and very weary to Fonda. 
There I found a small Camp of the MoguVs Forces ; and among 
them Francis de Miranda, Born in the Island of Salzete, who 
receiv’d me very Civilly. He had serv’d there as a Soldier of 
Fortune sixteen Years, with the Pay of 75 Roupies of' Silver a 
Month, which are worth 45 Crowns of Naples. Those Troops 
were come that same Day from Bichiolin,^^ with the Divan, or 
Receiver of the King’s Revenue of Ponda, and above 700 
Villages, who has 7000 Roupies a Month, and 1000 Horse under 
him, whose Pay is a Roupie a Day, he was to take Possession of 
the Government of the lower Fort of Ponda, and of the Office of 
Suha,^^ of that Territory, which among us is like a Major 
General ; and this because th^ true GpyeruQUr had sent some 




of his Soldiers to Bichiolin, to commit Acts of Hostility against 
the Dhafij so that there had been Men Kill’d and wounded on 
both sides. Ech-lascanpani-Suba^^ refusing to Obey, unless he 
were first Paid what was Due to his Soldiers, and the more, 
because the Divan had no Commission from the King, but only 
a Letter of Advice from his Solicitor, therefore the two Parties 
contended, and threatned one another. . The Divan now said 
The Cere- lie would drive him out of; his P^ort with the Cannon from the 
tecewing a > when on Sunday 6th, about Sun-setting there was heard 

Commission a confused Noise of Drums and Trumpets, such that I taking 
and Vest ^ for ^ warlike Sound, laid hold of my Gun, but it was for the 
MoguL^ coming of a Messenger sent by the King, who brought the Divan 
a Vest, and Commission for both Employments. 

Seven Hundred Horse and Foot stood at their Arms before 
the Divan*s Tent, and two Companies of sixteen Gentils each 
Danc’d confusely to. the Sound of Drums, Fifes, and Trumpets.^® 
It being then a sort of Carnaval those People observe every 
Year for five Days,^^ they went about like Mad-men, in red 
Vests, and little Turbants of the same Colour call’d Chiras,^^ 
throwing red Dust upon all they met to Die them ; as we use 
among us to do with black Dust. 

The Divan, who was a Grey Headed old Man about Si’xty 
five Years of Age, mounted^^ a Horse-back, with a pair of- 
Kettle-Drums a Horse-back, before him ; and follow’d by a 
Palankine, another pair of Kettle-Drums on a Camel, and a 
medley of Horse and Foot naked, who went in a Disorderly 
manner, like so many Goats. They had several Colours,^^ some 
of Calico, with a Trident on them, and some of Silk, with 
Persian Characters and Flames in the middle, all carry’ d by Foot 
Soldiers. The Divan being come to a Tent, erected for that 
purpose near a Mosch, two Musket-shot from his own, he 
alighted, and after passing® ® some Compliments with the King’s 
Messenger, and Persons of Note that were with him-, put on 
the Chira himself on his Head,®® whilst the- Messenger held the 
Sash®^ to him. Then the latter®® took a vest; or®® Garment of 
green Silk, with Gold Stripes, and put it on the Dhan, and then 
two Sashes about his Neck, his Scimiter. hanging, by. his Side. 
The Divan laid his Hand on the Ground five, times, and as often 
on his Head, in Thanksgiving to the King who had Honour’d 
him with that Present. Then sitting down, his Friends and 
Retinue came to Congratulate with him, and some to Present 
him with Roupies, which he gave to the Messenger, but they 
were very few. ,They call this Present N^tzar,^^ that is, a goodly 
Sight ; and the Custom is deriv’d from the\ Coronation of Kings, 
when the Noble Men . present a , great deal of Gold Coini; and 
some Pieces weighing above three Hundred Ounces, to Rejoice 
the Mogul that Day, who sits on a.^Throne studded with Jewels 
pf ap. excessive ya%ej Wheji the Solemnity- was over, thp 



Divan mounted a Horse-back ; and alighted again by the Pool 
near the Mosch ; where sitting on a Carpet with Pillows at his 
Back, he diverted himself with the Singing, and Musick of the 
Mask’d Gentils, 1 was told this Honour cost him 20000 Roupies 
(each of them worth six Carlines^^ of Naples) which he sent the 
Secretary, who had pass’d the. Commission in the King’s Name ; 
for he never writes* to his Subjects. For all this the Suha would 
not deliver up his Post, but keeping Possession of the lower 
Fort, said it was all Counterfeit. 

The City Fonda is made up of Cottages, and Mud Houses Ponda City, 
seated in the midst of many Mountains. The Fort, which is 
also of Earth, and govern’d by the Suha, has a Garrison of 
about 400 Horse and Foot, and seven small Pieces of Cannon. 

There was formerly another Fort on a higher Ground ; but D. 

Francis de Tavora/^ Viceroy of Goa, Besieging it twelve Years 

before this time with a Body of 10000 Men,^® in a short time 

made a large Breach in it. Savagi,^^ to whom it belong’d, 

coming to the Relief of it with 12000 Horse, oblig’d the Viceroy 

to raise his Siege, and draw off. Then he went over to the 

Island of Salzete, St,. Stephen, and others near Goa and having 

Plunder’d -and Burn’d several -Places, carry’d many Hundreds 

of the Natives Captives into his own Country ; and making 

them carry the Stones of the Fort that had been Demolish’d to 

the top of a Hill two Miles -from Fonda Southward, built the The upper 

small Fort now standing, calling it Mardongar,^^ that is, the 

Fort of Valiant Men. This Castle is held for the King, by a 

Garrison of 300 Men, under a Kilidar,^^ or Castellan, who .has 

200 Roupies a Month Pay, assign’d him out of certain Villages. 

It being a Place -held upon Oath, he may not upon any Account 
go out of the Gate. 

The lower Fort, and Country depending on it, taken from 
Savagi by the Great Mogul, is govern’d as was said by a Suba, 
or * General bf the Field, who receives the Revenue of above 
700 Villages, being therefore oblig’d to Maintain a certain 
Number of Soldiers ; so that he Drains the poor Country 
People, making a few ‘Cottages sometimes pay Thousands of 

Monday Tth,^'^ I saw the dismal Spectacle of a wretched An Indian 
Fagan Woman, the Kindred®® of her dead Husband had 
obtain’d at the Price of great Presents from the Suha, to be her Hus- 
Burn’d with the dead *Body, according to their wicked un- band, 
merciful Custom.®® In (the Afternoon'^® the Woman came out 
well Clad, and adornM with Jewels, as if she had gone^^ to be 
Marry ’d, with Musick Playing, and. Singing. She was attended 
by the -Kindred of both Sexes, Friends, and BracHman Priests. 

Being come to the Place appointed, she went about undaunted, 
taking -Eeave of them all after which she was laid. all along, 



with her Head on a Block, in a Cottage twelve Spans square, 
made of small Wood wet with Oil,^^ but bound to a Stake, that 
she might not run away with the fright of the Fire. Ikying in 
this Posture, chewing Betelle, she askM of the Standers by, 
whether they had any Business by her to the other World ; and 
having receiv’d several Gifts, and Letters from those Ignorant 
People, to carry to their dead Friends, she wrapp’d them up 
in a Cloth. This done, the Brachman, who had been Encourag- 
ing of her, came out of the Hut, and caus’d it to be Fir’d ; the 
Friends pouring Vessels of Oil on her, that she might be the 
sooner reduc’d to Ashes, and out of Pain. Francis de Miranda 
told me. That as soon, as the Fire was out, the Brachmans 
would go gather all the melted Gold, Silver, and Copper 
This Barbarous Action w^as perform’d a Mile from Fonda, 

^ x^annick When I return’d to my Tent, the^® Camp had a false Alarm, 

Fear. on account of one Moor’s cutting of another’s Nose. Some 

Gentils fled upon the Mountains, and so did Miranda, leaving 
all he had behind, and I endeavouring to perswade him to stay, 
he answer’d, he must do as the rest did. Taking my Gun, 
Powder and Ball, I stood under a Tree to defend my self. 
Miranda's Cook in the mean while Laugh’d at his Master’s 
Cowardice, saying, What a brave Soldier the Mogul has, to 
allow him two Roupies and a half a Day : If he flies now no 
Body pursues,^^ what will he do when he sees an Enemy} 
Here I saw them drink the Juice of an Herb they call Banghe,^'^ 
which, mix’d with Water, stupifies like Opium, To this purpose 
they keep it in Glass-Bottles of a violet Colour, made the 
Mountains of Gates/^ in the Mogul's Territories, and in China, 

There being no other conveniency of Carriage all the way I 
was to go, but on®° Oxen, I bought a Horse at Fonda for sixty 
Roupies. Having got a Pass from the Bachei,^^ that I might 
not be stopp’d by the Guards on the Frontiers ; and leaving 
my Gun to be sent to Goa, that I might not be made Prisoner 
by Savagi's Men, I set out on Tuesday 8th, and Travelling eight 
Miles came to Chiampon,^^ a Village of a few Mud Houses, with 
a Fort of the same sort.^^ Here I caus’d some Meat to be 
Dress’d,®"^ but my Porter going about®® to take a Fig-Leaf to 
make use of instead of a Dish, after the manner of India, the 
Heathen Woman to whom the Fig-Tree belong’d, and the rest 
of the People, who came to her assistance, made such a Noise, 
that we were forc’d to depart. We Travell’d through Woods, as 
we had done, before, and at last getting out of them, cross’d 
over an Arm of the Sea®® in a small Boat, and entred the 
Territory of a Fagan Prince call’d Sonde-kirani-karaja,^^ Lord 
of some Villages among the Mountains, but Tributary and 
subject to the Great Mogul, being oblig’d to Serve him in his 
Wars. At the end of two (each Cosse is two Italian 

Miles) we lay at the Village of Kakore,^^ consisting of a few 
Cottages under the Arch of a Fagod, At the upper end of it, 



under a small Cupula, was a thing like a Chamber-Pot of Copper, 
on a Stone Pedestal, with a Uizor like a Man’s Face of the same 
Metal nail’d to it. Perhaps it might be an Urn containing the 
Ashes of some Hero of theirs. In the midst of the little Cupula 
hung a small Bell and without many small Rights. 

At Night, Troops of Monkeys came leaping from one Tree 
. to another ; and some of them with their young Ones so close 
hugg’d under their Belly, that tho’ we threw many Stones at 
them, we could not fetch down one ; nor did they fly any 
further than from one Tree to another. The Inhabitants of 
these Villages being for the most part Gentils (for in 
there is scarce a Mahometan among fifty Men, they feed them 
and take care they shall not be kill’d so that being grown 
Tame they walk familiarly in the Villages and even in the 
Houses. There are such incredible Stories told of these 
Creatures, that it is no wonder some blind Philosophers should 
allow Beasts some sort of understanding. All the Cafres and 
Blacks along the Coast of Mozambique in A f rick are of this 
Opinion, saying they do not speak, because they will not work.®^ 

In the Kingdom of Canara a Baboon®^ taking a kindness to a Story of 
a Woman, did so infest her Father’s House, breaking all he a Baboon, 
found in it ; that not knowing what to do,®® they at last permitted 
. him to have carnal Copulation with her, and ever after to have 
free access to her. A Portuguese hapned to pass by that way, 
and lie at Night in the Pagan^s House, where seeing a great 
Baboon come in, and make such a disturbance, he inquir’d into 
the meaning of it. The young Woman’s Father answer’d with 
a sigh. This Creature has taken away my Daughter’s honour, 
and makes all this noise when he does not find her at home. 

The Portuguese reply’d, Why do you not kill it ? The Peasant 
said he was a Gentil, and that the Queen being of the same 
Religion would punish him severely should he do it. The 
Portuguese without making more Words of it, waited till the 
Beast came in, and shot it, and the Idolater being afraid to be 
punish’d, he carry ’d it himself out of the Cottage and bury’d 
it.®® The Portuguese was requited for this kindness with a 
great quantity of Rice, as he himself told me fifteen Years 
after it hapned. 

F. Causin writes that a Ship being cast away on the Cape Another, 
of Good Hope, soon after India was discover’d by the 
Portugueses, a woman holding fast by a Plank, was drove by 
the Sea upon an Island. There a Baboon had to do with her, 
and maintan’d her for a long time in a Cave with what he 
found abroad, so that after some Years he had two young Ones 
by her. A Ship afterwards hapning to touch there, the 
wretched Woman by signs call’d for help and was deliver^ ; 
but the Baboon returning and finding she was far from the 

Indian itrAvels of OAreri 

A third. 

A fourth. 

How they 


A Caravan 
of Oxen, 


Shore was so enrag’d, that it took the two young Monsters 
and ki’ird them in her sight. 

It is well known that a Woman in Brazil having had to do 
with a Baboon,®^ and conceiving, she was deliver’d in due 
season of a Child with all the Limbs of a Man, but hairy, and 
tho dumb it did all it was commanded. The Dominicans and 
Jesuits had hot disputes about this Creature whether it ought to 
be Baptiz’d or not, and at last they concluded in the Negative, 
because begot by an irrational Sire ; and that had the Father 
been a Man, and the Dam a Baboon it might have been Baptiz’d. 

D. Antony Machado de Brito, Admiral of the Portuguese 
Fleet in India told me, that one of these Creatures continually 
troubling him, and breakig all it found in the Kitchin, he once 
to be even with it, order’d a Coco-nut to be put upon the Fire, 
which sort of Fruit the Monkies are most greedy of, and hid 
himself to see how that Beast w^ould take it without burning 
his Paws. The cunning Creature coming at the usual hour^® 
and finding its beloved ‘Food on the Fire, look’d about and 
seeing a Cat by the (Chimney held her Head in his mouth, and 
made use of her Paws to take off the Coco-nut, and then cooling 
it in Water, Eat it ; the Portuguese laughing to see the Cat 
mewing about all Day with .the Pain it had been put to. 

The Monkeys being so greedy of Coco-nuts has taught the 
Indians how to catch them. They make a hole in the Shell, 
into which the Monkey runs its Paw, and not being able to fetch 
it out full of the Nut, rather than quit the hold it suffers itself 
to be taken by those that lye in wait for them. Nor is that 
true which is reported, that if one of them be kill’d in the 
Field the rest will fall upon him that kill’d it ; for when I made 
one fall, the rest fled. 

Wednesday 9th, I set out through thick Woods, and travel- 
ling eight Cosses came to the foot of the Mountain of Balagaii 
where I found the Guards and other Custom-House-Officers so 
fond of other Mens Goods, that they took twelve Roupies for 
two strings of Pearls. Having climb’d the Mountain for eight 
Miles among dreadful thick Woods, I came to the second Guard 
and Custom-House, where they took a Roupie without examin- 
ing further. There being no dwelling to be found, I lay all 
Night in the thickest part of the Wood (wherein India differs 
from Persia, which is bare of Tree) after travelling twelve Cosses, 
that is twenty four Indian^^ Miles. 

Thursday 10th, the Bojata^^ set out three Hours before 
Day, and I went along with it for the more safety. This Bojata 
was a Caravan of above three hundred Oxen loaded with 
Provisions for the Camp at Galgala. The Woods we pass’d 
through abounded in Fruit, quite different from any in Europe. 
There were some not unpleasant and among the rest one 



sort they call Gulara, which tasts like an European wild Fig, Gulara- 
and Grows and Ripens without any Blossom at the Body of the F'mii. 
Tree. That Day I saw some wild Hens/^ which I had never 
seen before, with a Crest and Feathers that inclin’d to black. 

At first I thought they had been tame, but was afterwards un- 
deceiv’d, there being never a House for many Miles about. 
Having tra veil’d fourteen Casses^ we came two Hours before 
Sun set to the Village of Bomhnali/^ belonging to the same 
Prince Kirani ; where tho’ there was a Guard call’d Chiaruci/^ 
they took nothing of me ; perhaps because the Chief of it was 
not so Barbarous as the rest. 

The Road I travell’d on Friday 11th, was through more 
open Woods in which there were Iron Mines. Having gone 
eight Cosses we came to the Village of ChiamkanJ^ where there 
was a Market and Custom-House kept by the Gentils, who 
search’d my Luggage. I lay four Cosses'^'^ further at 
SambraniJ^ In this place resides the aforemention’d Prince 
Sonde-Kirani-karaja in a Fort made of Earth, encompass’d with 
Walls seven Spans high. The Village is nothing better than 
the rest of that Territory, but it has a good Market or Bazar. 

The Prince makes three Leeches of Roupies, that is 180000 
N eapolitan Crowns a Year of this only Village ; by which the 
Reader may judge how cruelly the Idolaters and Mahometans 
oppress the People with heavy Taxes. 

Setting out^^ late on Saturday 12th, after four Miles travel 
we came into the MoguVs Territories. Having pass’d the 
Prince Kiranis last Guards on the Road, I rested till Noon near 
the Fort of the Town of Alcal;^^ but being ready to set forwards 
was inform’d the Road I was to go was infested with Robbers, 
and therefore I resolv’d to stay®^ for the Bojdta. At this place 
there was a Pagod, and in it an Idol with a human Body, but 
the Face of a Monkey,®^ and a vast long Tail winding about to 
the top of its Head, with a- little Bell hanging at the end of it. 

One Hand was on its side, and the other lifted up as it were 
to strike. They call it the Animating®® Monkey, because accord- 
ing to the fabulous Traditions of those People, he once fought 
with much Bravery. When I perceived no Body took notice 
of me, I us’d to break all the Idols that .came in my way ; 
especially those the Peasants, that conducted ‘the Bojata, carry’d 
hanging about their Necks, wrapp’d up in a Cloth, which were 
of Stone, ill shap’d, and weighing 2 Pounds. 

Sunday 13th, 1 set out four Hours before Day with the 
Caravan of Oxen, and at the end of six Cosses came to Kancre^^ 
a Village consisting of a few Houses, where I: Din’d. Then 
I ^ went five long Cosses further and lay®® at the Village of 
Etohi^^ which tho’ made up. of Cottages has excellent Land for 
Tillage and Sport ; the Stages and others Game feeding about® ^ 



Bad travel- 
ling in 


Monday 14th, setting out early with another Bojaia, at 
the end of five Cosses all the way a fertile Soil,®® I stopp’d 
at TikW^ a small Town defended by a Fort of Earth, and after 
Dinner proceeded to the little Village of Onor.^^ 

Tuesday 15th, I traveled five Cosses through a Country 
full of green and delightful Trees to MandapuTy^^ a City made 
up of Mud Houses and enclos’d with a low Wall ; but has a 
good Port of Dime and Stone on a Hill. After Dinner I went 
two Cosses further to Betchh^^ a Wall’d Town, where I lay,®^ 

It is far different Travelling through the MoguVs Country, 
than thro’ Persia or Turky, for there are no Beasts for carriage 
to be found, nor Caravanseras at convenient distances, nor 
Provisions ; and what is worse there is no safety from Thieves. 
He therefore that has not a Horse of his own must mount upon 
an Ox, and besides that inconveniency, must carry along with 
him his Provision and Utensils to dress it ; Rice, Pulse and 
Meal being only to be found in great Towns inhabited by the 
Mogulstans At Night the clear Sky will be all a Mans 
covering, or else a Tree. Add to all this the great Danger 
of Dife and Goods, by reason of the Excursions SavagTs 
Souldiers make quite as far as the Camp at Galgald. Besides, 
the Moguls themselves are such crafty Thieves,®® that they 
reckon a Traveller’s Mony and Cloaths their own ; and they 
will keep along with him many Days till his security®^ gives 
them an opportunity to Rob him at their ease. Sometimes one 
of them will pretend to be a Traveller that is going the same 
way, and bears a Stranger company, that he may Rob him 
with more safety ; for when he lyes down to sleep the other 
artificially®® lets down a noose from the top of a Tree, and 
drawing him up a little way slips down to dive into his Purse.®® 
Had not very powerful Motives press’d me forwards to see the 
Court of so great a King, I should not easily have expos’d 
my self to so many Dangers and Hardships. ’Tis true that 
excepting only this of Visapor, which is continually harass’d 
with Wars, the other Kingdoms subject to the Great Mogul 
are not so inconvenient for Travelling ; especially about 
Suratie, and Amadahat, where necessaries for Dife are to be had. 

Wednesday 16th, having travell’d three Cosses I pass’d 
through a Village^®® call’d Kodelkij^^'^ where at a dear rate I 
tasted ripe Grapes of Europe ; and three Cosses further came 
to E(ioar/®® the biggest City I saw in that short Journey. 
Within the first enclosure it has a Stone Fort ill Built, and a 
Bazar ; in the seco'nd a Fort with a Garrison and Houses about 
it made of Mud and Straw., All the* Merchants that come from 
the southern Parts to sell their Goods use to stay here, and 
afterwards go over to the Camp at Galgald like Reiailers}^^ 
When I pass’d that way this City was actually inf^st^d whh 
the Plague, 



After Dinner I went five Cosses further to the Town of 
Muddol,^^^ seated on the left hand of a River, a matter of great 
Consideration on a Road where I sometimes drank Water 
muddy’d by the Cattle. There is a Mud Fort, as are the Walls 
of the Town, nor do the Cottages of the Natives deserve better 
Fortifications. As I was getting off my Horse I fell so violently 
upon my side that I could not breath for a quarter of an hour, 
and was in some danger of Death ; I was ill of it many Days 
after, tho’ I Blooded, and us’d .other Remedies. 



Thursday 17th, after Riding five Cosses I pass’d through 
a Wall’d Town call’d Matur^ and two Cosses further to the 
Village of Galgala^ where th.e Moguls Camp was. Crossing the 
River Kiscina^ I came into the Quarters of the Mahometans 
call’d Lascaris/ and some Christian Souldiers of Agra enter- 
tain’d me. 

Friday 18th, I went to the Christian Gunner’s Quarter to 
hear Mass, and found a convenient Chappel of Mud Walls, 
serv’d by. two Canarine Priests, maintain’d by the Catholicks. 

After Mass Francis Borgia^ by extraction o, Venetian but born 
at Dehli, invited me to his House. He being Captain of the, 
Christians, an hour after® caus’d two Mahometans that had 
made themselves Drunk to be cruelly beaten before me, bound 
to a Stake. When they were set loose, they return’d him 
thanks for chastizing them, laying their Hands on the Ground 
first, and then on their Heads, after the Country Fashion. 

That same Day the King put the Question to the Kasi/ 'br 
Judge of the* Daw, whether it was more for Gods service to go 
fight his Enemies to spread the Mahometan Sect, or else to go 
over to Visapor to keep the Ramazan, jor their Dent. The Casi 
requir’d time to answer^ which pleas’d the Mogul, who was 
a great Dissembler and Hypocrite, ‘ and never did as he said. 

Saturday 19th. I went to Gulalbar^ (so they dall King’s The King- 
Quarters) and found the King was then giving Audience, but Quarters, 
there was such a. Multitude and Confusion that I could not 
have a good sight of him. The King’s and Princes Tents took 
up three Miles in Compass, and were deftoded every way® 
with Palisadoes, Ditches and five hun<^ed Falconets. There 
were three Gates into them one for the Ararn^^ or Women, and 
two for the King an4 hfs Cottrt, 


The Moguls 


The Mogul* 
good ser- 


I was told the Forces in this Camp amounted to 60000 
Horse, and 1000000^^ Foot, for whose Baggage there were 
50000 Camels, and 3000 Elephants ; but that the Sutlers, 
Merchants and Artificers w’ere much more numerous, the whole 
Camp being a moving City containing 500000 Souls, and 
abounding not only in Provisions, but in all things that could 
be desir’d. There were 250 Bazars or Markets, every Omrah, 
or General having one to serve his Men. In short the whole 
Camp was thirty Miles about.^® 

These Omrahs are oblig’d to maintain a certain number of 
Horse and Foot at their own Expence ; but the Mogul assigns 
them the Revenues of Countries^® and Provinces, whilst they 
continue in that Post. Some of them make a Million and a 
half a Year of these Giaghers,^^ or Feofs ; others less, according 
to the Number of Souldiers they are to maintain. But the 
Princes of the Blood have the best, some of which are worth 
a Million’ and a half of Roupies a Month. They are not only 
oblig’d to serve in War, but to attend the King at all times, 
tho’ he only goes abroad to divert him. To this purpose they 
all keep Spies at Court, for upon every failure a Gari^® is taken 
from them, which is 3900 Roupies^ or less proportionably to 
every Man’s Pay. 

Tho’ these Generals are in so fair a way to heap Wealth 
yet when they are found faulty, as keeping a smaller Number 
of Souldiers than is their quota they are Punished^^ by pecu- 
niary Mulcts. And tho* they should combine with the Com- 
missaries that Muster them, it would avail but little ; Because 
when they dye the Exchequer is their Heir, and only a bare 
subsistance is allow’d the Wife,^® and for the Children they 
say the King will bestow more Riches on them, than he did 
on their Father, whensoever their faithful Services shall deserve 
it.^® These Generals command every one his own Troops, 
without being subordinate to another ; only obeying a 
Lieutenant of the Kings, when he is not there in Person, call’d 
s Gium-DetoUMolk,^^ who receives the King’s Orders, to com- 
municate them to the Generals. Hence it is that they being 
lazy and undisciplin’d, go upon service when they please, and 
there is no great Danger, Many French men belonging to the 
Army, told me*^ it was a Pleasure and Diversion to serve the 
Mogul, because they that will not Fight, or do not keep their 
Gu^ds are Subject to no other Penalty, but losing that days 
Pay, that they are convicted of having Trangress’d ; and that 
th^y themselves did not value Honour much in the Service of 
a Barbarous King, who has no Hospital for the wounded Men. 
On the other side there being no Frince in the World that 
pays his Souldiers, better,^ a Stranger that goes into his Service 
sopn grows Rich, espeeiaiiy an European or Persian ; hut once 
in^ it is a very hard matter to a discharge to |o home 

m6guL cAmP At calgAlA iid 

enjoy what is got, any other way than making an escape. The 
Country not affording so many Horses as are requisite for so 
great an Army, they bring them out of Persia^ and Arabia, Horses, 
some at 1000, or 2000 Roupies purchase, and the lowest at 400. 

And because no Early grows in Indostan^^ they give them 
four Pounds of boiPd Lentils^^ a Day, and in Winter they add 
half a Pound of Butter, and as much Sugar, four ounces of 
Pepper, and some dry Straw. With the Author's leave, he 
seems here to impose upon the Reader, or be himself impos'd 
upon worse than Tavernier was with the Crabs.^^^ 

It is also a vast expence to maintain so great a Number i^iephants. 
of Elephants ; for every one of them Eats at least 140 Pounds 
of Corn every day, besides Eeaves, Green Canes, Sugar and 
Pepper so that the King allows 7 Roupies a day for every one. 

He has 3000 throughout his Empire, and three General 
Elephants. Each of these has half a Million of Roupies 
allowance a Month which are spent in keeping 500 other 
Elephants that are under him, and 200 Men that look to them. 

At this time there were but 500 belonging to the King in the 
Field ; besides those belonging to the Princes and Omrahs,^^ 
who keep some 400, some 200, and others more or less. 

Sunday 20th, going to the Tents of the Eling’s Eldest Son, Uogul'^ 
whose name was ScialamJ^^ I found about 2000 Souldiers 
Horse and Food drawn up, expecting^® the Prince, who came 
from his Fathers quarters. Waiting I saw his Son^’' come out 
and Mount a Horse-back to go meet his Father ; as soon as he 
saw him he alighted^® in token of respect. Scialam was 65 
Years of Age, Tall, and full Body’d,^® with a thick long Beard, 
which began to be Grey. Having such a Title to the Crown, 
many Thousands of the Souldiers are of his Faction ; who 
being imprison’d, continu’d resolute, refusing to receive any 
other Pay, notwithstanding he reliev’d them but meanly. 

Monday 21st, by the means of a Christian of Agra, and The King^s 
an Eunuch his Friend I had the Fortune to be admitted to a Quarters, 
private Audience of the King. In the first Court of the King’s 
Quarters, which had two Doors, in a large Tent I saw Kettle- 
Drums, Trumpets eight Spans long, and other Instruments,^® 
which use to sound at certain Hours of the Day and Night, 
according as occasion requires ; and that day made their noise 
before Noon.^^ There was also a Gold BalF® between two Gilt 
Hands, hanging by a Chain ; the King’s Ensign, which is 
carry’d on the Elephants, when they March* I pass’d on into 
the second Court, and then into the Royal Tents, and King’s 
Apartments, adorn’d with Silks and Cloth of Gold. Finding 
&e King in one of these Rooms, sitting after the Country 
manner, on Rich Cktpets, and Pillars Embroider’d with Gold, 

Having made my Gbeisance after fhe Mogul Fashion, I drew 
near, the same being my Interpreter. He ask’d me 


IN&IAN travels Of CARfiftI 

The Mogul 



of what Kingdom of Europe I was, how long I had been come 
thence, where I had been, and what^^ I came to his Camp for, 
whether I would serve him, and whither I design’d to go? I 
answered accordingly, that I was a Neapolitan, and came 
thence two Years before ; during which time I had seen 
^Syp^y the Grand Signior’s Dominions, and the Persian 
Monarchy, that I was now come into his Camp, only out of 
curiosity , to see the greatest Monarch in Asia, as his Majesty 
was, and the Grandeur of his Court and Army ; that I should 
have reckoned it a great Honour®^ to serve him, did not affairs 
of the greatest Importance call me home, after seeing the 
Empire of China. He then ask’d me concerning the War 
betwixt the Turk and European Princes in Hungary, and 
having answer’d to the best of, my Knowledge, he dismiss’d 
me, the time of the Publick Audience drawing near. I return’d 
into the second Court, enclos’d with painted Calicoes, ^ ten Spans 
high all about. Here on the side next the King’s apartment, 
the Tent to give Audience in, was supported by two great 
Poles, being cover’d on the outsides with ordinary red Stuff, 
and with finer within, and small Taffeta Curtins. Under this 
Tent was a square place, rais’d four Spans above the Ground, 
enclos’d with silver Banisters, two Spans high, and cover’d 
with fine Carpets. Six Spans further in the middle was another 
place rais’d a Span higher,^® at the Angles whereof there were 
4 Poles, cover’d with silver reaching to the top of the Tent. 
Here stood the Throne, which was also square, of gilt Wood, 
three Spans®® above the rest ; to get up to it there was a little 
silver Footstool. On it there were three Pillows of Brocade, 
two to serve on the sides, and one at the back. Soon after 
the King came leaning on a Staff forked at the top, several 
Omrahs and abundance of Courtiers going before him. He 
had on a white Vest ty’d under the right Arm, according to 
the fashion of the Mahometans, to distinguish them from the 
Gentils, who tye it under the left. The Cira or Turbant of 
the same white stuff, was ty’d with a Gold Web,^® on which 
an Emeraud of a vast bigness, appear’d^^ amidst four little ones. 
He had a Silk Sash, which cover’d the Caiari^'^ or Indian Dagger 
hanging on the left. His Shooes were after the Moorish 
Fashion, and his Eegs naked without Hose, ^i'wo Servants put 
away the Flyes, with long, white Horse-tai's ; another at the 
same time keeping off the Sun, with a green Umbrello. He 
was of a low Stature, with a large Nose, Slender, and stooping 
with Age.'^® The whiteneiss of his round Bear’d, was more 
visible^^ on his Olive colour’d Skin. When he was seated they 
gave him his Scimiter, and, Buckler, which he lay’d down on 
his left side within the Throne. Then he made a sign with 
his Hand for those .that had business to draw near ; who being 
qqme up, two Secretaries standing, took their. Petitions, which 

MOGUL camp at gALGALA 


.they^ delivered to the King/^ telling him the Contents. I 
admired to see him^® Indorse them with his own Hand, without 
Spectacles, and by his chearful smiling Countenance seem to 
be pleas’d with the employment. 

In the mean while the E^lephants were review’d, that the Review 
King might see what condition they were in, and whether the 
Omrahs, they were committed to, manage them well. When 
the Cornaccia^’^ (that is he who rides them) had uncover’d the 
Elephants Crupper, for the King to view it, he made him turn 
his Head towards the Throne, and striking him on it three 
times, made him do his Submission as often, by lifting up and 
lowering down his Trunk. Then came Scialam*s Son and 
Grandson,^® who having twice made their Obeisance to the 
King, each time putting their Hand to the Ground, on their 
Head, and on their Breast, sate down on the first floor of the 
Throne on the left. Then Azam-Sciaf'^ the King’s Son coming 
in, and making the same submissions,®® he sate down on the 
second Step, which we said was rais’d above the other.®^ These 
Princes wore silk Vests with Flowers of several Colours, Ciras 
adorn’d with precious Stones, Gold Collars, Jewells, rich 
Sashes, Scimiters, and Bucklers hanging by their sides. Those 
that were not of the Blood Royal, made®^ three Obeisances. 

On the right Hand without the Tent, stood 100 Mu$ketiers 
and more Mace-bearers, who had Clubs on their Shoulders with 
silver Globes at the Ends. These were clad in Cloth of several 
colours. There were also several Porters with Staves in their 
Hands, that no Person might go in without being introduc’d. 

On the left of the Tent were the Royal Ensigns held up 
on Spears by nine Persons, clad in Vests of crimson Velvet, 
all adorn’d with Gold, and with wide Sleeves, and sharp 
Collars hanging down behiud. He that stood in the middle 
held a Sun ; the two on his sides two gilt Hands ; next them 
stood two others, each holding two Horses Tails dy’d Red.®® 

The other four had the Spears cover’d, so that there was no 
seeing what they held. Without the enclosure of the Royal 
Tents, several Companies and Troops of Horse and Foot stood 
at their Arms ; and Elephants with vast Standards, and Kettle^ 
Drums on them, which were beaten all the time. When the 
Audience was over, the King with-drew in the same Order he 
came out ; so did the Princes ; some getting into Palankines, 

^nd others mounting stately Horses, cover’d with Gold and 
precious Stones. The Omrahs j who had stood all the while, 
return’d also to their Tents, follow’d by many Elephants, some 
with Seats on them and some with Colours flying, and attended 
by two Troops of Horse, and two Companies of Foot. The 
Cattual/^ who is , like a Provost-Marshal against ‘Thieves, rode 
^ith a great Trumpet of .green Copper, eight Spans long, 


carry’d before him by a Moor a-foot. That foolish Trumpet 
made me Taugh ; because it made a Noise much like that our 
Swineheards make, to call together their Swine at Night. 

Father to 

He devides 
his Sons. 

des estats 
du G. 
Tom. 1. 




Experience has long since made it Notorious enough, that 
the Succession of this great Monarchy rather depends on 
Force than Right ; and that, (if it so happen, that the Sons 
expect their Father’s Death*) they at last Determin the Title 
of Birth-right by the Event of a Battle ; but this Mogul we 
have spoken of, added Fraud to Force, by which he destroy’d 
not only his Brothers, but his Father. 

When Scia-gehan^ had Reign’d forty Years, more like a 
Father than a King,^ being at the Age of seventy Years,"* 
fitter for any thing than Rove ; he became desperately 
Amorous® of a Moorish young Woman.® His unruly Passion 
prevailing, he gave himself up so entirely to her, beyond what 
became his Age, that being reduc’d to extream Weakness, and 
despairing of his Recovery, he shut himself up for three Months 
in the Aram, without shewing himself to the People, according 
to Custom.^ He had six Children ; four of them Sons call’d,® 
Dara, or Darius ; the second Sugiah,'‘ that is, valiant Prince ; 
the third Aurenge Zeb, that is, Ornament of the Throne, and 
the last Morad Baksce. The two Daughters were*® Begum 
Saheh,** that is, supream Princess ; and*^ Rausenora Begum,^^ 
that is, lightsom Princess, or Eight of Princesses. They take 
these Names, because there being no Titles of Earldoms, 
Dukedoms, or the like, as is us’d in Europe ; they cannot like 
our Princes take the Name of those Rands, for they all belong 
to the King, who gives all those that Serve him Assignments 
at Pleasure, or Pay in ready Mony. For the same Reason 
the Omrahs Names are*® such as these, those that follow, 
Thunderer, breaker of Troops, faithful Rord, the Wise, the 
Perfect,*® and the like. 

Scia-gekan seeing his Sons Marry’d, grown Powerful, 
asjimring to the Crown, and consequently Enemies to one 
another, and in such a Condition that it was impossible to shut 
them up ill the inaccessible Portress of Gcniallor,^^ according 
to the antient Custom, after much thinking, for fear they 
should kill one another before his Face, he resolv’d to remove 
them from Court. He s^t Swifaw Sugiah into the Kingdom 



of BengaU ; Aurenge Zeh into that of Decan ; Morad Baksce 
into Guzaratte, and to ^t)ara he gave Cahul and Multan. The 
three first went away well pleas’d, and acted like Sovereigns 
in their Governments ; keeping to themselves all the Revenues, 
and maintaining Armies under Colour^’' of awing the Subjects, 
and bordering Princes. Para, being the Eldest,, and design’d 
for^® Empire remain’d at Court, where the Father feeding him 
with hopes of the Crown, permitted all Orders to pass through 
his Hands, and allow’d him a Throne below his own among the 
Omrahs ; for having offer’d to resign up the Government to 
him, Bara refus’d it out of Respect. 

The Report being spread abroad upon Sciah-gehan^s shut- 
ting himself up, that he was Dead, his Sons immediately arm’d 
to contend for their Father’s Kingdom, The cunning Fox 
Aurenge Zeb, whilst Things were in this Confusion, that he 
might the better surprize his Brother, gave out, that he had no 
pretensions to the Crown, but had chosen to become a Fachir, 
or Poor, to serve God in Peace. At the same time he writ to 
his Brother Morad Baksce acquainting him that he had always 
been his real Friend, and had no Pretensions to the Crown 
himself, being a profess’d Fachir ; but that Bara being unfit 
to Reign, and a Kafar'^^ or Idolater ; and Sultan Sujah a 
Refesis^^ or H'eretick, and Enemy of his Fore-fathers^^ 
Religion, and unworthy of the Crown, he thought none but 
Morad deserv’d it, to whom all the Omrahs being acquainted 
with his Valour would willingly submit. As for himself, pro- 
vided he would give him his Word, that when he came to the 
Throne, he would leave him in Peace to pray to God in some 
corner of the Kingdom^^ the rest of his Days, he would not 
only endeavour to assist him with his Advice, but would joyn 
his Forces with him to Destroy his Brother in Token 
whereof he sent him 100000 Roupies ; advising him to come 
with all Expedition to make himself Master of the Fort of 
Suraite, where the Treasure was. Morad Baksce, who was 
neither Powerful nor^^ Rich, freely accepted his Offer and 
Mony, and began immediately to Act like a King, promising 
great Rewards to those that would side with him ; so that he 
rais’d a powerful Army in a short time. Then giving the Com- 
mand of 3000 Men to Scia-Abas/^ a valiant Eunuch, he sent 
him to Besiege the Castle of Suratte, 

Bara would have Reliev’d it, but forebore it to attend his 
Father in his Sickness, and curb Sultan Sugah, who after sub- 
duing the Kingdom of Bengala, where he was Governour, was 
advanc’d with a powerful Army into the Kingdom of Lahor.^^ 
He sent his Eldest Son SoUman Scecur^'^ against him with con- 
siderable Farces j who routed hi’s Uncle, and drave him back 
into- Bengola, and leaving good Garrisons on the Frontiers,, he 
back to hi^ Fathei? 

They Arm 



Zeh his 



On the other side, Aurenge Zeb sent his Son Sultan 
Mahmud/^ Son-in-I^aw to the Kin^ ^of Golconda^ to Emir 
Gemla/^ who®° lay by Order of Sciah-gehan, at the Siege of 
Kaliana/^ to desire®^ him to meet him at DauleUAbad/^ where 
he would communicate a Matter of great Moment to him. ’l^he 
Ernkj who was well acquainted with Aurenge Zeb*s Artifices, 
excusM himself,®^ saying, his^^ Father was not yet Dead ; and 
that all his Family was left at Agra, in the Hands of Dara, as 
Hostages for his Fidelity ; for which Reason he could not 
Assist him without the Ruin of what he held most dear. 
Having receiv’d this Answer, Aurenge Zeb was no way dis- 
courag’d, but sent Sultan Mazum/^ his second Son to the 
Emir ; who manag’d Things so well, that he perswaded him 
to go with him to Dolei A bad, with the Flower of his Army, 
he having®’’ made himself Master of Kaliana, Aurenge Zeb 
receiv’d him with extraordinary Demonstrations of Affection 
and Honour ; calling him Baba, and Babagi, that is. Father, 
and Eord and Father ; and after giving him an hundred 
Embraces, taking him aside he told him. It was not reasonable 
that his Family being in Dara’s Hands, he should venture to 
do any thing for him Publickly ; but that on the other Hand 
there was no Difficulty but might be overcome. I will there- 
fore propose a method to you, said he, which will not appear 
strange to you, when you think on the Safety of your Wife 
and Children ; which is, that you permit me to Imprison you,®® 
which all the World will think is in Earnest, believing you are 
no Man that will take it in Jest,®® and in the mean while I will 
make use of part of your Troops, of your Cannon, and some 
of your Mony, which you have so often offer’d me, and will 
try my Fortune. The Emir, either because he was a sworn 
Friend to Aurenge Zeb, or on account of the great Promises he 
had made him at other times ; or else by reason he saw Sultan 
Mazum well armM standing by him, and Sultan Mahmud 
looking upon him with a stem Countenance ; submitted to all 
his Will, suffering himself to be confin’d to^® a Room. The 
News being spread abroad, his Men ran to Arms to Rescue him, 
and being very numerous would have done it had not Aurenge 
Zeb appeas’d them with fair Words, Promises, and Gifts ; so 
that not only the Emir^s Troops, but most of Sciah GehanU 
seeing Things in Confusion, sided with. him. Having there- 
fore Possess’d himself of the Emir^s Tents, Camels, and 
Baggage, he march’d to take Suratte ; but hearing within a 
few Days that the Governour had already surrendred it to Morad 
Baksce, he sent to Congratulate with him, and tell him what' 
had hapned with*^^ Emir Jemla ; what Forces and Mony he 
had ; and what secret Intelligence at Court ; desiring him, that 
since he was to go from Brampur^^ to Agra^ he should^® 
endeavour tQ meet, and Confer witli him by the way. 



This fell out to his Mind/^ the two Armies joyning with 
much Satisfaction. Aurenge ‘ Zeb made Morad Baksce fresh 
Promises, protesting over again that he did not Aspire to the 
Crown ; but only come to help raise him to the Throne, in 
Opposition to Dara, their common Enemy. They both mov’d 
towards Brampur, where coming to a Battle with the Army of 
Sciah-gehan, and Dara, which came to hinder them passing Dara^s- 
the River Ogene the Generals, Kasem and Cham,^^ and Forces 
Gesson-senghe'^'^ were overthrown by the Valour of Morad, with 
the Slaughter of 8000 Ragipu*s^^ 

Morad Baksce flush’d with the Success of the Battle, Himself 
coveted nothing but Fighting ; using all possible means to over- routed, 
take the Enemy ; whilst Aurenge Zeb grown vain, encourag’d 
his Soldiers, giving out he had 30000 Moguls of his Party among 
Dara*s Forces. Having taken some Rest, they Fought the 
second Battle at Samongher,^^ where Morad Baksce, tho 
wounded by the General Ram senghe-ruile,^^ fighting Coura- 
giously kill’d him.®^ Whilst the Event®^ of the Battle was still- 
Dubious, the Traitor Calil-ullak-kan/^ who Commanded 30000 
Moguls, with whom he might have routed .the Enemy, did not 
only go over to Aurenge Zeb, but falsly®^ perswaded Dara to 
come down from his Elephant, and get a Horse-back, and this 
to the end that the Soldiers not seeing him, might suppose he 
was kill’d, and so dismay ’em..®® It fell out as he design’d, for 
being all seiz’d with Fear,®® they fled to escape Aurenge Zeb. 

Thus Dara on a sudden lost the Victory he had almost gain’d,, 
and was overthrown ; and seeing himself forsaken, •. was forc’d 
to fly to save his Life. So that it may be said, that Aurenge 
Zeb by continuing stedfast on his Elephant, secur’d to himself 
the Crown of Indostan ; and Dara was thrown out of the Throne 
by coming down from his.®^ A Diversion Fortune often takes, 
to make the greatest Victories®® depend on the m.ost contemp-. 
tible Accidents. The unhappy Dara returning to Agra in 
Despair, durst not appear before his Father, who, when he 
took his Leave, had said to him, Be sure Dara never to come 
into my Sight unless Victorious. Nevertheless the 'good old 
Man did not omit to send to- Comfort®® him, . and assure him of 
his Affection. 

Four Days after, Aurenge Zeb, and Morad Baksce csime Aurenge 
to a Garden®® a small League from the Fort oi Agra ; 
thence sent an ingenious and trusty Eunu'ch to pay their ° ^ * 

Respects to Sciah-gehan ; and to tell him they were very much 
troubled at all that had hapned, being compell’d to it by Dam’s* 
Ambition ; but®^ were most ready to Obey his Commands. 
Sciah-gehan, tho’ he well knew how eager his Son was to Reign, 
and that there was no trusting to his fair Words ; yet shew’d 
a- good Countenance to the Eunuch, designing to intrap Aurenge 
Zeb, without coming to open Force, as then proper to have 

2 ? 



liis Father. 

Baits ce. 

done. But he, who was thorough skill’d in all Frauds, took 
his Father in the same Snare ; for putting off the Visit from 
Day to Day, which had been agreed upon between them by 
the Eunuch, spent the mean time in gaining the Affections of 
the Onirahs underhand. When he thought Things were Ripe, 
he sent his Eldest Son Sultan Mahmud to the Fort, on Pretence 
to speak to Sciah-gehan from him.®^ This bold young Prince 
coming to the Gate, fell with his Men that lay in readiness 
upon the Guards, and putting them to Flight, went resolutely 
in, and made himself Master of the Walls. Sciah-gehan per- 
ceiving he was fallen into the Snare he had laid for his Son, 
try’d to Bribe Sultan Mahmud with the offer of the Crown, 
but he, without being mov’d, carry’d the Keys of the Fort to 
his Father, who made the same Governour®® Ekhar-kan,^^ 
Governour of it. He presently shut up the old King with his 
Daughter Begum Saheh, and all the Women ; so that he could 
neither Speak nor Write to any Body, much less go out of his 
Apartment.®® As soon as this was done, all the Omrahs were 
oblig’d to make their Court to Aurenge Zeh, and Morad Buksce, 
and to declare for the first of them. He being now well Esta- 
blish’d, took what he thought fit out of the King’s Treasure ; 
and leaving his Uncle Scia-hest-kan^^ Governour of the City, 
went away with Morad Baksce in Pursuit of Dara. 

The Day they were to set out of Agra, Morad Baksce*s 
Friends, and particularly his Eunuch Scia-AbaSj told him. That 
since he was Kiiig, and Aurenge Zeh himself gave him the Title 
of Majesty ; he should send him against Dara^ and stay himself 
with his Troops about Agra and Dehli.®^ But he had so much 
Confidence in his Brother’s Promises, and in the mutual Oath 
of Fidelity they had taken to one another upon the Al-coran ; 
that despising all good Counsel, he set out towards Behli, with 
Aurenge Zeb, At Mdiuras,^^ four Days March from Agra, his 
Friends again endeavour’d to Convince him, that his Brother 
had ill Designs®® in his Head ; and advis’d him to forbear 
Visiting him, tho’ it were but that Day^® upon pretence of 
Indisposition ; but he continuing Incredulous, and in a manner 
infatuated with his sweet Words, did not only go, but staid 
to Sup with him. The false Wretch shew’d him all manner 
of Kindness, even to the wiping off his Sweat with his Hand- 
kerchief, always talking to him as King, and giving him the 
Title of Majesty ; but as soon as he saw him overcome by the 
Fumes of Scvras/^ and Cabul Wine, he arose from Table, and 
encouraging his Brother to carry on the Debauch with Mirban,’^^ 
and other OflScers there present, went away, as if he had gone 
to take his Rest, Morad Baksce, who lov’d Drinking, making 
himself Drunker than he was, at length fell asleep ; which was 
what Aurenge Zeb expected,^* in order to take away his scimiter, 
Gemder/^ pr Pa^^^er, Tken reti;rning into th^ Room^ h^ 

tllSTORY 6 f AliRENCe ZEB 22? 

began to upbraid him in these Words, What a Shame, what a 
Disgrace is this ! for a King as you are to be so Debauched, as 
to make himself thus Drunk ? What will the World say of you, 
and of me? Let this base Man, this Drunkard he bound Hands, 
and Feet, and shut up to Digest his Wine. This was imme- 
diately Executed, and Morad Baksce*s Commanders being 
offended at his Imprisonment, Aurenge Zeh pacifyM^® them 
with Gifts and Promises, and took them all into his Pay, His 
unfortunate Brother was shut up in an Ambri,'^'^ which is a little 
wooden House they set on an Elephant to carry Women, and 
so conveyed to Dehli, to the little Fort of Salemgher,'^^ seated 
in the middle of the River. 

Having secur’d Morad Baksce, he pursu’d Dara; leaving 
Sultan Mahmud, and Emir Gemla to Destroy Sultan Sujah. 

But Mahmud aspiring to those Things he ought not yet to have 
aim’d at, and being naturally Proud, fell at Variance^® with 
Emir Gemla, about commanding in Chief, which he pretended 
^ to belong to him alone ; and now and then let slip some Words 
of Contempt and Threatning against him, and such as did not 
become a dutiful Son. Then fearing that his Father on account 
of his ill Behavi'otu: had given Orders to the Emir to secure him ; 
he with-drew with a few Followers to Sultan Sujah,^^ making 
him great Promises, and swearing to be Faithful ; but he fear- imprisons 
ing some Contrivance of Aurenge Zeb, and the Emir, caus’d all his Eldest 
his Actions to be observ’d so that Mahmud in a few Months 
return’d to the Emir^s Camp. Others say it was a Project of 
Aurenge Zeb^s, to send him to his Uncle, to Ruin them both, 
or at least a specious Pretence to make sure of him ; because 
afterwards, besides the threatning Tetters he writ to recal him 
to Dehli, he caus’d him to be Arrested upon the River Ganges, 
and sent close shut up in an Ambri, to Gavaleor. 

Aurenge Zeb having perform’d this Work, sent to warn his 
other Son Sultan Mazum to continue in his Duty, unless he 
would be serv’d®^ in the same manner ; because it was a nice 
Point to Reign, and Kings ought to be jealous®® of their own 
Shadows. Then going to Dehli, he began to Act as King ; and 
whilst the Emir press’d Sugiah, who made a brave Opposition, 
securing the Passage of the River Ganges, he contriv’d to get 
Dara into his Power by Fraud, forcing him to quit Guzaratte. 

He made the Raja Gessen Sanghe write a Tetter to tell him, he 
would speak with him about a Matter of great Moment on the 
way to Agra. Dara, who had gather’d an indifferent Army, 
unadvisedly came out of Amed-Abad, and hasted to Asmire,^^ 
eight Days Journey from Agra. Here too late discovering 
Gessen Senghes Treachery, and seeing no Possibility of re- 
turning so soon to Amed Abad, which was thirty four Days®® 

Journey distant, in Summer, with scarcity of Water, and through 
the Hands®’’ of several Raja's Friends to Jessem ; he at last again. 



resolved, tlio’ he knew himself to be inferior in Forces to Fight 
him.®® In this Battle Dara was betray'd, not only by Scia- 
l^avazekan/^ but by all his Officers, who fir'd his Cannon with- 
out Ball,®® so that he was forced to fly to save his Life, and to 
cross all the Countries of Raja's there are from Asmire to Amed 
A had ; without Tents,, or Baggage, in the hottest Season, and 
with only 2000 Soldiers, who were most of them stripp'd by 
the Kullys,^^ Peasants of the Country, who are the greatest 
Thieves in India, Being come with so much Difficulty within 
a Day's Journey of Amed Ah ad, the Governour, who was 
corrupted by Aurenge Zeh, sent him Word to come no nearer, 
for he would find the Gates shut. Dara much concern'd at this 
News, and not knowing what to Resolve on, he bethought him 
of a Powerful Raian, call'd' Gion-Kan,^^ whose Life he had twice 
sav'd, when Scia-gehan had commanded him to be cast to the 
Elephants for Rebellion. . Him he purpos'd to repair to, not- 
withstanding his Son Sapesce-Kuh,^^ and his Wife's Disswasions. 
Coming thither he was at first Courteously receiv'd ; but the 
next Morning the false and ungrateful Patan fell upon him 
with many arm'd Men, and killing some Soldiers that came to 
his Assistance, Bound him, his Wife and Son^ seizing all their 
Betray’d. Jewels, and Mony. Then setting him on an Elephant, with 
an Executioner behind, who was to Kill him if he attempted 
to Escape,- he conducted him to the Camp at Tatabakar,^^ 
where he deliver'd him up to the General Mirhaha,^^ who caus'd 
him to be carry'd in the same manner to Agra, and thence to 
DehlL When he was come to the Gate of that City, Aurenge 
Zebj and his Council differ'd in Opinions, whether they should 
carry him through the City, or not, in order to send him to 
Govaleor, and at last it was resolv'd to set him scurvily Clad, 
with his Wife and Son, on a pitiful Elephant, and so carry him 
through the City, with the infamous Patan by him. In the 
mean while Aurenge Zeh was inform'd, that all the City was 
Incens'd against him, on account of his many Cruelties ; and 
mis-doubting the first,®® he summon'd his Council, to Determine 
whether it was better to send him to Prison, or put him to 
Death. Many were of the first Opinion ; but Dara's old Enemies, 
especially Nakim Daud,^"^ a Physitian, flattering the Tsnrant's 
Inclination, cry'd out aloud, it was convenient for the safety of 
the Kingdom, that he should Die, and the more because he 
was no Musulman, but a Kafer, or Idolater.®® Aurenge Zeh 
readily comply'd, immediately ordering that Sapesce-Kuh should 
be carry'd Prisoner to Govaleor, and Dara put to Death by the 
Hands of a Slave, call'd Nazar . . He going in to Esrecute the 
barbarous Command, Dara, who was himself dressing some 
Lentils for fear of Poison, foreseeing what was coming upon him, 
cry'd out to hi's Son, see he comes to Kill me.^®® Then faking 
a Kitchin Knife, he woUld hnve defended himself j but the 

history of AURENGfi ZE6 


Executioner fell on, and throwing him down, cut off his Head,^°^ 
which was carryM to the Fort to Aurenge Zeb, and he ordering 
it to be put into a Dish, wash’d"®^ it with his own Hands, to 
be sure it was his Brother’s, and when he found it was, began to 
Eament, saying. Oh unhappy Man ; take it out of my Sights 
and let it he Bury^d in the Tomb of Humagon}^^ At Night he 
caus’d his^^’^ Daughters to be put into the Seraglio, and after- 
wards sent her to Scia-gehan, and Begum Saheb, who desir’d 
it ; and Sapesce-Kuh was carry’d to Govaleor. Gion-Kan was 
rewarded for his Treachery but was kill’d in a Wood as he His Sons 
return’d home, to prove that Men love the Treason, but hate secur’d, 
the Traitor. 

There w^as none left of Dam’s Family, but Soliman Scekuh^ 
who was not easily to be drawn from Serenagher/^^ had the 
Raja kept his Word ; but the underhand Practices of the Raja 
Gessen Senghe/^^^ the Promises and Threats of Aurenge Zeb, 
the Death of Dara, and the neighbouring Rajahs made him break 
his Faith. Soliman understanding he was betray’d, fled over 
desert Mountains, towards the Great Tibet, but the Raja's 
Son’-®^ overtook, and stopp’d him, wounding him with a Stone ; 
after which he was convey’d to Dehli, where he was shut up 
in Salengher, with Morad Baksce, not without Tears of all the 

Aurenge Zeh perceiving there were Poems handed about in Uorad 
Commendation of Morad Baksce'^ Valour, it rais’d such a 
Jealousy in him, that he presently contriv’d his Death. Morad, ^ 
at the beginning of the War had kill’d one Sajed/°^ a very 
wealthy Man at Amed Abad, only to Sieze upon what he had.^^® 

The Tyrant made his Sons appear in a full Assembly, and 
demand that Prince’s Head, in Revenge for their Father’s Death. 

Not one of the Omrahs oppos’d it, as well because Sajed was 
of Mahomet^s Bamily, as to comply with the will of Aurenge 
Zeh, whose invention^^^ they knew that was. Accordingly they 
were permitted without any manner of Process to have Morad's 
Head cut ofl ; which was immediately perform’d at GoDoleor. 

There is now none left to oppose Aurenge Zeh, but only 
Sultan Sujah, who tho’ he held out some time in Bengala, yet o£ Sultan 
was at last forc’d to submit to his Brother’s Power and good ^'^j^'h^ 
Fortune ; for the Emir Gemla pursuing him with his Forces^^^ 
into the Islands the Ganges makes near its Mouth, forc’d him 
to fly to Dake^^^ the last City of Bengala on the Sea side. Here, 
having no Ships to commit himself to the Ocean, and not know- 
ing which way to escape ; he sent his eldest Son Sultan Banche^^^ 
to the King of Aracam or Mog,^'^^ a .heathen Prince, to pray 
him to give him Protection for the present in his Country, and 
in the proper Season a Vessel to carry him to he having 

a mind to go to Mecca. The King of Aracam presently sent a 
number of Galeasses^^® .or half Galleys with Sultan Banche^ 

Exact Jjis- 
tice of a 


and a civil Answer as to the rest* Sujah went aboard with his 
Women, and being brought to that King was well received ; 
but when the Season came he perform'd not his Word^^’^ of 
furnishing him a Ship to go to Mecca; but appearing every 
Day more cold to him, began to complain that Sujah did not 
visit him, and tho' Sultan- Banche often made his Court with 
great Presents, yet it avail'd nothing. Then asking one of 
Sultan SujaWs Daughters in Marriage, and finding she was not 
immediately granted him, the Barbarian was so imag'd, that he 
oblig'd the poor fugitive Prince to act a desperate Part. He 
thought with 300 Souldiers he brought from Bengala, and the 
assistance of the Mahometans of the Country whom he had 
corrupted to break into the Palace, kill all he found, and make 
himself King of Arracam ; but the Day before he was to put 
this in Execution, the Design was discover'd, and he oblig'd 
to fly towards Pegu to save his Life, tho' it was impossible to 
come thither by reason of the vast Mountains and Forrests he 
was to pass through. That same Day he was overtaken by the 
King’s Men, and tho' he defended himself with much Bravery, 
killing a great number, yet so many fell upon him, that at last 
he was forc'd to submit to his Fate. Sultan Banche who was 
not gone so far, made his defence too, but being hurt^^® with 
Stones, and encompass'd on all sides, was taken, with two little 
Brothers, a Sister and his Mother. As for Sultan Sujah him- 
self there are different Accounts some say he was wounded 
on the Mountains, only four of his Men being left about him, 
and that an Eunuch having dress'd the Wound on his Head, 
he fled across the Woods ; others will have it that he was found 
among the Dead, but not perfectly known others that he 
was afterwards seen at Maslipatan ; others near Suratte ; and 
others in fine that he was fled towards Persia so that by 
reason of these different Accounts, Aurenge Zeb one Day in 
j^st said that Sujah was turn'd Pilgrim. The most receiv'd 
Opinion is that he dy'd in the Fray, if he was not kill'd by 
Robbers, or wild Beasts, of which those Forrests are full. After 
this Disaster all his Family was Imprison'd, and the King took 
his eldest Daughter to Wife ; but another Conspiracy of Sultan 
Banche^^^ being afterwards discover'd, he was so imag'd that 
he caus’d them all to be put to Death, even to her that was 
his Wife and with Child. The Men were put to the Sword, 
and the Women starv'd to Death. 

The unnatural War being thus at an end after it had lasted 
through the ambition of Rule,^^^ among the fom Brothers from 
the Year 1655 till 1660.^^^ Aurenge Zeb remain'd peaceable 
Possessor of that vast Empire ; for after so much Blood shed 
and so many Enormities committed, it was easie to cause him- 
self to be declar'd King with the consent of all the great Ones. 
The greatest Obstacle he found was the Grand Cad{^^^ who was 



to put him in Possession, and pleaded that according to the 
Law of Mahomet and that of Nature, no Man could be declar’d 
King, whilst his Father was yet living ; much less Aurenge Zeh, 
who had put to death his elder Brother Dam, to whom the Crown 
belong’d after the Death of his Father Scia-gehan. To over- 
come this difficulty he assembled the Doctors of the Lavv^ and 
told them, that as for his Father he was unfit to Rule by reason 
of his Age ; and for his Brother Dam's Death he had caus’d him 
to be executed for contemning the Law, by drinking Wine, and 
favouring Infidels. Adding Threats to these Reasons he made 
the Mahometan Casuists agree, that he deserv’d the Crown and 
ought to be declar’d King. The Cadi still opposing him, he was 
depos’d^^® and another put in his Place, who for the kindness^^'^ 
receiv’d consented to all that was requir’d of him. Aurenge 
Zeh accordingly coming to the Mosch on the 20th of October 
1660^^® seated himself on the rich&t Throne^^® that ever was 
seen in the World, being the same that was begun by 
Tamerlan and finish’d by Scia-gehan, receiving there the 
Homage of all the great Men, as is the custom of the Country. 
Afterwards there was great rejoycing at Jehanabaf^^ and 
throughout all the Kingdom. 

Aurenge-Zeb considering the heinousness of the Crimes he 
had committed for the compassing of his Ends ; voluntarily 
impos’d on himself a rigorous Abstinence, not to eat for the 
future any Wheaten-Bread, Fish, or Flesh ; and to live upon 
Barley-Bread, Rice, Herbs, Sweetmeats and such things ; nor to 
drink, any sort of Liquor but Water.^®® 

Ambassadors from the prime^®^ Princes of Asia and A f rich 
came to his Court to Congratulate his Accession to the Crown 
but he was much offended at the Letter sent him by the King 
of Persia,^^^ upbraiding him with the Murder of Dara, and 
Imprisonment of Sciah-Gehan, as being Actions unworthy a 
Musulman, and the Son and Brother of a Musulman ; and re- 
flecting on^^® him for the Title he had assum’d of Alem- 
Guire,^^'^ that is. Lord of the World, concluded^^® challenging 
him in these Words, Since you are Alem-Guire, I send you a 
Sword and Horses that we may meet. 

Sciah-Gehan dy’d in the Fort of Agra about the end of the 
Year 1666.^®® and Aurenge~Zeb , who had long wish’d to be 
deliver’d from that continual Reproach of his Tyranny, went 
thither immediately to secure all his Father’s Jewels. He re- 
ceiv’d his Sister Begum-Saheb into favour, because she having 
an influence over her Father, being his^^° Wife and Daughter,^^^ 
had preserv’d to him so many Jewels of incredible value, when 
Sciah-Gehan offended that he had sent for them whilst he was 
living, to adorn the Throne he had usurp’d, was about to reduce 
them to Powder in a Mortar. Besides she had given him mudh 
Qold, and s^t oqt^^® the hd went into before his entring 






Is reprovd 
by the King 
of Persia, 

Sciah Gehan 
dies Tavern, 
L 2. p. 252. 



Sciak Gehan 
an Usurper, 


the Fort, with rich Carpets. She was afterwards carry’d in 
honourable manner to Jehandbcd, and there dy*d,^^^ with suspi- 
tion of being Poison’d,^^^ 

If we now look back into the Life of Sciah-Gehan,^^^ we 
shall find that he was punish’d by the Hand of God as he had 
deserv’d, for the wrong he had done his Nephew Bulaki,^^^ 
usurping the Crown from him. 

Gehanghir King of India Son of A char, and Grandson of 
Humagion, after having reign’d twenty three Years Peaceably 
was disturb’d by the Ambition of his Sons, who thought that 
Life lasted too long, which obstructed their getting into Power, 
The Eldest^^^ rais’d a mighty Army about Lahor to possess his 
Father’s Throne before it was his* Due ; the King to punish his 
Presumption march’d against him with numerous Forces, and 
defeating his Troops, brought him away Prisoner with those 
great Men that had espous’d” his Cause. But being of a merciful 
Disposition and unwilling to imbrue his Hands in the Blood 
of his Son, whom he could not but love, he was satisfy’d with 
holding a Red hot Iron to his Eyes, and keeping him in that 
Condition about him ; designing^^® to raise his^^® Son Sultan 
Bulaki to the Throne' But Sultan Curom,^^^ who afterwards 
took the Name of Sciak Gehan, believing that he as second 
Son to Gehan Ghir, ought to be prefer’d in right before his 
Nephew ; resolv’d to leave no means unattempted to cast him 
down^®^ and raise himself, without expecting^®^ his Father’s 
Death. He conceal’d his wicked Design under the Cloak of a 
cpunterfeit Obedience, till he gain’d his Father’s good Will j 
-and when he thought himself well grounded in his Favour, 

. desir’d he would give him leave to carry his bhnd Brother into 
the Kingdom of Decan, where he was Governour ; saying, he' 
should by this means take out of his sight a displeasing Object, ' 
and his Brother would live^^® more Peaceably, The King not 
diving into Curom*s Design, consented to it ; but he having 
got the poor Prince into his Hands, contriv’d to make him- 
away^^^ in such manner, that no Man could imagine ” he had 
been so cruel as to Poison him.^®^ This done he chang’d his 
Name into that of Sciah-Gehan, that is. King of the World, 

. and raising a numerous Army, set forward to make War on 
his Father, who was justly provok’d, and the more for his Son’s 
Death. Jehanguir went gut in Person with a great Strength,^®® 
against the Wicked and Ambitious Curom ; but Age^®^ and Grief 
to see himself so much wrong’d ended his Days by the way,, 
and made it easie for the other to compass his Designs. How- 
ever Jehanguir before his Death recommended his Grandson 
Sultan Bulaki to Asuf-KaUjJ^^ Generalissimo of his Army, and. 
prime Minister of State, and to all. the great Officers, com- 
manding them when h^ was dead, to acknowledge none, for 
their true and l^wfhl Soyerei^^n but Bulaki ^ :declarin§: 



Sultan Curom a Rebel, and incapable of Succeeding in the 
Throne.^®'' Besides he made them swear and particularly Asuf- 
Kauj that they would never consent that Bulaki should be put 
to Death ; which he afterwards faithfully perform’d, but not 
to settle him on the Throne,^®^ having design’d that for Scia 
Gehan his Son in Daw. The Death of Jehan being 

known all the great Men acknowledg’d the young Sultan Bulaki 
for their King. Two of his Cousins, soon perceiving the wicked 
design of Asuf-Kan, were the cause of their own Death, and his 
loosing the Crown, by discovering the Secret to him ; because 
he being unskiU’d in the Mystery^®^ of Reigning, ask’d the 
question oi Asuf-Kan himself, who having swore he would ever 
be faithful to his King, privately contriv’d the Death of the 
two Princes. Then considering that the King having notice of 
the Conspiracy, it was dangerous to defer the Execution of it, 
and finding himself Powerful in the number of his Followers, 
he gave out that Scia Gehan was Dead,^®^ and his Body would 
be carry’d to be Bury’d at Agra, with the Bones of Jehan Guir, 
as he had desir’d before his Death. He himself brought the 
News to Bulaki, persuading him when it was to be done to go^®® 
two Deagues out of Agra to meet the Body, that Honour being 
due to a Prince of the Blood tho’ an Enemy. Scia Gehan came 
himself in disguise, and when he was in sight of the Army 
near Agra was lay’d on a Bier and- carry’d as if he were Dead. 
All the principal Conspirators came with Asuf into the Tent, 
where he was lay’d, as^^® it were to do Honour to the dead 
Prince, and when they saw the young King was come out of 
Agra, uncovering the Bier, they made Scia Gehan stand up 
in the presence of all the Army, and declaring him King with 
a loud Voice, they and all the rest by their example swore 
Fealty to him. Bulaki receiving this dismal News by the way, 
being in a consternation had no hopes of safety but in flying ; 
which was easie to be done,^®^ because his Enemies thought npt 
proper to pursue him. He wandred about India a long time, 
becoming a Fachir ;^®® but at last tir’d' with that painful' 
Employment he retir’d into Persia,^^^ where he was nobly 
receiv’d and entertain’d by Scia SofiJ'^^ Scia Gehan being left 
without any Rival, yet fearing the Factions there might be for 
the lawful King, by degrees put to death all those that were 
well affected to his Nephew ; making the first Years of his 
Reign famous^ for Cruelty. Thus his being in his Dife time 
depriv’d of his Kingdom by his Son, is to be look’d upon as a 
just Judgment of God, which the longer it is defer’d the heavier 
it falls. 

These are the Methods of securing the Throne of Indostan, 
not found out by any ill Custom of that People, but proceeding 
from the want of good Daws, concerning the Title of Birth- 
right. Therefore every Prince of' the Blood thinks he has a 




The I^mpire 
of the 

of the 

Bern, Reval. 
des estats 
du G. 

Tom. 2. 
p. 78. 

Teixeira de 
Imp. Mogtil 
$ive India 
verap. 162. 

sufficient Claim to the Crown, and exposing himself to the 
cruel necessity of Overcoming to Reign, sometimes involves 
an iniinite number of Lives in his own Ruin, that another may 
be the more securely establish’d. 



The vast Empire of the Mogul, which in the Indian 
Language signifies white, ^ contains all the Country between 
the Rivers Indus and Ganges, It borders on the East with the 
Kingdoms of Aracan, Tipa, and Assen on the West with 
Persia, and the Usheck Tartars ; on the South of it is the great 
Indian Ocean, and some Countries'** held by the Portugueses 
and other petty Kings ; and on the North it reaches to Mount 
Caucasus,"^ and the Country of Zagotay / on the North East 
of it is the Kingdom of Butan,^ whence the Musk is brought. 
So that the Length of it from Bengala to Candahor'^ is no less 
than six Months Journey, and its Breadth from North to South 
at least four. 

The first that lay’d® the Foundation of this mighty 
Monarchy was Tamerlan, otherwise call’d Teymur ; who by his 
wonderful® Conquests from India to Poland,^^ far surpass’d the 
Renown of all former Commanders. He had one Leg shorter 
than the other, and was therefore call’d the Lame ; and here we 
may take notice of his sharps® Saying to this effect, to Bajazeth}^ 
Emperor of the Turks, whom he overthrew and took Prisoner. 
Causing him to be brought into his presence the same Day, 
and looking him steadily in the Face he fell a Laughing: 
Whereat Bajazeih offended said, Do not Laugh at my ill Fortune 
Tamerlan j know that it is God who bestows Kingdoms and 
Empires, and that all that has befallen me to Day may happen 
to you to Morrow, Tamerlan without the least Concern 
answer’d, I know very well Bajazeth, that it is God who bestows 
Kingdoms and Empires, I do not Laugh at your Misfortune, 
but because considering your Countenance, I perceived that 
these Kingdoms and Empires are very inconsiderable things 
with God ; since he bestows them on such ugly Fellows as we 
are, you a squinting Clown, and I a lame Wretch, Tamerlan 
was not of mean Extraction, as some imagine, but of the Race 
of Scia guis Cham,^^ King of Tartary, He was born at 
Samarcand a Country of Zagatay, or of the Usbeck^Tartars, 
wh^e he was afterw^irds Bury’d. 

MOCUL genealogy 236 

Mirumxa}^ his Son succeeded him in the Throne ; his 
successor was his son Mahomet and Mahomet^^ Mirza Sultan 
Ahsuid}^ his Son, who was kill’d by the Persians in the Year 
1469. Mirza Sultan HameP'^ Son to him ascended the Throne 
next, and dy’d in 1495. The next^® was Hamet's Son, call’d 
Sultan Babir,^^ which signifies brave Prince, who in 1500 was Thevcnot 
Dethron’d by Kay-bek-Cham^^ an Usheck, but recover’d the Voy. des. 
Kingdom again after wandring a long time about India^ and 3 

was the first Mogul that became so very Powerful. He dy’d in 

His Son Homagion, that is, the Fortunate, succeeded him, 
who Conquer’d the best and wealthiest Kingdoms in India. 

Kirkan^'^ his General Rebell’d and forc’d him to fly to the King 
of Persia ; by whom heing assisted with 12000 Men under the 
Command of Beuran-Cham,^^ he defeated the Rebel, and 
recover’d , his Kingdom ; then dy’d in 1552.^® 

After his Death his Son Gelaladin^^ commonly call’d Akbar 
ascended the Throne. He Reign’d 54 Years, and dy’d in 1605. 
since the Birth of Christ, and 1014, of the Mahometan EpochUj 
leaving the Kingdom to his Son Sultan Selim, call’d by another 
Name Jehan-Guir-patsia/^ that is. Conquering Emperor of the 
World ; at his Death he left four Sons, Sultan Kosru, Sultan 
Kurom, Sultan Peruiz, and Scia DanieL^^ 

Sultan Kurom succeeded his Father Jehan Guir, by means 
of the ill Practices above mention’d and was acknowledg’d for 
their Sovereign by the great Men of the Kingdom in the Fort 
of Agra, by the Name of Sultan Sciabedin Muhammed but 
he would be call’d Scia-Gehan. Next to him came Aurenge- Aurenga 
Zeb ascending the Throne of Indostan, through such cruel 
Practices. He took the Name of Aurenge-Zeb-Alem-Ghire, 

That is, Lord of the World, believing he possess’d three parts 
of it. For this reason he carry’ d as his peculiar Ensign a 
Golden-Globe, and had it in his Seal ; and always tore off one 
corner of the Paper 'he wrote on, to express that the fourth part 
of the World was not his. He added to his Empire the 
Kingdoms of Visapor, and Golconda, the Kings whereof he 
kept Prisoners in my time, part of the Territory of Savagi, and 
of other petty Principalities in Indostan. 

Aurenge Zeb labour’d to gain the Reputation of being a His employ- 
strict Observer of the Mahometan Daw, and a lover of Justice, naents. 

He had so distributed his time that he could scarce ever be said 
to be Idle.®® Some Days in the Week he bath’d before break 
of Day ; then having pray’d he eat something.®® After that 
having spent two hours with his Secretaries, he gave publick 
Audience before Noon, and then pray’d again. This done he 
Din’d, and soon after gave Audience again, when follow’d the 
third and fourth time of praying. Next he was employ’d in 
the Affairs of his Family till two Hours after it was Dark. 

His change 
of Life. 



^36 INDIAN travels OF CARERI 

Then he Supp’d and slept only two Hours, after which he took 
the Alcoran and read till break of Day. This was told me 
by several Eunuchs belonging to the Court, who knowing their 
Prince was skill’d in Negromancy,^® believ’d he was assisted 
by the Devil in that Painful Course of Life ; else he could not 
have gone through so much fatigue in his decrepit old Age. 
This might serve as an Example to some Princes of Europe, 
who are so reserv’d, that they give Audience but twice a 
Week, and then will not stay a Moment to hear their Subject’s 
Grievances as if it were not their duty to listen to them with 
Patience. And -it is certain the Mogul did not feed on such 
Dainties as they do, but on Herbs and Pulse ; fasting every 
Day at those Years, tho’ made of Flesh and Blood like the 

After Aurenge 2eb had prescrib’d himself this sort of Life, 
he ceas’d to be Bloody as before, and on the contrary became 
so mild, that the Governors and Omrahs did not pay him the 
Duty they ought ; knowing his Mercy would never suffer him 
to punish them. Thus the Poor were oppress’d by the great 
Ones without knowing who to have recourse to ; because the 
King when advis’d to be less merciful towards those that 
transgress’d his Commands, Answer’d, That ‘he was no God, 
that his Ministers might not Contradict him,®® and that if they 
misbehav’d themselves. Heaven would punish them. A 
Government far different from that of Turky, and Persia, where 
the stain of Disobedience is wash’d away with Blood. Those 
that saw but into®^ the outside, said, Aurenge Zeb was a great 
Mahometan Saint,®® who after his Death must be put into the 
Martyxology of their false Sect. But I am of opinion he conniv’d 
at the failings of his Ministers, and Omrahs, that they might 
love the present Government, under which they were suffer’d 
to Act as they pleas’d, and consequently there might be .no 
way for any of his Sons, to usurp the Throne. 

On the other side, to speak the Truth, he did not give 
himself up in his Youth to sensual Pleasures, as his Predecessors 
had done ; tho’ according to their barbarous Custom, he kept 
several hundred Women®® in the Aram, for ostentation. To 
this purpose they tell us,®^ that he having pitch’d upon®® a 
Woman in the Aram to lye with him that Night, she dress’d her 
self the best she could to receive that Honour. The King 
coming at the appointed hour into her -Chamber, instead of 
going to bed, fell a reading the Alcoran all Night. The Eunuch 
coming in the Morning to tell him ithe Bath was ready, as is 
us’d by®® the Mahometans after they have had to do with 
Women ; the Woman who had been disappointed cry’d out, 
there was no need of a Bath, because the King had not broke 
Wind ; to signify, he had been at Prayers, which if interrupted 
by Wind, the Mahometms are ito Bath,^® The King hearing 

Mogul genealogy 

her went away asham’d, the Lady telling him that was no 
Room to pray in ; and he never after lodk^d her in the Face/^ 

The Kings of Indostan are at a vast Charge in maintaining so 
many Women ; for they have many Thousands and thousands^^ 
of Roupies a Year out of the Treasury ; some of the best 
belov’d even to a Million and a half, which they spend in 
maintaining abundance of Elephants, Horses and Servants. 

Besides Aurenge Zeh^s abstinence, after so many horrid He work'd 
crimes committed, his Table was not maintain'd out of the 
Revenue of the Crown ; he said that Food was not good,^^ * 
which cost the swejat of the Subjects, but that every Man ought 
to work for his living. For this Reason he work'd Caps, and 
presented them to the Governors of his Kingdoms and Pro- 
vinces ; who in return for the Honour done them, sent him a 
Present of several Thousands of Roupies. When I was there, 
his decrepit Age rendring him inable to work, he had reserv'd 
the Revenues of four Towns for his Table. His expence was 
but small, for a Vest of his did not cost above 8 Roupies, and 
the Sash and Cira or Cap, less. 

The Great Mogul's usual place of Residence is at Agra, 
and sometimes at Dehli, and Lahor, in which Cities the Ehng 
is always guarded by an Omrah, with a Body of 20000 Horse, 
who incamp about those Cities, and this Guard is reliev'd every 
eight days. But when Aurenge Zeh who kept alwas in the 
Field, was to decamp from any place, where he lay with his 
Army, a Tent was carry'd before by a -hundred and twenty 
Elephants, 1400 Camels, and 400 small Carts, to be set up 
where he was to go, and several thousands of Horse and Foot, 
went with 70 Elephants to secure the Ground to incamp on. 

Eight other Elephants carry’d eight Chairs, more like Biers, 
wrought with Gold and Silver, or Gilt Wood, and clos'd^^ with 
Cristal. There were three others^® carry'd by -8 Men each, in 
one of which the King went, when he did not Mount an 
Elephant, especially if it rain'd, or the Way was dusty. All 
the great Men attended him afoot ; but when they went out of 
Town, and the Journey was long ; he us'd to command them 
to Mount a Horseback. 

Aurenge Zeb got several Children. His eldest Son, {as His 
, we . said elsewhere) was Mahmud, who following the Example Children, 
of his Predecessors, in aiming at the Crown before his Fathers ® 

•death, proceeded so openly, towards taking away his life, that 
he thought good to prevent him ; and accordingly caus'd him 
to be Poison’d one day,^^ when he went a Hunting ; and mis- 
^trusting he was not really dead,^^ when he was brought to the 
Palace, he cruelly caus'd a red hot Iron to be run in from the 
sole oi his Foot to his Knee. 

Scialam ‘the 2d Son, by the death of Mahmud, had bhe The 2d. 
right of Eldest, and with it entertain'd the same Thoughts, -the 



The 3d, 

The 4th. 

Other had done, of destroying his Father. To this purpose 
he once caus’d a great Trench to be dug near Aurenge Zeh’s 
Tent, that he might fall into it, as he pass’d by ; but he being 
told of it by an Eunuch, escap’d death ; and put the wicked 
Scialam into a dark Prison,^® where he continu’d six Years, 
tho’ 60 Years of Age, till a few Days before I came into the 

Azam-scia^^ third Son to Aurenge Zeh, play’d his part in 
Plotting against his Father, with the King of Visapor his 
Kinsman, before he was taken, and^*^ lost his Kingdom ; so 
natural is it to this Race to hate their Father. He is now about 
55 Years of Age.®^ 

The 4th Son is call’d Akbar/^ now 45 Years of Age, more 
ambitious than all the rest ; for being sent by his Father in 
the Year 1680, with an Army of 30000 Men to make War on 
the Ragia Lisonte/^ who borders on the Kingdom of Asmire, 
belonging to the Mogul ; instead of subduing him, he suffered 
himself to be persuaded by that Idolater, and by his own 
Ambition, to turn his Arms against his own Father. Having 
thus join’d his Forces with those of Ragia against Aurenge Zeh, 
who could never have believ’d it, and making a Body of 70000 
Horse, and a competent number of Foot, most of them 
Ragipurs,^^ he came into Asmire, where his Father was. Here 
whilst he rested his Army much fatigu’d with the long March, 
the Crafty Old Man having no sufiSicient Force to oppose him, 
had recourse to Stratagem. He therefore sent a Confident of 
his into the Enemies Camp, with a Tetter directed to his Son ; 
in which he commended his extraordinary wise Conduct in 
drawing the Idolaters to that place, to be all cut off, as had 
been agreed ; and that he would advance the next day, to put 
it in Execution. The Eunuch had orders to behave himself so 
that the Enemy growing jealous, might secure him, and inter- 
cepting the Tetter rely no more on Akbar. It fell out 
accordingly ; and tho’ he swore upon the Alcoran, that it was 
an invention of his Fathers to distract them, the chiefs of the 
Gentils would never believe him. These jealousies kept them 
so long employ’d, that Aurenge Zeb, as he had expected, 
gain’d time to call his 2d Son to his defence with a powerful 
Army, who being come up, he defeated the Raja and Akbar, 
He putting himself with 4000 Horse under the Protection of 
Samba,^^ a Pagan Roicolet.®’^ Aurenge Zeb made War so 
furiously on the said Samba, that he at last took him Prisoner, 
and caus’d his Head to be cut off, for having utter’d some 
indecent expressions in his presence. This Man’s ruin was 
caus’d by Drunkenness ; for as he was drinking in his Tent 
with his Women-dancers, being told by the advanc’d Guards 
that the MoguVs Army was advancing, instead of going to 
Arms, he caus’d their Heads to be cut off ; saying, they®® 



would not dare to come, where he was ; the same he did by a 
second Centinel. His Son/® whose Head was not so full of 
Wine, sav’d himself with a 1000 Horse, leaving his Father 
behind, who was carry’d away Prisoner, and not long after 
to his Grave. 

Akbar escaping this Storm®® went to Goa^ where the 
Portugueses furnish’d him with Ships to go over to Ormus, 
There he was nobly receiv’d by the Cham, and afterwards by 
Order of Scia-Selemon,^^ then King of Persia, attended by 
many Troops of Souldiers to the Court of Ispahan ; where he 
was courteously entertain’d, and had an allowance to maintain 
him suitable to his Quality ; as I observ’d in the 2d Part.®^ 
The Old Man fearing this Son’s Valour, us’d several Arts®^ to 
draw him out of Persia, but with small hopes of Success, 
because Akbar was not so weak as to be ensnar’d by his Father. 
Whilst I was at Ispahan, some Eunuchs told me, they were 
sent by a certain Omrah, who Govern’d on the Borders of 
Candahor, with a Present of several thousand Roupies to this 
Prince, which he would not accept, and therefore they were 
going back with the Mony. They ojBFer’d to carry me into 
India by Eand, but I refus’d their kindness. I was afterwards 
inform’d by others, that this was a contrivance®^ of Aurenge 
Zeb, who had order’d the Omrah, of whom Akbar had desir’d 
to borrow some thousand Roupies, to make him a Present of 
them, and to endeavour by fair means to draw him into India : 
which Akbar understanding by means of his Sister, he refus’d 
the Present. Aurenge Zeb took many Towns from Savagi for 
having assisted this Prince ; and continuing the War, had 
besieg’d him in his Court of Gingi.^^ The City is seated 
between 7 Mountains, each of which has a Fort on the top, and 
can be reliev’d by ways unknown to the Moguls, so that they 
lay before them to no purpose with 30000 Horse and as many 
Foot. I have not bear’d since I left the Country, what was 
the event of the Siege, which had then lasted seven Years. 

Aurenge Zeb’s youngest Son is Sikandar^^ now about 30 
* Years of Age, and infected like the rest, with the contagious 
Distemper of Ambition. Therefore the Old Man, tho’ after 
subduing the Kings of Visapor, and Golconda, he had no 
Enemies left, but Savagi, who is inconsiderable in regard of 
him ; yet fearing with much reason the perverse Inclination of 
his Sons, he had continu’d in Arms in the Field for 15 Years ; 
and particularly four Years at Galgala, after defeating Akbar. 
He said his Father Sciah-Gehan had not so much discretion ,“ 
for he might have learnt by many years Experience, that the 
Kings of Indosian when they grow Old, must keep at the head 
of Powerful Armies, to defend themselves against their Sons, 
Yet I am of Opinion that notwithstanding all his precautions, 

will 9ome to no better than his Predecessors, AH I have 



4 Secretaries 
of State. 

of business. 




hitherto said Goncerning the intestine Wars between the Moguls 
was told me and affirm’d by several Souldiers in the Camp, who 
had been Eye-witnesses, and some gather’d out of creditable 



For the better management of Publick Affairs, and due 
Administration of Justice, the King keeps four Secretaries of 
State, who are to acquaint him with all that happens in the 
Empire, and to receive his Orders.^ The first of them is call’d 
Bagscij^ and has the Charge of Warlike affairs, and looks that 
the Souldiers be pay’d, punish’d, and rewarded, as also that 
the Omrahs keep their full complement of Men. The 2d is 
call’d Adelet/ who takes care that Justice be administered, 
both in Civil and Criminal cases, giving the King an account 
what Ministers behave themselves well, and what ill.^ The 
3d they call Divan/ and to him it belongs to divide the Jagors^ 
or Feofs among the Omrahs, Subas, and other Commanders ; 
and to see they do not oppress the Inhabitants of the places 
committed to them with too heavy^ Impositions. The 4th is 
known by the name of Cdnsamon who is a Treasurer 
General,® that causes all the Revenues of the Empire to be 
brought into the Treasury, and every Week, lays before the 
King what every Province is worth, and what it yields, and 
what Mony remains in the King’s Coffers. 

There are particular days appointed for these Secretaries 
to inform the King because a private Audience would not 
suffice for such multiplicity of business. Monday, therefore is 
lay’d aside for the Affairs of Lahor, Dekli and Agra ; Tuesday 
for Cabul ; Wednesday, for the Kingdoms of Bengala and 
Patna ; Thursday for that of' Guzaratte ; Saturday for that of 
Brampour ; and Sunday for Decan ; no business being done on 
Friday, because it is the Mahometan Festivall 

A'urenge Zeh notwithstanding his continual application to 
these private Audiences with his Ministers, yet never fail’d of 
the. Publick, except on Fridays, for the good of the Subjects ; 
and' this sometimes he did in three several places, one call’d 
Divanocas,^^ die other Gosahcana,^'^ and the 3d Adalet/^ 

The Great- Magul is so absolute, that there being no 
written Taws, his Will in all things, is a Eaw, and the last 
decision of all. Causes, both Civil and Criminal. He makes a 
Tyrannical use of this absolute Bower. ; for being Eord of all 
the Eand, the Princes themselves have no certain^ place of 



aboad, the King altering it at Pleasure ; and the same with the 
poor Peasants who have sometimes the Land they have culti- 
vated taken from them, and that which is untilPd given them 
in lieu of it ; besides that they are oblig’d every year to give 
the King three parts of the Crop/® He never admits any 
Body into his Presence, empty handed’; and sometimes refuses 
admittance to draw a greater Present. For this reason the 
Omrahs and Nabahs appointed to govern the Provinces, 
oppress the People in the most miser able^^ manner imaginable. 



An infinite quantity of Roupies, is continually flowing mto' MoguV^ 
the Great MoguVs Exchequer ; for besides the usual Taxes 
and excessive Imposts, the Subjects must pay for their Land, 
which is all his. Besides when a General, or any other Person 
who has receiv’d the King’s Pay dyes ; all his Goods fall to 
the King, without leaving the Children so much as a mainte- 
nance ; a Custom Awenge Zeh condemn’d, when he spoke of 
his Father, and yet all employments both Civil and Military 
are sold. For this reason no Family can continue long great ; 
but sometimes the Son of an Omrah goes a begging. Add to 
all this, that tho’ in so vast an Empire, there be some Barren 
Lands, yet there are some Kingdoms wonderfuP Fruitful, as 
is that of Bengaldj^^ which exceeds Egypt} not only in Plenty 
of Rice, Corn, Sugar, and all other, necessaries for the support 
of Humane Life ; but in the richest Commodities, as Silk, 

Cotton, Indigo and the like. Besides the Country is so 
Populous, that the Handicrafts,® tho’ naturally given to sloath, 
are forc’d either by necessity or choice, to apply themselves to 
work on Carpets, Brocades, Embroidery, Cloth of Gold and 
Silver, and all sorts of Manufactures in Silk and Cotton, 
generally worn there ; besides those transported every Year, 
by an infinite number of Ships, not only into other Parts of 
Asia, but into A f rick and Europe. 

That the Reader may form some Idea of the Wealth of this Gold md 
Empire, he is to observe that all the Gold and Silver, which 
circulates throughout the World, at last Centers® here. It is this Bmpire. 
well known that as much of it as comes out of America, after 
running through several Kingdoms of Europe, goes partly into 
Turky, for several sorts of Commodities ; and part into Persia, 
by the way of Smirna^ for Silk. Now the Turks not being able 
to abstain from Coffee^ which comes firom H^eman^^ and Arabic^ 


yoy. des, 
J^zd» c» 3< 
p, 12. De. 
Imp. Mog. 
sive India 
•vera. p. 142. 

us’d by the 


Foelix ; nor Persia, Arahtaj and the Turks themselves to go 
without the Commodities of India, send® vast quantities of 
Mony to Mofea^ on the Red Sea, near Babel Mandel to 
Bassora at the bottom of the Persian Gulgh ; and to Bander 
Abassi and Gomeron, which is afterwards sent over in Ships 
to Indostan. Besides the Indian, Dutch, English, and 
Portuguese Ships, that every Year carry the Commodities of 
Indostan, to Pogu, Tanasserri, Siam, Ceylon, Achem,^ 
Macassar, the Maidive Islands, Mozambique and other Places, 
must of necessity convey much Gold and Silver thither,^® from 
those Countries. All that the Dutch fetch from the Mines in 
Japan, sooner or later, goes to Indostan ; and the goods carry’ d 
hence into Europe, whether to France, England, or Portugal, 
are all purchas’d for ready Mony, which remains there. 

I was told that the Mogul receives from only his Heredi- 
tary Countries, eighty. Carores^^ of Roupies^^ a Year (every 
Carore is ten Millions) they could give me no certain account 
what the Conquer’d Kingdoms yi’eld. 

There is an Author,^* not well acquainted with this Affair, 
who reduces this Monarch’s Revenue to 330 Millions ; 
Another^^ on the other side makes it infinite, and that alone 
which he says is in the Treasury, seems Fabulous. But they 
that will judge of it, by his expences must consider that the 
Mogul has dispers’d throughout his Empire 300000 Horse, and 
400000 Foot, who have all great Pay.^® At Court the daily 
expence is 50000 Roupies, to maintain the Elephants, Horses, 
Dogs, Hawks, Tigers, and Deer ; as also some hundreds of 
black and white Eunuchs to look to the Royal Palaces, Musi- 
tians, and Dancers. I am therefore of Opinion, that next to 
the Emperor of China, no Monarch in the World is equal to 
the Great Mogul in strength and Riches. 



The Arms offensive of the Moguls are broad heavy Swords,^ 
bow’d^ like Scimitars ; and those made in the Country, being 
apt to break, the English furnish them with such as are made 
in Europe, ill shap’d Daggers, which they always wear hanging 
to their Girdle ; Bows and Arrows, Javelins, Pistols, Muskets ; 
and Pikes 12 Foot long, for the Foot ; but most of the Souldiers 
have Bows and Arrows. They hav^ al^p Qaunou In fhw 
Cities^ and Armi^s^. 


Their Arms defensive,^ are a round Buckler two foot Arms 
Diameter, made of black Hides of wild Buffalos ; with many defensive. 
Nails with large heads to ward off Arrows or Swords ; Coats of 
Mail, Breast-Plates, Head-pieces,^ and covering for their Arms 
down to their Wrists. 

As for the Souldiers pay, the Mogul manages it after a Souldiers 
different manner than all other Princes in the World ; for he pay’d, 
pays them not himself, but gives the Omrahs Jaghirs, that is. 

Tenures of Lands® to maintain a certain number, as was said 
elsewhere, and this even to the Princes of the Blood. 

The Omrahs are divided into Hazariis,^ Cuhzariis, PangeSj Degrees of 
HechetSj Deh-Hazariis^ and Duazdehazariis/ of which last sort Omrahs. 
the King's Eldest Son was. Their pay is proportionable to 
the number of Horse they keep ; besides which the King 
allows them a Pension for their own use. But they always 
cheat the Souldiers of part of their Pay, and by that means grow 
vastly rich ; especially if they happen to have a good Jaghir. 

Some are oblig'd to keep 500 Horse, and have about 5000 
Neapolitan Crowns Revenue a Month. 'Tis true they spend 
all they get in Presents they are forc'd to make the King every 
year, upon certain Festivals, every Man according to his condi- 
tion ; and in keeping so many Women, Servants, Camels, and 
Horses of great value. 

The Number of Omrahs throughout the Empire, is not Their 
settled, but they are generally under 40. They are prefer'd to 
the greatest Governments, and chief Posts at Court^ and in the ^ 
Army ; and therefore are, as they themselves say, the Pillars of 
the Empire, They appear abroad with noble Equipages ; some 
on Elephants, others a Horseback, or on Palankines, attended 
by a considerable number of Horse, and by the Guards of their 
Palaces ; as also by abundance of Servants, some of whom go 
before to clear the way, others drive away the Flies, or keep 
off the Dust with Peacocks tails, others carry Water to drink, 
and other things. All that reside at Court, are oblig'd to go 
twice a day to pay their respects to the King ; that is, at ten 
in the Morning, and about Sun sent, in the place where he 
administers Justice ; or else they lose part of their Pay. They 
are also to Mount the Guard once a Week for 24 Hours ; and 
that day the King sends them their Meat, which they receive- 
with much respect, doing the Tasliw? three times, that is, an 
obeysance after their manner towards the Royal apartment, 
laying their right Hand on the Ground, and then on their Head. 

They are also oblig’d to attend the King at all times, as was 
said above. 

The Mansebdars are Gentlemen, or Horse,® who have very Mansebdars. 
honourable Pay, and is call'd Man$eh,^° but less than the 
Omrahs. They are much respected in the Camp, because they 



Wie Foot, 



may easily rise to tlie degree of Omrahs, and own no sttperiour 
but the King-. They differ from the others in this particular 
that they are not obliged to maintain above 4, or 5 Horse. As 
for their Pay they have 150 Roupies a Month, and sometimes 
700, but instead of having them in ready Mony, they are 
forc’d to take the old Furniture of the King’s House, at ex- 
cessive Rates. There is pio fix’d number of them,“ but they 
are more than the Omrahs ; there being 2, or 300 of them very 
often at Court, besides those in the Provinces, and Armies. 

The 3rd degree is of the RowzinderSj'^^ who are also Horse, 
but paid by the day, as their Name imports. Their Pay is not 
inferior to that of the Mansebdarsj but the Post is not so honour- 
able. The number of them is very great, and many of them 
are Clerks and under Clerks. 

The light Horse are subject to the Omrahs, and those are 
counted the best, who have two Horses, branded with their 
Omrahs mark on the Reg. Their pay is not fix’d, and depends 
on the generosity of the Omrah, but they stand^® the Mogul in 
at least 25 Roupies a Month, considering the Revenues he assigns 
for their maintenance. 

The Foot and Musketiers are in a miserable condition, some 
of them having 20, some 15, and others ten Roupies a Month. 
They carry their Rest ty’d to^® the Musket, which they make 
but ill use of, for fear of burning their great Beard. The 
Artillery is divided into two sorts, the heavy Cannon, and the 
light, as they call it. The heavy consists of between 60 and 70 
Guns, without reckoning 300 Field-pieces, fix’d on Camels, 
as Pedreroes are on our Backs. The other, 50 or 60 small 
Brass^® Guns, which are the 2d sort, are on Carriages, with 
little red Banners, each drawn by two Horses ; a third being 
led by,®® to rest sometimes the one, and sometimes the other* 
Tho’ the heavy Cannon cannot always follow the King, who 
sometimes goes out of the Road, to hunt, or take some other 
diversion, the light always does and when he is near the 
place appointed to Incamp, it is fir’d, that the Army may know 
he is arriv’d. All this Artillery, especially the heavy, is under 
the direction of Franks, or Christian Gunners, who have extra- 
ordinary pay ; especially the Portuguese, English, Dutch 
Germans, and French, who go from Goa, or run away from 
aboard Ships. Some of them formerly had 200 Roupies a 
Month but now the Moguls have learnt somewhat of the Art 
they have less.®® There is a General of the Artillery whose 
Pay is a Million a year, out of which he is to keep 200 Men. 

Besides the Mogul Souldiers, there are the Strangers, 
hir’d of the Rajas, who serve the Mogul for very great Pay, 
bringing with them a certain number of Rajapurs, and doing 
the same i)uty as the Omrahs do ; but with this difference, that 
they w;iU not -keep Guard in Forts, but in. their own Tents, that 



they may not be shut up 24 hours. The keeps them. in 

his pay, as also the Patens, because they ate Men of Courage ; 
and there are Rajas that can raise 20000 Horse^® upon occasion ; 
as also to sow Discord and Jealousies among them, by favouring 
one more than another, and by that means be the safer from 
their contrivances,^^ and from the others who are not in his 

The Souldiers of the Country diJBFer neither in OfiSces nor Country 
Discipline from that already mention’d, but that they never 
follow the King ; but every Kingdom keeps its own to secure 
the Frontiers against Strangers, as the. Persians, Oganis,^^ 

Baluccis and others. 

All Souldiers whatsoever®® receive their Pay duly every 2 Forces duly 
Months from the King’s Treasurer, except those that are pay’d 
by the Omrahs, as was said before. Nor is there any Danger 
their Pay should be kept from them ; for all People here living 
either by their Industry, or by serving the King (for want of 
private Revenues)®^ if they were not well®® paid, they must 
either starve, or Mutiny. And to say the Truth, the greatest 
wonder in that Country is to see so many thousands live on the 
King’s Pay. It is not so in Europe, for sometimes Souldiers 
have something of their own ; or when they want®® Pay live 
upon others. 

The number of Troops they* said the Mogul kept when I 
was there mounted to®® 300000 Horse and 400000 Foot. Part 
of these were®^ in the Camp at Galgala ; 60000 Horse and Foot 
at the Siege o£ Gingi. The third Camp was of®® 7000 Horse 
and 10000 Foot ; the 4th of®® 12000 Horse, commanded at 
Pernala^^ by Azam-Scia^s Son the King’s Grandson, and the 
rest were distributed about the Frontiers and -in Garrisons.®® 



There are two Principal Festivals, kept in the Court of the The MoguVs 
Great Mogul, the one call’d Barsgant,^ the other Tol? Birth day. 

first is. on the King’s Birth day, or those of the Princes of the 
Blood, because Bars in the Country Language signifies Year, 
and Gant a Knot, and those People every Year make a knot 
in a Cord, they® either wear about them or keep at home, to 
know their Age. This Solemnity is kept with great Pomp,, 
all the great Ones coming to wish the King many Happy years 
with Presents of Mony and Jewels. Sciah Gehan was mightily 
pl^ais’d they should present him with Gold Vessels set with 

iNblAM travels of CARERi 

Taver. Voy. 
des hides 
I, 2. c. 8. 

The Festi- 
val call’d 

of the 

Jewels, to hold sweet Waters,^ which he plac’d in the Chamber 
that serv’d for his lend Practices. It was set out with Looking 
Glasses® adorn’d with precious Stones, and all the Roof spark- 
ling with Diamonds. That Day the Mogul sits on the famous 
Throne begun by Tcli/tiotIclu and finish’d by Sciah Gohan, It 
is all over set with Diamonds, Emerauds, Rubies, Pearls and 
Saphires ; especially the Pearls on the twelve little Pillars, 
which close the three sides, are beyond all that can be imagin’d.® 
Then the Roof of it and all other Parts is so orderly^ enrich’d 
with jewels of inestimable Value, all found within the Empire, 
that some make the Value of it to rise to fifty Millions, but in 
reality it is not to be Valu’d.® 

The second Festival is that of Tol, which in that Language 
signifies Weight. Some suppose it to be so call’d because the 
King weighs himself in a pair of Scales, to see whether he is 
grown Fatter, but having ask’d the question in the Camp of 
several credible Persons, and particularly of Christians born 
at Agra and DeKli, who had serv’d there many Years, they told 
me it was a meer Romance f for not only Aurenge Zeb, but 
none of his Predecessors ever weigh’d themselves.^® ’Tis true 
this Festival is kept in the King’s House ; but they weigh 
Mony, Jewels, and other Things of value presented by the great 
Men and Favourites, which are afterwards distributed among 
the Poor with great Solemnity. It is done some Days after the 
Barsgant, either sooner, or later, as the King thinks fit. 

The Indians are well shap’d, it being rare to find any of 
them crooked,^^ and for Stature like the Europeans. They have 
black Hair, but not Curl’d, and their Skin is of an Olive Colour ; 
and they do not love White, saying it is the Colour of Leprousie. 
They wash often, anointing themselves after it with rich Oyls 
and Oyntments. They live in low Houses, with Trees about 
them, so that their Cities at a distance look like Woods. 
There are no Inns for Travellers among them as was said at 
first but in the Cities and great Towns they have some 
Places call’d Sarays, where Strangers may have Houseroom. 
They use Carts to travel in (which are shut when there are 
Women in them,) drawn by Oxen, and Asses when the Journey 
is short. The great Men and those that are well to pass^^ are 
carry’d upon Elephants,- or in Palankines. There is none of 
them but endeavours the best he can to go to Mecca, to become 
a Hag{^^ or Saint, They delight very much in Hunting, and 
make^® use of Dogs and tame Leopards. They take Water 
FouP’^ after this manner. They go into the Water up to the 
Chin, covering their Faces with Birds of the same , sort they 
would take, artificially made ; Then the Bird coming near his 
likeness they draw him down by the Legs and stifle him. The 
Chineses and Mexicans do the same, as shall be said in its Place. 
Being excellent Archers they shoot Birds flying, with Arrows,: 



The Mahometans o£ IndostaUj tho’* barbarous in other Res- Their Dis- 
pects, are not so Deceitful, so Proud, or such Enemies to position. 
Christians, as the Turks ; and a Christian may therefore keep 
them company with safety. The Pagans are still more just to 
Travellers, As for Courage neither Mahometans nor Gentils 
have much of it. The best of them are the Baluccis Borderers 
on Persia^ the Patans of the Kingdom of Bengala, and the 
Rashootis^^ very great Thieves. 

The languages spoken at Court are the Arabian and the Language . 
Persian, As for Sciences they can make no progress in them Learn- 
for want of Books ; for they have none but some small manus- 
cript Works of Aristotle and Avicenne^^ in Arabick. They hold 
Astrology in great account, in so much that the King. under- 
takes nothing without the advice of his Astrologers. In Physick 
they have but small skill, and cure several Disenses by Fasting. 

They also delight in Musick,. for which they have^° several 
sorts of Instruments. 

They spend all they have in Luxury keeping a vast number 
of Servants, but above all of Concubines. These being many 
every one of them strives to be belov’d above the rest, using 
all manner of Allurements,^^ Perfumes and sweet Oyntments. 
Sometimes to heighten their Masters Lusts they give him Com- 
positions of Pearl, Gold, Opium and Amber ; or else much 
Wine that he may require Company in Bed. Then some drive 
away the Flies, others rub his Hands and Feet, others Dance, 
others play on Musick, and others do other things ; and hence 
it is that for the most part they take the lawful Wifes place ; 
who sitting near her Husband modestly winks at this Affront, 
till she has an opportunity to revenge herself. These Women 
are committed to the custody of Eunuchs, but it is delivering 
up the Sheep to the Wolves ; so lascivious are the Women. 

And yet they are excusable, because the Husbands,, tho^ they 
be Peasants, lye apart from their Wives, and only call them 
•when they have occasion. 

The great Men have noble Structures, with several Courts, 
and the Tops of the Houses flat to take the Air, and Fountains 
with Carpets about them to sit and receive Visits from their 
Friends. Inferiors salute laying their Hand on their Head, but 
Equals only bow their Body. In their Discourse they are 
modest and civil ; not using so many actions with their Hands, 
nor talking so loud as some Europeans do. The Table is spread 
on the Ground without Napkins or Table-Cloth ; nor do they 
Drink till they have done Eating. Their greatest delight is to 
chew Betle all Day, 

The Vests both of Men' and Women are narrow towards Habit, 
the Waste, and hang down half way the Leg ; under them they 
wear long Breeches down to their Ankles, so that they serve 
Sox ^toQkins. Th^ Eoof remains bare, mth a sort of flat Shopes, 









like our Slippers ; which are easily slipt off when they go into 
Rooms, to keep them clean, they being cover’d with Carpets. 
They wrap a very fine piece of Muslin or Calico about their 
Head, and never uncover it to do Reverence to Superiors, but 
bow their Body, putting their right Hand on the Ground and 
then on the Head, as if they said they submitted themselves 
to be trampled on by them. They generally wear the Vest 
and Turbant of Cotton, but the. Sash is of Silk and Gold. 

The Mahometan Women do not appear in publick, except 
only the vulgar Sort, and the lend Ones, They cover their 
Heads, but the Hair hangs down behind in several Tresses. 
Many of them bore their Noses to wear a Gold Ring set with 

The Mahometan Indians Marry very Young, but the 
Idolaters at all Ages. These last may not have several Wives 
at once like the Mahometans ; but when the first is Dead may 
take another, provided she be a Maid, and of the same Race, 
or Tribe. The Ceremony is thus. If they be Persons of Quality 
they make the Cavalcade at Night with Tights, abundance of 
People go before making a displeasing Concert with several 
Instruments, as Pipes, Kettle-Drums as long as a Barrel, and 
Copper-Plates, which they beat.^^ Then follow abundance of 
Children a Horseback, next to whom comes the Bridegroom, 
well Clad and Mounted, with several Banians about him, with 
their Vests and Cwas^^ dy’d in Zafran,^"^ and other Persons 
carrying Umbrellos, and Banners ; and having taken a round 
about the City goes to the Brides-House. Here a Brachman 
having said some Prayers over them both, puts a Cloth between 
the Husband and Wife, and orders the Husband with his bare 
Foot to touch the Wifes,®^ and then the Wife the Husbands, 
which done the Marriage is concluded. When the Woman is 
carry’d home, the Goods go before, being for the most part Stuffs 
of several Colours, and. a Cradle for the Child that is to be got 
all this with the noise of several Instruments. Rich People make 
a Hut before their Houses, covered both inside and outside with 
Stuffs and Carpets, to entertain their Guests under Shelter. 
Sometimes they, treat them for eight Days together. 

All the Women are Fruitful, which is caus’d by the Air 
and Provisions, and are so easily deliver’d; that some of them 
go wash*® in the River the same Day. They bring up their 
Children naked till seven Years of Age, nor do they take much 
care to teach them to go,** but let them tumble about the Ground 
as much as they will, as soon®® as they are Born. 

In Malahar the Women (even those that. are -of Quality and 
Kings Sisters) have the liberty, to choose a Man to lye with them. 
When a Naire^^ or Geniil is in a Tadies Chamber, he leaves his 
Staff or his Sword at the Door, that others who would go in 
see the PJave i^ taken up ; and no Man has the boldness 



to disturb him. Thus there being no possibility of knowing Thcv. Voy. 
who is the Father of the Child that is born into the World, the 
Succession is ordered after another manner ; that is, when one * * 
dies his Sisters Childten Inherit, because there can be no doubt 
made of the Kindred, 

When a Man or Woman has committed such a Crime as to Pnnish- 
be expelled their Tribe ; as if a Woman had lain with a inent. 
Mahometan, she must live for a certain time only upon Corn 
found in the Cows Dung, if she wilF^ be received again. 

As to the manner of Burying, the most usual is to wash Burials, 
the Body first in a Fiver, or Pool ; then burn it in a neigh- 
bouring Paged, and throw the Ashes into the same Water. In 
some Places they leave them by the River side. The manner 
of carrying them is also different, according to the Fashions of 
each Country. In some the Body well Clad, and sitting is 
carry'd with Drums beating, and a long Train of Kindred and 
Friends and after being wash'd is encompass'd with Wood. 

The Wife who has been that while^^- near the Body singing, and 
expressing a desire to Die, is afterwards bound by a Brachman 
near the dead Body and burnt with it ; the Friends pouring 
OyF^ on them that they might consume the faster. 

In other Places the Bodies are carry'd covered on a Bier to 
the River side ; and after they have been wash'd they are put 
into a Hut full of sweet Wood, if the dead Person has left 
Mony to defray the charge ; then the Woman that is to be burnt, 
takes leave of her Kindred and Friends, showing a contempt 
of Death, and sits down in the Hut, bearing up her Husband on 
her Knees, Then recommending herself to the Prayers of the 
Brachmans, desires them to set Fire speedity. A Barbarous 
Inhumanity ! And yet they make a scruple of killing Flies and 

In other Places they fill wide deep Trenches with combustible 
Matter, where laying the Husbands Body the Brachmans cast 
in the Woman, after they have Sung and Danc'd. Sometimes 
there are maiden Slaves, that throw themselves in after their 
Master to show the. love they bear Mm, then the Ashes are 
cast into the River, 

There are other Places where . they Bury the' Husband's 
Bodies with the Tegs across ; they put the Woman into the same 
Grave, and when they have covered them up to the Neck® the 
Brachmans come and strangle her. Those wretched Women that 
refuse to be Burnt, are®^ to shave their Heads, and remain 
Widows all their Dives ; are despis'd by their Family and 
Trib^, becau&e they have fear'd Death, and can never recover 
th^ir Reputation, whatsoever good Actions they do, unless some 
young Woman ci singular Beauty should happen to get a second 
Hu^and. y^t there aomc that transgress the Daws of 





Heats and 

Clear Air. 


Widowhood ; and because their Kindred expell them,-’® they 
have recourse to the Mahometans or Christians, forsaking their 
own Religion. In short the Gentils make the Widows Honour 
consist in being Burnt wth the Bodies of their Husbands, and 
if they be ask’d the Reason they can alledge none but antient 

Since the Mahometans are become Sovereigns of India they 
do not easily consent to this Inhumanity/® which the Brachmans 
would have held up for their own Interest ; for as was said 
above, they who alone may touch the Ashes, carry off all the 
Gold and Silver the wretched Woman had about her. The 
great Mogul^^ and other Princes have commanded the Governours 
of their Towns to hinder^’- the Practice of this Abuse, but they 
do not so strictly observe it,^® provided they have considerable 
Presents made them, and thus the difficulty they find in getting 
the leave saves many Women the Dishonour, 

The Mourning us’d^^ by the Gentils is Shaving their Beard 
and Head, when any Kindred within the third degree Dye. The 
Women break their Glass and Ivory Bracelets they wear on their 
Arms, as they also do at their King’s Death. Having before 
spoke of^^ the Mahometan Ceremonies it is needless to repeat 
it in this Place. 



Generally throughout all Indostan the Heat is Excessive*, 
except near the Mountains. We Europeans fare ill there because 
of the Seasons differing from ours ; because their Winter begins 
in June and ends in September ; tho’ there falls less Rain than 
at Goa. Before and after Winter there are dreadful Storms and 
Hurricans, three Months from the North and three from the 
South, ^ so that there is no Sailing^ about India but^ six months 
in the Year, 

Between Surdite and Agra the Metropolis of* the MoguVs 
Dominions, it only Rains at one certain time of the Year, that 
is, during those three Months the Sun is about the Tropick of 
Cancer ; the other nine Montlis the Sky is so clear, that there 
is scarce a Cloud^ to be seen above the Horizon. 

Having spoke of the Fruit whe*a I was at Goa, there is 
no need of adding any more. Indostan^ abounds in Rice, ex- 
cellent Wheat, and all sorts of Grain,® vast Flocks and Herds 
of Cattle, Butter and Cheese^ Th^r^: being np Grapes^ the 



is brought out of Arabia and Persia ; or is made in the Country 
of Raisins, which being also brought from abroad, they steeps 
and boil in Water. The common Drink of the Country is dis- 
tilled Sura, but not very wholesome. 

The Flowers are very fragrant, and much better Coloured Flowers 
than any in Europe. There are many Simples,® which they Herbs. 
„ carry into Europe for Physical Uses, which I do not describe, 
because I will not Treat of what others have given an Accoxmt 

As for Metals the MoguVs Country affords none but Copper, Metals. 
Iron, and Tead, but the want of others is abundantly made 
amends for by the rich Mines of Diamonds and other precious 
'Stones. The best is that in the Kingdom of Golconda, seven 
Days Journey East of Agra, which the Natives call Gani, and the Diamond 
Persians Cular.^ It is in a Plain five Miles in Compass, between Mines, 
a Village and some Mountains, which produce nothing at all. 

They , say it was discover’d 140 Years since after this manner. 

A Peasant sowing in that Plain, found such a rich Diamond, 
that tho’ he did not understand those things, yet he would 
carry it to a Merchant of Golconda who delighted in them. The 
"News was immediately spread about the City, and every one 
that had Mony digging in that Place, there were Stones found 
from 12 to 40 Carats ; and particularly that great Diamond of 
some .hundred Carats,' which Emir Gamla, the King of Golconda* s 
General gave Aurenge Zeb when he came into his Service.^® 
Afterwards the King took the Mine to himself, and now the 
Merchants buy it of him by Spans. 

The Manner of Digging^^ the Stones is this. First they now the 
endose a spot of Ground much bigger than that they Buy to Diamonds 
Dig, with a little Wall two Spans high ; then they dig the 
Ground mark’d out by the King’s OfiScers 12 or 14 Spans down 
to the Water, below which there is no hopes of any Diamonds, 
and carry the Earth into the aforesaid Enclosure in great Baskets. 

When it is all together they fill the Place full of Water, and 
leave it so till'lt is all Mud. Then they add more W^ter, and 
opening the Holes which are at every Step in the Wall, the 
Mud runs out, and the Cravel remains ; which is again cover’d 
with Water, if it be not clean. When dry they put it into 
Baskets for the Sand to drop through, and then putting it into 
the same Place they beat it with long Staves. Then they take 
it up again and sifting it,^^ they spread it and pick out the 
Diamonds in the presence of the Buyer, and of the OfBcers, who 
take those ihat are above a certain weight for the King.^® 

There are Diamond Mines at a Place call’d Raolconda,^^ Diamonds 
in the Province of Carnasica, in the Kingdom of Visapour, but 
they do not work at them. The King of Succadan in the 
Island of Borneo^^ has some better, but there are few of them, 
and they are found in the Sand of the River Succadan, 







Besides the Birds and Beasts Europe affords, India has 
others peculiar to it ; as for instance the GazellerSj of which we 
have spoke in the two precedent Volumns ; they have Horns a 
Span and a half long, and, twisted or spiral. To take them they 
make use of the tame Teopard,^® or of the Male Gazelle thus. 
They tye him with a Rope wound about under his Belly ; and 
when they see a Flock of Gazelles let him go among them. 
The Male that is in the Flock, being jealous comes out to attack 
him, and his Horns being spiral or winding does so intangle 
himself, that not being able to retire when he would, the 
Hunters have time to take him. 

There are also wild Cows and other wild Beasts we spoke 
of when we gave an account of the Game at Damam, Camels, 
Dromedaries, Rhinocerots,^® as tall as a large Ox, and Elephants. 
There are several ways of taking these sometimes they dig 
Trenches and cover them, into which when they fall they can- 
not get out. In other Places they carry a Female^“ into the 
Woods just at the time when she is in her Eust at her Cries 
the wild Male comes, and couples with her contrary to^^ other 
Beasts, Belly to Belly,^® in the narrow Place where she was left* 
When the Male would be gone, he finds the way stopp'd up, and 
the Hunters at a distance, throw over him great and small 
Ropes so that his Trunk and Eegs being secur'd they can 
come near without Danger. However they lead him away 
between two tame Elephants,^® and beat him if he makes a noise. 
Afterwards he grows tame among the rest of his kind ; and 
then he that has them in charge, teaches him to Salute Friends 
with his Trunk, to Threaten, or Strike whom he pleases, and 
to kill a Man Condemn'd to that sort of Death, with an Iron 
fix'd at the end of a Pole, and then the Manager^^ sits upon his 
Neck. It is of it self a very tractable Creature, when it is not 
Enrag'd or in Dust ; for then he that Rules it^’' is in Danger. 
They quiet him with Artificial Fire-works, or directing him into 
a. River, where, tho' so large, he swims extraordinary well. 
The She Elephants carry their young , 12 Months they live 
iOO years and carry about 3200 Pounds weight Spanish.^^ 
Those of Ceylon tho' smaller are the most valu'd of any in India,®® 
because they have more Courage, and as the Indians imagine 
are respected by the others. But those of Golconda, Cochin- 
china ^ Siam, and the Island Sumatra are stronger, and more 
surefooted on the Mountains. It is dear keeping of them 
for besides the Flesh they eat,®'^ Paste made of Meal with Sugar 
Canes,® ^ and other things, they give them Aqua-vitae to drink. 

There are also Stags, Eions, Tigers, and Eeop^rds, which 
they hunt with* good Dogs, and sever^il®® Creature^ not to be 
found in Europe, of which mention was madO among the Game 
of Daman,, 


I must not omit here to give an account o£ the Musk Wild Musk-Goat. 
Goat^* found in the Country of Azmer. Its Snout is like a Goat, 
the Hair like a Stag, and its Teeth like a Dog. Under the BeUy 
it has a little Bladder, as big as an Egg, full of a thick con- 
geal’d Blood, which being cut off is ty’d up in a Skin, that the 
scent may not evaporate. After which the Beast lives but a 
short time. They are also taken on the cold Mountains of 
the Kingdom of Butan, in the Latitude of 56 and 60 Degrees, 
but the greatest quantity aiid the best comes out of the Country 
of the Tartars bordering on Chinas where they make a great 
Trade of it. The Sent is so strong that having bought a little 
at Peking, it was smelt at a great distance, as if my Portu- 
mantue had been full of it, which caus’d some dispute with the 
Customers. They so adulterate it,^® mixing it with other Blood, 
that when it comes into Europe it is not a quarter Musk. 

As for Foul, there are all®* in India that Europe affords, and 
many peculiar to the Country. In the Woods there are abundance 
of Peacocks, several sorts of Parrots and green Pigeons. There 
are most Beautiful Birds, to be kept in Cages, both sightly for 
their Feathers, and Pleasant for singing sweetly. I saw some 
half as big as Wheat-ears, all spotted like a Tiger.®^ Besides the 
Wild Hens, there is a sort of tame ones whose Skin and Bones 
are very black, but they are well tasted.®® 

The Mony Coin’d in Indostan is, Roupies, half Roupies, Coin, 
and quarter Roupies of Silvet ; as also Roupies of Gold, worth 
13 Silvet Roupies and a qilarter, oir'si:k pieces of Eight Spanish 
Mony, half Roupies, and quarters. On, both sorts there are 
Persian Characters®* with the Natae of the City, where it is 
Coin’d, and the King’s name on the Reverse. There are also 
Copper Pieces, call’d Feries/* 54 whereof make a Roupie of 
silver. The Rajas, or Pagan Petty Kings, iii their Dominions 
Coin Gold pieces call’d Pagdds,*^ because they have a little 
Pagod stamp’d on them, and these are worth a tecchine of 
Veiiice. Both tile Gold and Silver, are toueh finer than the 
Gold of the Spanish Pistoles,*® and Silver of their Pieces of 
Eight. Foreign Coin is also cilrrent in the MoguVs Country ; 
as £ecdhines, by Whieh thefe is tinieh got,*® Eieces of Eight, 
of Persia, and oth^ SOtts ; btlt mote partictdatly in the 
Ports, and places of Trade. 

They reckon by Leches, each worth lOOOOO Roupies ; Crous 
.or Crorores, which are 100 Leckes ; and Arabs,*® that are ten 
Crous. The Batman, and Maw,*® are. Weights of 55 Pounds. 

Another smaller Weight is call’d Goer ot Keer,*^ but they some- 
times change according to the Princes will.*® 




Containing the most Remarkable Things he saw in 





This vast Empire, besides the Natives, is inhabited by 
Persians, Tartars, Abissinians, Armenians, Jews, Christians, 
Mahometans, and others^ ; but the most universal Religions are 
the Mahometan, and the Pagan; for the first is profess’d by 
the Mogul, and the other by the antient Fords and People of 
the Country. Having discours’d fully of the Mahometan in the 
first Volumn, and these Emperors being of the Turkish Sect/ 
it only Remains to give a short Account in this Chapter of the 
Transmigra- Pagan, All the Gentils in Iniia hold the Transmigration of 
Souls ^ Souls, like the Pythagoreans,^ by which means, in their Opinion, 
the Souls after Death receive the reward or punishment of their 
good or evil Actions, being put into good or bad Creatures. And 
therefore they pay singular Honour to the Cow, by the Advice 
bf Ramah^ their Fegislator, as being Creatures that, besides the 
good they do to Men, shall receive the Souls of good Men, By 
reason of this same opinion, they take special Care of all other 
Creatures ; not only forbearing to Eat them, but using all means 
to prevent others Killing them ; and as was said before, in some 
Cities they have Hospitals, where they ate at a vast Es:pence 
in looking after sick Creatures,® 

84 Tribes. Tho’ they all Profess one Religion, yet they are divided 

into 84 Sects,® or Tribes / each of which has its particular Rites 
and Ceremonies ; and some peculiar Profession or Trade, which 
their Children never leave, without® they would be for ever 



reputed Infamous ; as I was told by a Brachman, I sent for on 
purpose to be inform'd in what relates to them. 

The first and principal Tribe is that of the BrachmanSj who Brachmans 
are Professors of Learning, and Priests of their Religion, which 
is divided into ten several Sects. The first five feed on Herbs, Sects of 
and Grain,® without ever Eating any Thing that has Life ; and them, 
are call'd, the first Maratas,^^ the second Telanga,^^ the third 
Canara,^^ the fourth Dro.varas,^^ and the fifth Guzaratti the 
four first Eat 'in one anothers Houses, but not in those of the 
Guzarattes. The other five Sects Eat of all living Creatures, 
except Fish ; and are call'd Gauri,^^ Canogia,^^ Triaiori,^’^ which 
are the Brachmans of Goa; Gagavali,^^ and Pongaputj^^ none 
of which Eat in the House of another. 

In these 10 Sects, or Orders of Brachmans, no Man may Whom they 
Marry out of his own Tribe. In the cross Line, in which only 
they may take Wives, the Prohibition reaches to the Seventh not.^ 
Degree®® of Consanguinity, or Affinity ; but the Daughter of a 
Brother may Marry the Son of a Sister, that is, her Cousin 
yet not the contrary that is the Son of the Brother with the 
Daughter of the Sister, that the same Blood may not come into 
the Family, The Guzarattis are not Subject to this law. 

All these 10 Tribes of Brachmans Converse with one another; 
but if one comes that is not wash'd, he may not touch any Body, 
lest he Defile them ; it being a Precept among them to wash 
their Body Morning, Noon and Night. Their Widows do not 
Marry again, and if they will Burn themselves with their 
Husbands Body, they gain much Reputation such as will 
not are look'd upon as Cowardly, and Infamous. 

. The second Tribe is that of tfie Rajapours, or Princes Rajapours 
descended from warlike Men. These only Eat in the Houses of 
their own Tribe, or in those of the Brachmans, in which all the 
others may Eat, each according to its Quality. The Wives of 
Rajapours cannot avoid being Burn'd with their Husbands, if 
they have no Male Issue ; and if they refuse, are carry 'd by 
Force. Tho’ other Tribes are allow'd but one Wife the Raja- 
pours, as being free Princes may have as many as they please. 

Some of these Rajapours Border on the Lands of Goa ; for 
besides Savagi, there is Chioiia,^^ near Daman ; and Grasia,^^ 
not far from Suratie, both Robbers, living among Mountains, 
like Beasts, The King of Portugal allows Chiotia 30000 
Mamudis/^ which make 5500 Ducats of Naples, and the Mogul 
gives the other a like Sum out of the Neighbourhood of Suratte, 
that they may not Rob, but defend Travellers against Thieves. 

The “Kingr Penti,^'^ near Bazaim, might more properly be call'd 
King of the Woods, he Living in them, like an Out-law. There 
is some difference of Sects among the Rajapours ; but they all 
agree in eating Fish, except Beef, and t^me Swine» 



the third 

^ Z Tribes. 

Suiar 2 

Cansars 2 







TH third Tribe of Banians is divided into twenty Sects, 
none of which Marries into the other. They Eat nothing that 
has Eife, but only Herbs and Pulse. Almost all these are Mer- 
chants ; and being bred up to it from their Infancy, they are 
much greater Cheats than the Armenians and Jews. 

There are two Tribes of Paravous/^ the one calFd Patara^ 

the other {Here the Author wants the Name of 

the Second). These Eat all sorts of Flesh, but Beef one of 
them®^ neither Eats with, nor Marries into the other ; and their 
Wives when the Husband Dies may ]N([arry again. 

There are also two Tribes of Sutars,^^ or Timber-Men ; the 
one calPd Concanas, the other Guzaratti, The first Eat all sorts 
of Flesh, except Beef ; the others^ only Fish. They do not 
Marry out of their own Tribe, nor do they Eat with one another, 
and the Widows Marry, 

The Cansars/^ or Brasiers, are also divided into Concanas, 
and Guzarattis, differing even in tlieir Trade in some measure, 
and Eat all Flesh,®® except Beef. But they do not intermix 
in Marriages, or Eat together, and the Widows Marry again. 

The GauUs/^ who sell Milk, and are Herdsmen, are another 
Tribe, that Eats every Thing but Beef, and tame Swines Flesh, 
Their Widows Marry again. 

The Malts , or Sellers of Flowers, are another Tribe, that 
Eat all Things with the same Exception as the last, and their 
Widows Marry again without any Dishonour. 

The Sonars,^^^ or Goldsmiths, are divided into Concanas, 
and Guzarattis, and observe the same as the Braziers. 

There is another Tribe of Valuoris, ox Gardiners, who 
Eat all Flesh, but Beef and Pork. They neither Eat with, nor 
Marry into another Tribe ; their Widows Marry again, 

The Columbines, or Peasants make up another Tribe, They 
Eat Flesh with the same Exception, and are divided into 
Chodris, Maictres, Paieis, Houtas, Naichis, Marias, Gorels,^'^^ 
who go a Horseback®’’^ when they are to be Marry'd, apd 
Doblas^^ peat Wizards, inhabiting the Woods, where they Eat 
Rats,®® Eizards, Snakes,^® Moles, and all sorts of Vermin, tho^ 
never so Stinking, Their Women go Naked, only coyering their 
Privities with a Eeaf. These, and other Tribes of labouring 
People do not intermix in Marriages, but may Eat together, and 
the Women^^' Marry again. 

The are also Country People who wear a Fine 

like the Brachmans, being one"^® made up of three, which seems 
to signify the Unity of God in three Persons. They Eat nothing 
that has Eife, but Herbs ; nor do they Marry into other Tribes, 
The Widows do not Marry again, 

The Bmdarines,^^ who Prune^® the Palm, or Coco-Trees, and 
draw the Suim ffom it, af§ divided into RauUs, Chodris, Shiada^^ . 


religions in indostan 


Ktia^ Chc^adas, and other sorts which do not Marry into one 
another ; but Eat together, and of all sorts of Flesh, except 
Beef, and tame Swine. The Widows Marry again. 

The DobUs/^ or Washers of Tinnen, are divided into Con- DohUs. 
cana s, and Guzarattis. They Eat together, but Marry each in 
their own Tribe, and Eat any Flesh but Beef and Pork, The 
Widows Marry again. 

11 Fisher-men^^ are divided into many Races, or Tribes, Fishers, 
call d Coles, Mavis, Puruhias, Vaitis, and Birmassis, They Eat 
in one anothers Houses, of all Flesh with the usual Exception, 
and the Widows Marry again. 

The Sotrias^^ make two distinct Tribes j the* one calPd Sotrias^ 
Salunkis, the other Coles. They neither Eat nor Marry together; 

They Eat Flesh like the rest, and their Widows Marry again. 

When the Elder Brother Dies, the Younger takes his Wife ; but 
if the Younger Dies, the Elder does not so. 

Those that carry Salt are call’d Charanas,^^ and make Charanas. 
several Tribes. They take Wives out of any of them. Eat Flesh 
as above, and their Widows have the Eiberty to Marry again. 

The Bangasalis,^^ or Salt Merchants Eat all living Creatures BangasaJis. 
except Beef, tame Swines Flesh, Crabs, Eobsters, Crevisses,®^ 
and all Shell Fish. They do not Marry out of their Tribes, but 
the Widows may have second Husbands. 

The Tribe of Gantias,^^ who are all Traders, Eat nothing Gantias. 
but Fish. Neither Marry into, nor Eat with another Tribe ; so 
that for want of another, a poor Man sometimes gets a Wife 
with 50000 Crowns. 

In Suratte there are Babrias,^^ Catis,^^ and Rajapours, who Bdbrias. 
Eat only Fish, and wild Flesh. They Eat together, but do not 
Marry out of their Tribes. Their Wives do not Marry again, 
but Burn themselves, if they will.®® 

The Farasis,^^ make Sandals like those of the Recolets. Eat Farasis. 
any sort of Flesh, tho’ Rotten, Eat together, and inter-mix in 
Marriages, without any Prohibition ; but their Tribe being 
reputed very Vile, they are not allow’d to enter the Houses of 
other Gentils, or touch them ; and must keep at a great 

In the Country of the Naines^"^ of Cape Comori,^^ they are 
call’d Polias,^^ and as they go along the Streets, if they will 
not venture to be Beaten,®® must cry Po, Po,^^ that the other 
Gentils may take care their very Shadow does not touch them, 
which would Defile them, and they would be forc’d®^ to Wash. 

This Custom makes the Jesuits that are Missioners there 
lead a very uneasy Life; for being oblig’d to imitate the ways 
of that Tribe, the better to ingratiate themselves with those 
Barbarians,®® they are forc’d to W^sh themselves as many times 



a Day as the others do ; to feed upon raw Herbs ; atid when 
two Fathers meet in the Street, one acting the Naires, and 
the other the Polias, they keep at a distance from one another, 
that they may not be suspected. There is no doubt they Con- 
vert very many ; but abundance^^ of them not being us'd to 
that Hardship, fall into dangerous Distempers. 

Of all the Tribes here mention’d, only the Brachmans and 
Banians are so Precise®^ about killing of all Creatures that 
even those that are Venemous may Bite them without receiving 
any Harm from them ; but the others®’' in this Case kill them. 

^The Jogis are People of all Tribes, who have impos’d on 
themselves a most painful sort of penitent Life. Besides, being 
continually Naked, some of them hold up their Arms in the 
Air, without ever letting them down ; others hold them behind, 
till in time they cannot move them. Some hang themselves 
up with Ropes ; others close their Mouths with Padlocks, so 
that they must be fed®® with Liquids ; others run an Iron-Ring 
through their Prepuce, and hang a little Bell to it ; which, when 
the silly barren Women hear, they run to see, and touch him, 
hoping by that means to become Fruitful. 

The Gentils pay so great a Respect to these Penitents, that 
they think themselves happy, who can Prostitute Daughters, 
Sisters, or Rins-women to their Leudness, which they believe 
lawful in them i®® and for this Reason there are so many 
Thousands of Vagabond Fakirs throughout India, When the 
Fakirs meet with Baraghis’^^ (which is another sort of Penitents, 
difierently habited, with their Hair and -Beard shav’d) they 
Fight desperately. They never Marry, and Eat in the Houses 
of all Sects, except the Polias, They go into the Kitchin, and 
take what they will, tho’ the Master be not at Home. They 
coine together like Swine by beat of a Tabor, or at the blowing 
of a Horn, and march in Companies with Banners, Lances, and 
other Weapons, which, when they rest, they lay down by their 
Master. They Boast they are Descended from Revanche-Ram/'^ 
who wandred about the World Poor and Naked ; and these 
Vagabonds for imitating him, are look’d upon as Saints, and 
Live a loose Life, with the Priviledge of committing any Crime 
their Brutality suggests. 

Now considering so great a Number of Sects, and such 
variety of Manners, which makes it Impracticable for them to 
be unanimous in Government, it is not to be thought strange 
that so small a Number of MdhomMii^ should subdue such a 
Multitude of Gentils ; since Divisions and Discord have ever 
been the most efficient Causes in the World to overthrow the 
greatest Monarchies/^ 




These Gentils are so blinded with profound Superstition, a 
that they do not think it inconsistent to make their Gods be 
Born of Men, and Assign them Women ; believing they love the 
same Things Men delight in. They Esteem Ram a mighty 
Deity, on account of the Wonders he wrought whilst Diving, 
by means of a Monkey,^ which crossing the S^a at one Deap, 

Burnt RhevaiPs^ Palace, and Deap'd back again, to which 
purpose^ they tell a long and tedious Fable. Among the 
Goddesses they count Malachiche,^ who they say never refus’d Malachiche 
any Body that ask’d it, the use of her Body ; as iF^ she had 
perform’d some extraordinary Penance ; and so® a Man call’d Ctmsunu. 
Cunsunu/ because whilst he Liv’d he enjoy’d 16000 Women. 

Some of them believe there are Elisian Fields, and that Opinions 
in order to come thither, a River^ is to be pass’d like the Styx^ 
of the Antients, where they are to receive new Bodies. Others 
are of Opinion the World will end very soon, after which they 
shall Live again, and go into a new Country. They all believe 
there is but one God, who has 1000 Arms, 1000 Eyes, and as 
many Feet not knowing any better way how to Explain the 
Thoughts of his Omnipotency, They say they have four Books^° 
sent them by God, abbve 6000 Years since, through the Hands 
of their Prophet Ram ; two of which Books are shut, and two 
open ; but that they can only be Read by those of their Religion. 

Besides,^^ that there are seven Heavens, in the highest of 
which God sits ; and that he does not take Notice of the parti- 
cular Actions of Men, because they are not worthy to be the 
Object of his Divine Thoughts. They also say there is a Place 
where he may be seen, as it were through a far distant Cloud. 

As for Evil Spirits they believe they are so chain’d up, that 
they can do them no Harm. 

They Talk of a Man call’d Adam,^^ who was the first ^ndAdam. 
common Father, and they say that his Wife, having yielded to 
the Temptation of Eating of the forbidden Fruit, made her 
Husband Eat too ; but that as the Mouthful he took was going 
down, the Hand of God stopp’d its passing further, and thence 
comes the Knot Men have in their Throat, which they therefore 
call Adames Apple. 

The Priesthood among them is Hereditary, as it was for- Priesthood, 
merly among, the Jews ; for, as was said before, when a 
Brachman Marries, he must take the Daughter of another 
Braphman, They are distinguishable from* all other Gentils, by 
a String or Rope made of three Threads of new Cotton,^® which 
they wear hanging about their Meek, and wound about^® the 

INDIAK travels op CARfiRl 







will not Bat 
with others. 

A foolish 
Opinion of 

A pleasant 



left Arm. It is put upon Boys of Nine, or Ten Years of Age 
with great Solemnity, but ne'ver upon Girls. This String or 
Line is to signify the Unity of God in three Persons, which they 
call Brama, Vistu, and Mayessu.^"^ They will never Eat a Bit 
without they have it on and some of them have been known 
to Fast several Days/® because their Rope broke before they 
could get another of^® the Priests. 

When any one is to be ExpelFd the Tribe of the Brachmans, 
Banians, or BangascUnes, for some heinous Crime, they take 
away his Line thus. All that are of the Tribe in that Place 
meet before the Boto/^ or Priest, and accuse the Criminal of 
such a Crime. He replies, and if his Defence be not good, the 
Boto takes away his Line, wipes off the Tilla/^ or Colour on 
his Forehead. Then all the Company falls to chewing of Beielle, 
eating of Ccce-Nuts, and smoaking Tabacco, without giving the 
Criminal any ; only out of Pity they throw him down on the 
Ground a Leaf of Tabacco. 

If he desires to be again admitted into the Tribe, he must 
go from House to House, begging Pardon and Absolution of 
those that Voted, making them sensible of his Resignation, and 
soothing the Boto with the Present of a Cow. This done, he 
gives all the Tribe a Treat, who receive him again,^^ and the 
Priest gives him the Line and Tilla, 

All the Sects of Gentils on this side Ganges, are very 
scrupulous as to Eating with Christians, and Mahometans, or 
making use of the same Utensils. But those beyond Malaca 
make no Difficulty^^ of it. 

They are so Silly, or Ignorant as to conceit^® a Woman 
may Conceive by strength of Imagination ; and that tho’ they 
are many thousand Miles distant, and that for several Years, 
yet their Wives imagining they Lie with them, may become with 
Child, and therefore when they hear of their being brought to 
Bed, they make great Rejoycing. 

To this purpose, F. Galli, Prefect of the Theatins of Goa, 
told me a pleasant Story. D. Francis de Tavora, Earl of A Ivor, 
arriving from Portugal, to be Vice-Roy of India ; News was 
brought that his Wife, whom he left big with Child, was 
deliver’d of a Son. Among the rest a Pagan Merchant went to 
Congratule him, and thinking to make the Vice-Roy a great 
Complement said, I wish your ExcetLency Joy, and hope you 
will have News every Year of the Birth of a Son, This would 
have put him in a Passion, had not some told him that the 
Idolaters held that preposterous' Opinion. The Women are 
Happy, that can take their Liberty, and make their silly 
Husbands, believe they Conceiv’d by thinking on them. 

When an Idolater is Dying, his Kindred place a Cow near 
the Bed, and shake her Tail till she Pisses ; if it reaches the 
Dying Man’s Face, it is look’d, upon as a good Token of. his 



future State ; otherwise, but particularly if the Beast does not 
Piss, the Obsequies are perform’d'in a very Melancholy manner. 

Besides^ they put the Cow’s Tail into the Dying Man’s Hand,^® 
thinking his Soul may go into her Body. In short, they believe 
every Man may be sav’d in his Religion, and his Sect, so he 
exactly observe God’s Commandments, and the Tight of 
Reason ; which Judgment, tho* False, some Divines would 
follow, were it not condemn’d by the Church. 

The Trial upon suspicion of Theft among them, is by ^al of 
making the Party swim over a River that is full of Crocodils, ^ 
and if he gets over safe, he is reputed not Guilty. The Naires 
call this the Passage of Crocodils. 

These Naires are great Wizards, nor do they ever Expose Naires 
themselves to any Feats of Arms, 'without first consulting the Sorcerers. 
Devil. To this purpose they let their Hair fly, and draw some 
Blood out of their Forehead with a Knife ; then Dancing to 
the Musick of a Drum, they call him aloud, and he comes to 
Advise them whether they had best engage their Enemy.. But 
when the Enemy repents he gave the Challenge, and makes a 
Sign to' beg Peace, they easily grant it. 

Theit Women are in Common. When any of them is with Women in 
her, he leaves his Sword and Buckler at the Door, that every Common. 
Body may know the Place is taken up and therefore there 
being no certainty whose the Children are, they alter the 
manner of Inheritance, as was said before. But if the Women 
are found to have to do with Men of another Sect, they become 
Slaves to their Queen of Canara, When a Brother Marries, his 
Wife is Common to the rest.^® 

By a Priviledge granted them by their Queen, they accom- Security for 
pany Travellers through those Parts that are infested" with travellers. 
Robbers, and if they happen to presume to Rob any Man, they 
all Meet, and Pursue the Felons till they utterly Extirpate them. 

Thus one Boy with a Rod in his Hand makes it safe Travelling 
throughout all Canara, tho’ it be through Woods, and over 
Motontains ; and a Traveller for a small Matter may have one 
from one Village to another. 

The Superstition of all the Geniils in India, makes them Barbarity 
Murderers of their own Children for it is their Custom when Infants, 
the Infant will not Suck, to carry it into the Field ; and there 
they leave it from Morning till Night, in a Cloth ty’d up on 
high by the four Corners, that the Crows may peck its Eyes 
out, and this is the Reason why there are so many Blind in 
Bengala. Where there are Monkeys, the Danger is not so great, 
because they being Enemies to the Crows throw all their Eggs 
down from the Trees, and hinder their Multiplying. At Night 
the Infant is carry’d Home, and if he will not Suck is expos’d 
a second, and third time in the Field, and at last hated as if 
it were some Snake, or Adder, , and cast into the River. 




Variety of In all the Temples or Pagods of these Idolaters, which for 

Idols. the most part are Round/ there are Figures of Devils, Serpents, 
Monkeys, and several Monsters hideous to behold. In the 
Villages, where there are not Carvers to cut them, they take a 
Stone shap’d like a Cilinder, or small Pillar, colour’d Black, 
and placing it on a Column, adore it instead of an Idol, offering 
to it Sacrifice of Betlej Arecca, and other Things ; as I observ’d 
in Travelling over dismal Mountains,^ where the Country People 
had made Choice, some of a Stone,® others of a Tree,"^ and some 
of an Herb® for their Idol. 

First great The chief Pagods, to which they go in Pilgrimage are 
Place of four ; Qiagrane,^ Benarus, Matura and TripetiJ That of 
Pilgrimage, ^.pon one of the Mouths of the River Ganges, 

where the Great Brachman, or High Priest resides. There they 
adore the great Idol Kesora,^ adorn’d with many Jewels, Its 
Revenues maintain all that vast Multitude of Pilgrims that 
Resort thither, on account of the Conveniency of the River 
Ganges, washing in whose Water they think cleanses them from 
Sin more than any other,® 

Second The Pagod of Benarus is Built on the Bank of Ganges, in 

Pilgrimage, Cfty of the same Name, and there is a Stair-case from the 

Door of it down to that River, to wash or Drink. The Vagabond 
Fakirs carry on their Backs Vessels full of this Water, stopp’d 
and seal’d by the Great Brachman, to prevent all Frauds, for 
several hundreds of Miles, to be well Paid for it by rich People 
and Merchants they Present it to. At Weddings they spend 

the Value of 600 Crowns of it, or more, it being the Custom 

to give a Glass or two of it about after Dinner ; which they 
drink with as great a Gust, as we should do some rich Muska- 
dine, or IJippocrass. The Idol is call’d Bainmadu,^^ held in 
sp^h Honour by the Gentils, that as soon as the Pagod is open’d, 
the Brachmans fall flat on their Faces ; and some with vast 
great Fans go to drive the Flies from about the Idol. A 
Brachman Marks the Forehead of all the Pilgrims with a yellow 
Dhiuor. No Women may go into it, but only those of one 
certain Tribe. There is another Pagod near it call’d Riscurdas,^^ 
from the name of the Idol adorn’d there, 

Tlfird The Pagod of Matura is 35 Miles from Agra, on the Road 

lilgrimage. Dehli. Within it is a Place hemm’d in with Marble Bannis- 
ters,^^ with the Idol RanV^ in the middle, and two others by 
him ; and both within and without abundance of Monsters, some 
with four Arms, and wrm with four Tegs ; and others with a 
M^’s Head, and a IP^g Tail.^^ They carry this Idol upon 
solemn Festivals on a Bii^, to visit the other Gods, or the River* 



The fourth Pagod, is that of Tripeti,^^ in the Province of Fourth 
Carnatica, on the Coast of Corrhandel, and Cape Comori ; it is Pilgrimage, 
retnarkable for the many Buildings and Pools about it. 

In the Kingdom of Bisnaga,^^ there is a Pagod with 300 Bisnaga 
Marble Pillars in it,^^ A Portuguese Gentleman, who had livM Pctgod, 
forty Years in Indiaj and was an Eye Witness to it, told me, 
they formerly laid out 10000 Roupies there every Year, in making 
a Cart with eigheen Wheels, on which, when the Festival of the 
Idol was kept, the Brachmans mounted with 200 impudent 
Women Dancers, skipping in Honour of the Idol.^® The Cart 
was drawn by 500 Men, and some Idolaters, believing that Death 
the direct Road to Heaven, threw themselves under the Wheels, 
and were crush’d to Pieces. Besides, that when the King of 
Golconda Possess’d himself of that Country, under the Conduct 
of the General Emir Gemla, he found in that Temple an infinite 
Number of Gold Vessels, and three Diamonds of an inestimable 
Value ; one of which the said Emir Gemla^^ presented to the 
Great Mogul and that this General advancing into the Country 
of the Naiche of Tanjaur/^ a GenfCiil, and taking the City of 
that Name, Thousands of Women threw themselves into Wells 
on account of Religion, 

He told me further, That near the Island of Ceylon, there Ramanacpr 
is another small Island call’d Rammiacor,^^ with a Pagod of the 
same Name ; at the Entrance whereof is a Trough of black 
Stone, and in it a Statue of Metal, with the Eyes made of 
Rubies ; and that the Gentils break over it Coco-Nuts full of 
Water ; and lay Figs there, to Eat them afterwards, as if they 
were Sanctify’d, and Drink that Wat^, as Holy, Within the 
further part of this Pagod, is another which they open once a 
Year ; and there they adore a Brazen Idol call’d Lingon,^^ 
which is a very lewd Figure, the Patts, of Man aiid Woman 
appearing join’d together. Some Gentils wear it hanging about 
their Necks, out of Devotion* as the God of Nature, 

All the Gentils are oblig’d to go once in their Fife, at least, Manner of 
in Pilgrimage, to one of the four Firincipal Pagods ; but the 
rich go several times, carry the Idols of their Places of Aboad 
in Procession, attended by Hundreds of People* and Brachmans; 
who, with long Fans made of Peacock^s Feathers, drive away 
the Flies from the Idol lying on the Bier. 

Three Days before an Eclipse^^ happens, the Brachmans Supersti- 
having Notice of it, break all the Earthen Vessels,^® to use new 
Ones afterwards ; and run all of them to the River to boil Rice, 
and other Things, and throw it in for the Fishes, and Crotodiis, 
when they find the fortunate Hour is come, by their Magical 
Books, and several Figures they make cm the Ground with 
the Noise Of Drums, and Latten^^ Plates they beat. They cast 
themselves into the River to Wasll whilst the Eclipse lasts ; 
the Brachmanf^ attend the ri 9 hest Persons with clean Clothg 

Divalis, or 




Original o 
the King < 


to dry them, and then make them sit down on a piece of 
Structure six Spans square, daub’d all about with liquid Cows 
Dung, that the Pismires may not run upon it in danger of being 
Burnt, whilst they Dress the Rice, and other Pulse. They 
cover several Figures made with Powder’d Dime, on that Square 
with the same Dung, and then lay on two or three small 
Sticks of Wood to burn several Blades of Grain, with a great 
deal of Butter ; and from the Manner of the Flame to judge 
what plenty of Rice, and other Corn®® that Year will afford. 

The chief Divalis, or Festivals are two,®® when the Moon 
decreases in October, and when she increases in March. All 
those Heathen Sorcerers work Wonders by the help of the Devil, 
but particularly their Juglers and Tumblers, who, without all 
doubt, deceive the Eye. They plant the Stone of any®^ Fruit, 
and within two Hours the Tree grows up. Blossoms, and bears 
ripe Fruit.®® Others lay the Eggs under the Hen, and Hatch 
them at the same time ; which can be nothing but meer illusion. 
But I never saw it. 

The Princes of Asia that are Idolaters, are the Kings of 
Cochinchina, Tunkin, Arachan, Pegu, Siam, China, and several 
Chams in great Tartary ; in the Islands the King of Japan, and 
Ceylon, and some Rosrtelets®® of the Molucco Islands ; as , also 
all the Rajas in the Mogul’s Empire, but of several Sects, some 
less Superstitious than Others, 



Having desir’d a Christian Captain of Agra, to let me know 
when an Opportunity® offer’d of seeing the King of Visapor, he 
sent on Tuesday the 22d of March, to appoint me, to be at his 
Tent in the Morning,® that we might go together to the King’s 
Quarters to satisfy my Curiosity. I went accordingly,® and he 
being ready, we both set out. Being come to the King’s Tents, 
we waited for him to Pass by, to go pay his Respects to the 
Great Mogul. In short, within an Hour* I saw the unhappy King, 
whose Name was Sikander,’’ come with a handsome Retinue. 
He was a sprightly Youth 29 Years of Age,® of a good Stature, 
and Olive colour’d Complexion. Aurenge Zeb depriv’d him of 
his Liberty and Kingdom, as he did him of Golconda, in the 
Year 1685,® upon Pretence that he had given Savagi Passage 
through his Country, which he could not have hindred, if he 
would. The true Original of the King of Visapor’s Misfortunes 
was, That the Queen being left a Widow, and without Children, 



Savagi, who was offended at the King Deceas'd, for having 
caus'd his Father Nair Savagi,^ then Captain of the Guards to 
Die in a Goal, took the Field with a small Army of Scoundrels ; 
and soon made himself Master of the Fortresses of RajapoTj 
Rasigar , Cmpaten, Dahul,^ and part of Malabar. Some think 
that raising^® the Fortifications of Rasigar, he there found a 
great Treasure,^’- which enabled him to continue the War. The 
Queen finding her self in that Condition, thought it convenient 
during the Minority of Sikandar, whom she had adopted for 
her Son,^^ and bred up in the Doctrin of Hali, before the King's 
Death, to make a Peace, tho' Dishonourable, leaving to Savagi, 
the Country he had Conquer'd yet to hold of her,^^ and to 
pay half the Revenue as Tribute. 

At the same time Pamniach,^^ who was Tributary to the 
same Crown, took up Arms to shake off that Yoke ; relying on 
the natural Strength of his Country, lying between 27 in 
accessible Mountains, call'd Settais-pale/^ among which there 
are Villages, and Lands Till'd by Gentils of the vile Tribe of 
Faras.'^^ Aurenge-Zeh seeing the Forces of the Kingdom, 
amounting to 30000 Horse, and as many Foot, employ’d against 
these Rebels, he laid hold of the Opportunity, and Besieg'd 
the City and Castle of Visapor ; which he took after a vigorous 
Defence of three Years, made by Sidi Mansuiu, a Black, who 
govern'd dming the King's Minority, and carry'd away Sikandar 
Prisoner, to whom he afterwards allow'd a Million of Roupies a 
Year, to maintain him Decently, 

Tanascia,^^ King of Golconda, who, in my Time was sixty Of the 
Years of Age, had the same Misfortune, His General 
Gemla being Disgusted,^* invited Aurenge Zeh to invade the 
Kingdom through his means. The Ambitious Mogul hasted 
thither, but notwithstanding his Intelhgence with the Traitor, 
could not compass his Design ; and was forc'd to return to 
his Country^® with Dishonour, He afterwards again attempted 
the Fortress of Golconda^ but the Besieg'd making a resolute 
Defence, and an Army of 70000 Horse, and as many Foot 
keeping Aurenge-Zeys Army in the Field within Bounds ; both 
Sides thought fit to conclude a Peace on this Condition, that 
Mahmud/^ Son to Aurenge-Zeb , should take the King of 
Golconda^s Daughter to Wife, and receive ^^he Kingdom as a 
Portion, after the Father's Death. 

When the War with Akbar^^ was concluded, Scialam was 
sent^^ with a powerful Army, to Attack Golconda a-new ; but 
he either thinking the Conquest difficult, or overcome by 
Tanascia^s Promises^ to givp him his Daughter in Marriage, 
and Assist him to secure his Father's Throne ; so manag'd 
Affairs, that he obtain'd his Father's Consent to settle Peace, 
and tho' afterwards he receiv'd never so many repeated Com- 
mands, could never be prevail’d oii to return to the Siege, but 




casting his Scimitei- at his Feet, told him, He was a Musulman, 
and could not breali the Peace he had Promis'd to keep.^^ 

Scialam thus refusing, Aurenge-Zeb march'd in Person, 
after he had Conquer'd the Kingdom of Visapor, with a mighty 
Army to Besiege Golconda.^^ At his first coming, he secur'd 
the Pass on the River, and Bagnagor/'^ where the Palace was, 
and then without staying to Fortify it, by the Advice of the 
Franks he had in his Service, who gave me this Relation, he 
went on to Besiege the Fortress, whither the King was retir'd 
This being Built with vast great Stones, and encompass’d with 
a deep Ditch, held out a Siege of nine Months,^® tho' Batter'd 
by many Pieces of Cannon, and particularly by three Pieces of 
such a prodigious Bigness, that each of them was drawn by 500 
Elephants, and 200 Oxen, if we may believe what the Soldiers 
told me ; for they could make but a small Breach in a Fort that 
was not enclos’d with Walls, but with a Rock. At length, want 
of Provisions, and Distempers that rag'd in the Place, besides 
the Presents and Promises Aurenge-Zeb made, did not only 
prevail with the Defendants to Desert to him by degrees, letting 
themselves down from the Wall with Ropes in the Night, but 
corrupted the Governour, who surrendred the Fortress against 
the King’s Will ; he offering to pay a Tribute of three Millions, 
and 700000 Roupies, which Aurenge-Zeb refus'd, entring the 
Place Victorious in the Year 1686. Azams da carry' d away the 
King Prisoner, who having a Collar of inestimable Value on, 
presented it to him ; but his Father Aurenge-Zeb perceiving he 
carry’d him on an Elephant, cry’d out to him, because he had 
not Bound his Hands behind him. The Son answer'd, that 
he®° was a King, and he ought to be satisfy'd with depriving 
him of his Kingdom and Eiberty.®^ Having shut him up in 
the Fort of DoleUAbad, the Mogul allow’d him a wretched 
maintenance of 20 Roupies a day ; but a Son being Born to him 
in Prison, which he never had whilst on his Throne, in pitty 
to the Infant Born at such an unfortunate time, he rais’d his 
allowance to 500 Roupies a day. 

Pannaich^^^ who had with considerable Forces assisted the 
Mogul in Conquering the Kingdom,®® was rewarded with death, 
upon very slight jealousies ; which enraging his Son, he refus’d 
to pay the Tribute^ and retir'd among inaccessible Mountains ; 
but a few years after, the greater Power prevailing, he sub- 
mitted to Pay Tribute, and receive a Governour appointed by 
the Mogul into his Dominions. 

Wednesday 23d, I din'd with the Captain of AgrUj who 
treated me very handsomly, after the Country manner. 
Thursday 24th, I was conducted to a Neighbouring Paged, to 
see a Penitent, who held up his Arms, the Joints being hardned, 
or knit together so that he had no use of them. Friday 25th, 
I Ipok^d put fo^ some Qpmpan^ to go ba^k wi'^ih rnp to Goa^ 



because the Begarian of St. Stephen and ttiy Interpreter were 
both fled ; but could find none. I spent my time^^ in vain on 
Saturday, also seeking for Company. 



The Season was now so far advanced that to spend any 
more time at Galgala would have made me Slip the opportunity 
of going over to China ; therefore bearing patiently with my 
Indian’s running away, I made the best of it, and resolv’d to 
venture all alone thro’ a Country invested with Robbers and 
Enemies of Christianity. Having heard Mass on Sunday 27th, 

I mounted but very Melancholy ; and believing when I came 
at Night to Edoar,^ I should find the Caravan of Oxen for 
Bardes, or some Christian of Goa, was disappointed of both. 

Setting out hence on Monday 28th, I came before Noon to the 
Village to Rodelki / where desiring a Gentil by signs to make 
me a Cake of Bread, the Knave instead of Wheaten Flower 
made it of Machini,^ which is a black Seed, that makes a Man 
giddy, and so ill tasted, that a Dog would not eat it. Whilst it 
was hot necessity® made me eat that Bread of Sorrow ; but 
could not swallow it cold, tho’ I had none® for three days. At 
Night I lay near the Paged of MandapourA 

Tuesday 29th, meeting the Caravan of Oxen beyond Onor, 

I traveled with it till Sun-set ; but being necessitated® to alight, 
and the Caravan going on, I lost sight of it, the Night growing- 
dark. Then being left alone in the open Field, without any- 
thing to eat, or place to take shelter, and in much dread of 
Robbers, I lay’d me down® among the Bushes. 

Wednesday 30th, when day appear’d, I went on alone Beligon 
without any knowledge of the Road, but what the track of the City. 
Oxen show’d, and come betimes to Beligon, This City tho’ 
made up of Mud Houses thatch’d, is^^ very Populous, because 
of its Trade. It has a large Bazar and a good Fort, considering 
it belongs to Moors, all built of Stone, and encompass’d with a 
deep ditch full of Water ; but it has little Canon in proportion 
to its bigness, and Garrison. Here I expected to have found 
the Caravan of Oxen belonging to S. Stephen, or at least to 
hear some News of it ; but no Body understanding me, I was 
disappointed. Thursday the last of the Month, a Moor con- 
ceiving^^ what I could not express, conducted me to Sciapour,^^ 
a Mile thence, where I found the Caravan, ready to set out for 
Bardes : The Canarines belonging to it, who were subjects to 



Portugal showed me a great deal of kindness ; and finding I was 
spent, with three days want/'*^ plentifully provided me with Foul 
and Rice ; but could get no Bread, because the Natives do not 
eat any. The worst of it was, I must set out with them imme- 
diately, and tho’ a Canarin helped to hold me a Horseback, 
because of my Weakness, yet it went very hard with me. That 
Night we lay in a Wood near the Village of belonging 

to a Say'^^ or Prince of the same name ; the Mogul permitting 
some Tords to Possess these Barren Countries for a yearly 

Friday the first of April, after a few hours riding we pass’d 
by some Cottages, where were the Officers of the Custom-house 
and Guards of the Roads, who are worse than Thieves. That 
Night we lay on the Mountain^ near some little Huts of the 
Country People ; of whom I could not buy a Chicken, or any 
thing else to support me. 

Saturday 2d, we went down the steep and tedious Mountain 
of Balagati, and traveU’d all day through Savagi^s Country. 
The Guards, who like Banditti lay skulking about the Woods, 
stopp'd me, and by signs ask’d whether I could Shoot out 
of a Musket, or understood the Art of Gunnery ; and answering 
by signs that I did not, they at last let me go, fearing the 
Portuguese should^ ^ stop their People at Goa, because I pass’d 
for a Portuguese, Having travel’d a few Miles further, we lay 
in the Field, and had an ill Night of it, near a Take. 

Sunday 3d, being Easter-doy, after several hours Travelling, 
we pass’d by the MoguVs Guards and Custom-house. There 
I was again detain’d ; not because they had any need of 
Gunners or Souldiers, but to make me pay Toll like a Beast ; 
at length some Idolaters telling them, the Portuguese, who 
were but a Musket shot from thence would do the same,^® they 
let me go. 

I went away to Tivi,^^ and thence to Fort S. Michael,^^ 
where the Castellan and his Wife perceiving I was sick, would 
not suffer me to go any further ; but by all means would have 
me be their Guest ; sending away immediately to Pumberpja,^^ 
a Farm of the Theatins for a Ballon, or Andora to carry me 
to Goa, 

As the Ballon or Boat was coming,^^ an unmannerly 
Portuguese Souldier carry ’d it away by force, and there being 
no Andora to be had, returning thanks to the Captain and his 
Wife> for the favour they had shew’d me, I desir’d them to 
order a Souldier to bear me Company to the aforesaid Farm. 
They were much displeas’d at tihe Portuguese rudeness, and 
caus’d his Captain to punish him, and perceiving I would stay 
no longer with them, sent a Souldier of the Castle to convoy 
me who brought me to Pumburpa on Monday the 4th at 


Sun-setting. Here I was very lovingly receiv’d by the Factor, 
who gave me a good Supper, and after it an easy^= Bed to rest 

Tuesday Sih., I crossed the CanaP® in a Ballon or Boat, 
and return’d to Goa to the aforementi'on’d Monastery of 
Fathers in a very ill condition. The Father Prefect seeing me 
so sick, told me that had happned^’^ because I would not take 
his advice i I answer’d Heu Patior telis vulnera facta meis.^^ 

Both he and F. Hippolitus endeavour’d to recover me with good 
Fouls, to which the best Sauce was their kindness ; and thus 
I recover’d my flitting^® Spirits. Weakness oblig’d me on 
Wednesday 6 th to hire four BoeSj or Porters to carry me in an 
Andora, to see what remain’d worth observing in Goa, They 
were all four satisfy’d with 15 PardaoSj which are worth six 
Crowns of Naples a Month. 

Thursday 7th, I went to visit the Body of S. Francis 3 ^ Francis 
Xaverius, at the Church of Bon-Jesu, or Good Jesus,®° being Xaverius^s 
the profess’d House of the Jesuits, The Church is indifferent®^ Body, 
large and Arch’d, but has nothing of good Architecture,®® being 
more like a great Hall than a Church. It has an high Altar, 
with two on the sides all well Gilt ; and on the left a Chappel 
where the precious Body of S. Francis lies. It was in a Crystal 
Co£ 6 n, within another of Silver, on a Pedestal of Stone ; but 
they expected a noble Tomb of Porphiry Stone, from Florence, 
order’d to be made by the Great Duke. Since, with the Pope’s 
leave, the Saints Arm was cut off, the rest of the Body has 
decay’d, as if he had resented it ; and therefore the Jesuits for 
nine Years®® past, do not shew it to any but the Vice-roy, and 
some other Persons of Quality. Being told as much at my 
first coming to Goa, I so far prevail’d, as to have the Vice-roy 
use his Power with the Provincial ; and he not knowing how 
to refuse him, would at least defer the favour till that Morning ; 
shewing me the Holy Body, with the Church shut, cloath’d 
in its Habit, which is chang’d every Year. 

Friday 8 th, I went to see the Church of the Italian 
Carmelites , on a pleasant Hill. Tho’ small, it is very 
Bautiful, and Arch’d as are all the Churches in India, with 
6 Chappels, and an high Altar, well Gilt. The Monastery is 
handsome and well contriv’d,®® with excellent Cloisters and 
Cells, and a delicious Garden, in which there are Chinese Palm- 
trees which yield a pleasing shade, with their low and thick 
Teaves. There are also two Cinnamon Trees, like that of 
Ceylon, At present it is decay’d from what it was, before the 
Italian Fathers were confin’d by the King’s Order, because only 
one Portuguese Father cannot take so much Pains. The first®® 
had been again receiv’d into Favour, but four of them Dy’d 
at Sea, coming from Portugal, 






Saturday 9th, there being some Apprehension of the coming 
of Arabian Ships, all the Religious Men and Priests went down 
arm'd by Order of the Archbishop to the Fort of Aguada, to 
make good that Pass among the Soldiers.®^ 

Sunday 10th, I went to pay my Respects to the Vice-Roy, 
who receiv'd me very Courteously, and Discours'd with me in 
French about two Hours, about News from Europe and Asia, 
and when I took my Leave made me very civil Offers.^® 

Monday 11th, the Commadore, a small Vessel, and a 
Fireship Sail'd out of the Harbour for the Gulph of Persia, 
to assist the King of Persia against the of Mascate ; 

who, with five Ships had Burnt the Portuguese Factory,*^^ and 
several Houses ; robb'd the Custom-House, and carry'd away 
four Pieces of Cannon there were in the Fort, with the Arms of 
Spain on them, brought thither from Ormus. The King of 
Persia had then 90000 Men ready to send into Arabia Foeiix, 
against the Iman, 

There are three Palaces at Goa, for the use of the Vice-Roy. 
The chief of them, call'd the Fort,^^ near the Church of the 
Theatins, and Vasco de Gama^s Gate, has the Prospect of the 
Channel, and consists of excellent Apartments, and a Royal 
Chappel. In the Hall of it are the Pictures^^ of all the Vice- 
Roys, and Governours of India, and in another all the Ships 
and Vessels^® that ever came out of Portugal, since the first 
Discovery of those Countries. In the same are kept the Courts 
of Judicature, or^^ Exchequer, and others, and they Coin 
Mony,^® such as Pardaos of Silver, and St. ThomasesJ^^ and 
Pardaos of Gold. The small Mony is made of a Metal brought 
from China, which is neither Copper, nor Fatten, nor Lead, 
nor Pewter but a Substance differing from them all, not 
known in Europe, and call'd Tutunaga,'^^ which they say has 
some mixture of Silver. The Chineses use it to make great Guns, 
mixing it with Brass.^° Of this, as was said, they make a very 
low sort of Coin at Goa, call'd Bazaruccos,^^ 375 whereof make 
a Pardao, whose Value is four Carlines of Naples ; and yet any 
small Matter, or Fruit may be Bought for one of these. 

The Vice-Roys do not Live in the aforesaid Palace, because 
of the ill Air, but in that call'd Polvereira, or the Powder- 
House, two Miles from it, at the Entrance of the City, as was 
said elsewhere.®® Being at first design'd to make Powder in, 
it was not then fit to entertain a Vice-Roy ; but has been 
enlarg'd by degrees. The third is the Fort of Pangi, near the 
Fort of Ga^par Diaz, The Vice-Roys have not Liv'd in it for 
many Years past, and at present the Garrison Soldiers are 
Quarter'd in it* 

Tuesday 12th, News was brought of the loss of a Ship of 
the Portuguese Fleet,®* which had run upon some Rocks in 
the Port of Varsava, My Armenian Servant being Indispos'd, 



I Purg’d him with the excellent Rhubarb I Bought in Persia, 
where the best in the World grows, and he was soon well. 

Wednesday 13th, I went with the Fathers to Divert me at^^ 
the Farm of Pumburpa, and Thursday 14th, enjoy’d the good 
Company of some Friends that came thither from Goa, Friday 
15th, we went a walking in the Noviciate of the Fathers of 
the Society, opposite to the said Country House. Walking 
there on Saturday 16th, I pitty’d so many poor Christians and 
Idolaters, who Live in wretched Cottages under the Coco-Trees, 
to make them Fruitful, Man’s Breath helping them to bear ; 
without hopes of ever removing with their Family from the 
Place where they are Born, because if they go to another place, 
their Masters bring them back by force, worse than if they 
were Slaves. Sunday 17th, after Dinner, we went to see a 
Farm of the Augustinians close by, where an ingenious Father® ® 
had Built a good House, and Furnish’d it handsomly. 

Monday 18th, we went a Fishing on the Channel, which 
does not only abound in all other sorts,®^ but several kinds of 
Shell Fish, and particularly Oisters,®® so large that the very 
Fish of some of them weighs half a Pound ; but they are not 
so well tasted as ours. The Portuguese use the Shells in their 
Windows instead of Glass, making them thin, and Transparent.®® 

Tuesday 19th, after Dinner, we return’d to Goa. 

Wednesday 20th, two Vessels from Macao, Loaded with Our l^ady 
Chinese Commodities arriv’d in. the Port; and Thursday 21st, of the Cape. 
I went Aboard one of them, call’d the Pumburpa, to see several 
Rarities®® it brought. Friday 22d, I went in an Andora, to 
Visit our Lady del Cabo, or of the Cape, standing on the point 
of the Island of Goa, where the Franciscans have a good Church 
and Monastery. Here Night overtaking me, I was forc’d to 
lie in the Monastery, and return’d to Goa, on Saturday 23d. 

Sunday 24th, I heard Mass at the Augustinians, to visit 
my Friend and Fellow-Traveller for several Months F. Francis 
of St. Joseph. Monday 25th, I went over to Divert my self®^ 
to a little Country House, seated on the Island of Bardes, where 
on Tuesday 26th, I saw the Convoy of several Vessels return 
from Canara, with a good Stock of Rice, because the Islands 
of Goa do not produce enough, Wednesday 27th, I took the 
Air in a Boat upon the Channel. 

Thursday 28th, was the Procession of Corpus Christi, which 
is made here with much Solemnity in April, because of the 
Storms, and great Rains in June.^^ Before it went a Soldier 
a Horse-back in bright Armour. Then follow’d an Image of 
St. George in Wood, about which some Persons in Masks 
Danc’d and after them six Canons, with six Silver Maces, and 
lastly, six Gentlemen carry’ d the Canopy. 

Friday 29th, I went to see a Lion brought the Vice-Roy®® 
from Mozumbique, who was about to send it as a Present to the 



Eniperor of China. And still continuing to Divert my self after 
my late Sufferings, on Saturday ^ the* last of the Month I saw 
the IPowder-House, where they were then actually making 

Sunday the first of May, I went to the Cathedral to hear 
some indifferent Musick, on account of the Festival of St. 
Philip and Jacob ; and Monday 2d, DinM with F. Francis 
being invited by him, because the time of my Departure drew 
near. On Tuesday 3d, F. Hippolitus Visconte took care to 
Change what Mony I had into Pieces of Eight, because there 
is a great deal lost by carrying Gold into China ; and a Portu- 
guese Merchant well skilPd in that Trade, made a small 
Purchase of Diamonds for me, they being cheap at Goa. 
Wednesday 4th, I went with F. Salvador Gallic F. Visconti^ 
and the General of Salzeite, to speak to Jerom Vasconcellos^ 
Captain of the Vessel calPd The Holy Rosary^ bound for China. 
For their Sakes he undertook to carry me ; but refusing to find 
me Provisions for my Mony, I was forc’d on Thursday 5th,®® to 
lay in a Stock for so long a Voyage. Friday 6th, I went to the 
Church of the Miraculous Cross,®® to beg of God a good Voyage, 
and Saturday, 7th diverted my self on the Channel. Sunday 
8th, some Friends din’d with me, and Monday 9th, I din’d with 
F. Francis, and after drinking to my good Voyage, we took 
leave of one another with much Concern.®^ Tuesday 10th, 
I went to the Powder-House tp pay my Respects to the Vice- 
Roy, and desire him to give me a Eetter of Recommendation 
to the General of China. He granted it very Civilly, offering 
to do me any other Kindness.®® 

My Armenian Servant refusing to go to China, on Wednes- 
day 11th, I Bought a Cafre, or Black Slave for eighteen Pieces 
of Eight, and there being a Necessity to get a Eicense to Ship 
him off, because we were to touch at Malaca, where the Dutch 
Hereticks Command,®® I went on Thursday 12th, to the Inquisi- 
tors to have it Pass’d. They made a great Difficulty of grant- 
ing it, and dispensing with the Prohibition they themselves had 
been Authors of ; alledging that some Cafes, who had been 
Shipp’d at other times, being taken, had turn’d Mahometans. 
Friday 13th, I took Leave of my Friends, the Vessel being 
already fallen down to the Mouth of the Channel,^® in order 
to Sail very speedily ; and Saturday 14th,^^ having return’d 
Thanks, and bid Adieu to the Fathers Theatins, I went Aboard 
with my Goods. There speaking to the Captain, to order my 
Equipage and Provisions to be taken Aboard, he order’d it 
to be deliver’d to the Master’s Mate, for him to dispose of it 
as the Pilot should direct, he having undertaken to keep me 
by the way, I putting my Provision to his. This done, I 
retarn’d to the Farm of Pumhurpa, to have the Satisfaction of 
lying: Ashore one Night longer. 



Sunday 15th, I went over to the Island Char on, where 
the Novitiate of the Jesuits is, to hear Mass. Meeting there 
with some Italian leathers, who were Bound for China, Aboard 
the same Vessel, they very Civilly shew’d me all the House. 
The Church is small, and has three Altars well Gilt ; but the 
Sacristy has curious Chests of Drawers about^^ it made of Indian 
Wood, varnish’d, with the Apostles^^ painted on it. The House 
is small, and the Cells for thirty Novices very little. I din’d 
in the Farm of the Augustinians,"^^ and lay that Night in that 
Of the Theatins. 



Munday 16th, the Vessel being under Sail I went Aboard. 
Towards Evening came Aboard F. Emanuel Ferreira, a Portu- 
guese, Missioner to Tunchin,^ who wore a Reverend long Beard ; 
F. Joseph Condoni, a Sicilian, going to his Mission of Cochin- 
china, which Fathers had been Summon’d to Rome, by his Holi- 
ness Pope Innocent the 1 1th, because they had refus’d to Obey 
the French Bishops and Vicars Apostolick in those Kingdoms, 
to the great Scandal of the Christians, who saw the Church- 
Men Excommunicate one another, and eight other Jesuits of 
several Nations,, who were® going to China ; besides ten others 
who Went in the Vessel of the Merchants of Goa, call’d 
Pumburpa, which carry’d the Ei’on above-mention’ d. 

The Fathers of the Society^' are in such Esteem and Repu- 
tation in India, that at Night the Vice-Roy came to Visit those 
that were Aboard the two Ships, and stay’d still Midnight in 
these* two Visits. Eaying hold of this ' opportunity, he him- 
self recommended me to the Captain, telling him, I was a 
curious Gentleman, that Travell’d only to see the World, and 
therefore he should use me well. His Recommendation had but 
little Effect, because the Captain, who was Bred in China, 
had quite forgot the Portuguese Civility, which in all places 
I found they Practis’d more towards me, than towards their 
own Country-Men ; nor did he value another Man’s Merit, 
or Qualifications. As soon as the Vice-Roy was gone they 
weigh’d Anchor, and the Vessels were tow^d by several Paraos,^ 
which are long Boats with sixty Oars, and Ballons, which are 
smaller ; the City Pilots being aboard, to carry the Vessels 
beyond the Flat, which is before the Fort of Gaspar Diaz, near 
which we lay all Tuesday, because the Wind blew hard. 

Wednesday 18th^ the same Wind continuing, and the City 
Pilbts having no* hopes it would lall^ weigh’d Anchor two Hoftr^ 



before Day, and began to have the Ships tow’d again by the 
Ballons and Paraos. But the Wind rising, to avoid the Rock, 
they both run® upon the Sand/ There being danger that the 
Ship might split at the Flood, it being then Ebb, every one 
endeavour’d to carry off his Goods, especially Mony, and to 
get it Ashore ; and it would go hard with the City Pilots, if 
once the Vessels were stranded, and they did not fly. I® put 
my Baggage Aboard a Coaster, and leaving my Slave with my 
Provisions, went to Goa for a new Eicense from the Inquisition, 
to put the Black Aboard the Coaster, in case the Ships that 
were stranded should be rendred unfit to perform their Voyage ; 
which I got with some® Difficulty for the Reasons above alledg’d. 

Whilst I was still at Goa, the Vice-Roy gathering abundance 
of Paraos and Ballons, went in Person to get off the Vessels with 
the Flood ; which being done, they came up again to take in 
as much Water as they had thrown over Board to lighten them- 
selves. The honest Pilot, and Master’s Mate of our Ship had 
also thrown over the Passengers Provision and Fruit ; but not 
their own, which afterwards they did Eat till they were ready 
to Crack/® Taking leave again of the Fathers Galli and 
Visconti, I return’d Aboard with my Baggage, but was not 
told they had thrown over Board three great Baskets of Wine^^ 
full of Mangos, for had I known it, I would have provided other 

We got not out on Thursday 19th, through the Fault^^ of 
the City Pilots ; but about break of Day, on Friday 20th, the 
Wind blowing fair at N.W, our Vessel call’d the Rosary, the 
Pumburpa, and four Coasters put out to Sea. The Jesuits^ as 
they were. the first that went off, so would they be the last to 
return Aboard. The same fair Wind continu’d Saturday 2 1st, 
and Sunday 22d. 

Monday 23d, the Pilots by Observation found we were in 
the Latitude of Cochin. We had great Rains, and stormy Winds 
every Day and Night, but they did not last above an Hour. 
They call these Tempests Sumatras,^^ from the Island of that 
Name. Holding on our Course South on Tuesday 24th, the 
Pilots judg’d we were in the Latitude of Cape Comori ; which 
is like that of Good Hope. It is to be observ’d that in this 
Place they find a most unaccountable work of Nature which 
is, that at the same time it is winter at Goa, and all along that 
Coast, it is Summer upon all the opposite Coast, as far as the 
Ringdom of Golconda, and thus in a few Hours they go from 
VTinter to Summer ; which is experimentally known to be true 
every Day, by the Natives of Madure, Tiar, Tanjaur, Ginge, 
Madrastapaian,^^^ the People of the Naiches, and other Pasan 

Wednesday 25th,. making an observation we found our 
selves in th^ Latitude of Cape GallP^ i|i ^h^ Island pf Cei^on^ 

Voyage to malaca 

27 ^ 

which was joyful News to all abroad, as being then sure they 
should continue their Voyage ; for had the South Wind started 
up before we reach’d that Place, we could have gone no further, 
but must have run away to Northward, as happen’d to two 
Ships of China, which set out in the Year 1693, and put in to 
refit after the Storm, the one at Damam, and the other at 
Bomhaim. On the contrary being once in the I^atitude of Cape 
Gain, no Wind could put us by our Voyage. We were here 
according to the Pilots Computation 600 Miles from Goa. 

The Island of Ceilon besides its rich Cinnamon, which Ceilan 
is carry’d all the World over, has the best Elephants, as was Island, 
said above, and a Mountain that produces Rock Crystal,^® of 
which at Goa they make Buttons, Beads, and other Things. 

Thursday 26th, we found our selves in the Latitude of 6 
Degrees opposite to the Bay of Bengala ; and all the Mouths of 
the River Ganges'^^ running into it, whilst at the same time 
the natural Current of the Water is from South to North, that 
'Sea is very rough. This made the Ship often lye athwart the 
Waves, and kept us all continually watching for fear. This 
Kingdom of Bengala is accounted the most Fruitful the Mogul Bengala 
has, by reason of its Rivers. It has a great Trade for Silk, Kingdom. 
Calico, and other Stuffs. Finding our selves in this Latitude 
we stood to the Eastward, and^° on Friday 27th, were off the 
Maidive Islands.^^ Saturday 28th, the same fair Wind con- 
tinu’d, but with the same Rowling.®^ Sunday 29th, the Wind 
held on, and a Sailer dying was thrown over Board. Monday 
30th, we were Becalm’d, but Tuesday the last of the Month 
the Wind came up again, blew harder on Wednesday the first 
of June, and held fair on Thursday 2d. 

Friday 3d, we were in sight of the Island of Nicohar,^^ the Nicohar 
Wind blowing fresher. This Island pays a Tribute of a certain 
number of human Bodies to the Island of Andemaon,^^ to be 
eaten by the Natives of it* These Brutes rather than Men, use®^ 
when they have wounded an Enemy, to run greedily to suck 
the Blood that runs. The Dutch are^® Witnesses of this Cruelty 
of theirs ; For they going with 5 ships to subdue them and 
landing 800 Men, tho’ they were well Intrench’d to defend 
themselves against those wild People ; yet they were most of 
them kill’d, very few having the good Fortune to fly to their 

Sieur Francis Coutinho General of Salzete told me that the 
chief Motive the Dutch had to attempt the Conquest of that 
Island, was a Report spread abroad, that there was a WelF’^ 
in that Island, whose Water Converted Iron into Gold, and 
was the true Philosophers Stone. The ground of this Rumour 
was, an English Ship putting into that Island after a dreadful 
Storm, where they^® observ’d that a little Water^® which an 

iNbiAN travels 6f carErI 

Islander carry *d being split upon an Anchor, that part of it 
which was wet with it, turn’d into Gold ; and asking him 
where he had that Water, he told them out of a Well in the 
Island, after which they kill’d him. I can neither affirm nor 
deny that there is such a Well but only declare this Story^^ 
was told me by F, Emanuel Ferreira, and by Coutinho a Knight 
of the Order of Christ, before F. Galli at Goa, who had also 
heard of it before. No Man in Europe or Asia can give, any 
more certain Accotmt of it, because those People have no 
Commerce with any Nation in the World. 






1. The well-known port of Basra on the Persian Gulf, c.f, Balbi (quoted, in 
Hohson-Jobson, *^Balsara otherwise called Bassora*’)- Linschoten uses both 
the old and new forms, Balsora and Bassora (Vol, I, p, 45), Also see 
Tavernier, Vol. I, p. 5. 

2. Opfel in the French text. 

3. Wrongly translated. Six days aftef and not before the beginning of the 

4. Monsoon from Arabic mausim, season. **The name given to the periodical 
winds of the Indian seas, and of the seasons which they affect and charac- 
terise’* (Hobsourjobson), For the proper season for sailing from Persia 
to Surat, see Tavernier, Vol. I, p. 4. 

5. See Chap. XV ; also Ovington, pp. 100-101 and Forbes, Oriental Memoifs^ 
Vol. I, p. 146. 

6. At half past ten in the morning. 

,7. Waist deep. 

8, First. 

9. . Bxamined. 

10. Sir Thomas Roe refers to the “custome of the Kings officers to search everie 
thing that came ashoare, even to the pOcketts of mens cloathes on their 
backs, for custome’^ (Foster, Embassy, pp. 38-29). Tavernier observes, ^*The 
officers are very strict and search persons T^ith great care.” (Vol. I, p. 7), 
Also see Pietro Della Valle, Vol. I, pp, 23-24. 

11. First. 

12. A guard. 

13. Guard. 

14. Abbasi, a Persian coin worth about Is. 6d., named after Shah Abbas II. 
Fryer calls it Sixteen penny piece of Silver’ (Vol. I, p. 143). According 

. to Dalgado, an abbasi was equivalent to three hundred Portuguese reis, 

15^ Immediately. 

16. However it is open only from ten in the morning till noon. 

17. Only one. 

18. She. 

19. Quay. 

20. Kiosk, ^‘from the Turki aud Persian Hushk, a pavilion, a villa*” Hobsm'^ 
Jobson, p. 485. 

21. Peons (mod. sp.), from the Portuguese feap and Spanish peon,' ‘a footman*. 
Hobson-Jobson, p. 696. 

22. Staffiere, Italian word for a footman or groom,’ 

23. A French livre was equivalent to Is. 6d. of Bnglish mcmey at the time 

Thevenot wrote. See Tavernier,. Vol. I, p. 327. 

24*. Much earlier. 

25. They do not wait. 

26. A couch with cushions. 

27. First. 

28. Tavernier says, ‘^Gold and silver are charged 2 par cent.’’ (Vol, I* p, 7) as 

Slandelslo. (p. 18), Oyington indkectljr Mitgfaor^ ^heYeii«?t \yliw 



he says, “All strange Coyn, whether Imparted or Exported, pays to the 
KoguFs Officers Two and an half per Cent/-* (p. 132), 

29, First. 

30, Compare Tavernier who points out that “Private individuals pay as much 
as 4 and 5 per cent duty on all their goods; but as for the English and 
Dutch Companies, they pay less.*' (Vol. I, p. 7). According to Mandelslo 
the import and export duty on merchandise at Surat was 3j^% (p. 18). 


1. Mekran, which’ forms now a part- of Southern. Baluchistan {Tfnp\ Gaz,, Yohil, 
pp. 6 ff.), 

2. Sind <mod,- sp.). 

3. Kabul and Kandahar are outside India now,. 

4. A misprint for ‘on*. 

5. It is to be noted that in early Portuguese writings the coast of Malabar was 
called India, and the rest of the country was designated Asia. 

6. Cf. Baldaeus; .'*'hidia was ahciently divided into two parts by the river 
Ganges; thence the more eastern part was called India beyond the ‘Ganges, 

- and the western part India on this side of the Ganges, now known by the 
name of IndostanJ* 

7. Much useful information on the source of the river Indus has been supplied 
by recent explorations in Tibet. The Indus rises from ^^Singi-habaV' or 
‘the Lion's mouth* according to Sven Hedin {Trans-Hifnalaya, Vol. II, 
p. 210). Swami Pranavananda, in a recent book 'Exploration in Tibet', how- 
ever, argues that its real source is Topchhen la. The source of the Ganges 
in the Central Himalayas is known as the Gomukhi or the Cow’s mouth. Here 
the river is locally known as the Bhagirathi. 

8. Chagtai Khan, son ' of Chingiz Khan, governed Transoxiana, Balkh, Badak- 
shan, and Kashgar,’ and the mountain ranges in these areas are collectively 
referred to >as.1he Chagtai- mountains. 

9. Cape Comorin. 


1. Mughal (mod. sp.). Benaier’s remarks in this connection are interesting. 
“To be considered a Mogol, it is enough if a foreigner have a white face 
and profess Mahometanism.** The Timurid rulers of India were not strictly 
speaking Moguls or Mughals. Timur himself was a Turk and Babar did not 
think highly of the Mughals though his mother was a Mughal princess. 

2. ^ Timur the lame. 

3. The modem Khorasan (i.e. “land of the sun”) in Persia. Originally' it 
meant the eastern of the four, quarters of the Sassanian monarchy but the 
•expression is now limited to the north-eastern portion of Persia. 

4. Chingiz Khan. 

5.. More than two centuries. 

•6. The modem Ghazni or Ghazna in Afghanistan, south west of Kabul. The 
statement however is hardly accurate.' Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni annexed a 
p^ of the modern province of the Punjab. After the fall of the Ghaznavide 
kings Sultan Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori extended his sway over N. 
India, but after his death an independent sultanate was founded at Delhi. 
Babar conquered N. India from Kabul, but, after his death Kamran held Kabul 
independently of Delhi, duly in Akbar’s time Kabul and Ghazni definitely 
became dependenciea of tho Delhi empire. 



7. The^ grandson of Timur, througli his eldest son Ghiyasuddin Jahangir. 
[During the lifetime of Timur , he was in charge of the province of Balhh. 
(Ref. the genealogical chart on p. 268 of ''The Mohammadan Dynasties'^ by 
S. I/ane-RooIe) . 

8. Ghiyasuddin, eldest son of Timur, others being Omar Sheikh, Talaluddin Miran 
Shah and Shah Rukh. 

9. Babar, as the author correctly points out, was descended directly from 
Jalaluddin Miran Shah, third son of Timur. 

10. Ma-wara-l-nahr according to Ivane-Poole or more correctly *Mawara-un-nahr*, 
which means ‘beyond the river’, and is equivalent of Transoxiana. 

1 1 . Where. 

12. Lubhu-UTawaHkh written by Yahya Bin ’Abdul I^atif in 1541 (Elliot and 
Dowson, Vol. IV, pp. 293-297). 

13. Shah Alam. Sher Shah, who had assumed that title either after the battle 
of Chausa or after his accession to the throne of Delhi, is meant. 

14. ‘Decan* in the French original. This is a mistake, for Sher Shah did not 
rule over the Deccan. 

15. Shah Tahmasp I (1524-1576), son of Shah Ismail, the founder of the great 
Safavi dynasty of Persia. Humayun did not marry the Shah’s sister. 

16. Delhi. 

17. Akbar. 

18. Akbar died in October 1605 and not in 1604. 

19. Jahangir (1605-27) died in the Iwentysecond year of his reign. The date 
however is correctly stated. ' 

20. Bulaqi (Dawar Bakhsh), son of Rhusrau, eldest son of Jahangir. Immediately 
after Jahangir’s death he was raised to the throne by Asaf Khan to enable 
his son-in-law Prince Khurram to return ■ from the Deccan and to foil the 
plans of Nur Jahan in favour of Shahriyar her son-in-law and the youngest 
son of Jahangir. He was ‘a mere sacrificial lamb’ and was put to death at 
the instance of Shah Jahan on* 21 January 1628 (Saxena, History of Shah 
Jahan, p. 62). A pretender resided at* the Persian Court and Mandelslo (p. 42) 
among others claims to have met this Polagi or Bulaqi in Persia. 

21. Khurram (‘Joyous’), the third son of Jahangir unsuccessfully rebelled against 
his father in 1622 and continued in arms till the death of the emperor. 
For details see Saxena, op.- cU.^ p. 40 fi. 

22. Shah Jahan, 

23. The reference here is obviously to the ‘war of succession’ among the four 
sons of Shah Jahan in Sept. 1657. 

24. Aurangzeb, 

25. Murad. 

26. According to Abdul Hamid Dahori the total revenue of Shah Jahan’s empire 
amounted to 200 millions of rupees, each rupee being computed by Moreland 
aS’ equivalent to 2s. 3d at the date.. .Also. see Bernier 'Pp. 445-458; Manucci, 
Vol. II, pp. 413-415 and Mandelslo, p: 38. .Roe contents himself with a 
statement that the Mughal is richer than the rulers of Persia and Turkey. 

27. Obviously an incorrect rendering of the Persian qanun-nama. Elaborate 
“descriptive rolls’’ of the army were prepared since. the days of Akbar, and 
the author is perhaps referring to one of these registers on the basis of, 
which he estimates the number of forces of the Mughals. 

28. It is not possible, in the present state of our knowledge of the, sources, to 
• arrive at any satisfactory, much ' less an accurate, estimate of the strength 

of the Mughal army or its component parts. Thevenot records the opinion 
of other travellers that the Mughal could send to the field a force of 
300,000 horse. Careri was told that Aurangzeb’s camp in the south had 60,000 
horse. Bernier speaks of 100,000 horse in the camp during Aurangzeb’s 
journey to Kashmir (p. 380). Manucci refrains from giving any figures and 
crisply describes the camp thus ; “It looks like a great city travelling from 
place to place.” He also adds that “the numbers of an army do not consist 
solely in cavalry and infantry soldiers. • t . • V^en you talk of a division 




of 8,000 cavalry, the reader may assume that there are always 30,000 persons” 
(Vol. 11, p, 75 and n.). The available figures are therefore to be scrutinized 
with great circumspection. 

The Indian sources also do not help us much. The Ain, gives the details of 
the army but not the requisite figure. In Qazyini’s Padshahnan^^ (1666) we find 
that the cavalry maintained directly out of Imperial treasury consisted of 200,000 
men. Sarkar holds that in 1648 the Imperial army comprised 200,000 cavalry 
besides 185,000 cavalry maintained by the princes and the nobles (Studies 
in Mughal India, p. 20). 

29. According to Lahori’s Padshahmma the Mughal empire was divided into 22 
subahs or provinces out of which in the latter part of the reign of Shah 
Jahan, Qandahar was recovered by the Persians, and Palkh Badakshan 
remained with the Mughals only for a short time. Thus in 1666, the empire 
could not have containe<i more than twenty provinces. 


1. Gujarat. 

2. Correctly, 1572-73. 

3. Itimad ]^ian, Abdul Karim, who invited Akbar in 1572 to occupy Gujarat, 

4. Sultan Mahmud Shah III called 'the Martyr* (1538-1554). 

5. The reference is to Changez Khan and his supporters, 

6. Muzaffar Shah III (1561-1573). 

7. The Sultan was about 23 years old at the lime of Akbar* s invasion. 

8. This statement seems to be of doubtful accuracy and appears to have been 
borrowed from Mandelslo (p. 48). 

9. Muzaffar effected his escape in 1578 and organised a formidable resistance 
to the Mughal government in Gujarat (1583) which was completely sup- 
pressed. A fugitive for ten years, hotly pursued from place to place, he 
committed suicide in 1593 (Smith, Akhar the Greht Mogul, p. 208; Cambridge 
History of India, Vol. IV, p, 133; Commissariat, A History of Gufarat, 
pp. 527-28). 

10. The Narbada and Tapti. 

11. Cambay, more correctly Khambayat, capital of the state of the same name, 
52 miles south of Ahmedabad. Tavernier writes that the port is famous for 
agates and indigo (Vol. I, p. 56). 

12. North gate of Surat leading to Broach. 

13. 'Variao* called 'Periaw* by De Laet, a small village, where travellers cross 
the Tapti, in Broach District, Bombay. 

14. A river with a course seventy miles in length which falls into the Gulf of 
Cambay ten miles south of the estuary of the Narbada. 

15. Oklesar, the modern Ankleshwar, a town about six miles south of Broach. 

16. Prorn Sanskrit krosa, ‘a call*. A unit of distance which varies in different 
localities but is commonly considered to be equivalent to two miles. The 
author says it was only half a league, but Tavernier makes it equal to about 
one league. The Akbari 'kos* was equivalent to 5000 gaz or ya^s (Hobson^ 
Jobson, pp. 261-262). 

17. Broach (Sanskrit Bhrigukachha) , More correctly Lat. 21^ 42', 

18. Slope. 

19. Bazaars. 

Derived from the Persian hafta meanmg 'woven* and is specially applied 
to a kind of calico manufactured in Broach, Besides Broach, Charpata and 
Noakhali in the Chittagong division of Bengal were famous for their cotton 

21- According to traditional accounts, the :h>rtifications of the town are ascribed 
to Siddharaj Jai Singh of Anhilwara (1694-114S) but these were rebuilt’ and 
strengthened by Bahadur Shah (1526-153?^)." In 1680] a few years before 
Thcvenot arrived in India, parts’ of tie y^all 'dismantled under the 



22 . 













Auraagzeb, but in 1685, he was forced to rebuild them in order to 
Gazetteer of the Marathas {Surat and Broach Dist. 

Pagodas; this word is differently used for (1) a temple; (2) an idol; and 

^ 's used in the first sense 

{Hobson-Jobson, pp. 652-657). 

Compare Tavernier’s account of Broach, its fort, the bafta manufactured 
mere, the peculiar property of the river water, etc. (Vol. I, p. 54). 

The Dutch Factory was established at Broach in 1617. 

Two per cent according to Baldaeus. 

Sarbhon, four miles east of Amod in the Amod sub-division of Broach 
distnct. Forbes {Oriental Memoirs, Vol. I, p. 390) describes it as ''one of 
the best villages in the Baroche Purgunna*\ 

River Dhadhar which rises in the Vindhya range and falls into the Gulf 
of Cambay. 

Dabka is a village eighteen miles distant from Baroda on the left bank of 
the river Mahi (Bombay Gazetteer, Voh VII, Baroda, pp. 542-544). 

Persian murdakhor, literally eater of the dead or inaradlzhor, eater of man. 
Among Europeans, Herodotus was the first to suggest that there were 
cannibals in India. James Forbes (Oriental Memoirs, Vol. I, p. 390), however 
doubts the accuracy of Thevenot. The French traveller was in all probability 
imposed upon. We cahnot trace any evidence of cannibalism in Gujarat. 
The lawless habits of tribes like Grassias, Bhils, Kolis etc. who infested this 
wild area may have given them a bad repute among their neighbours (James 
Douglas, Bombay and Western India, Vol. II, pp. 354-57). 

Petlad town in Baroda State. 

Mahi (the Mophis of Ptolemy)/ which rises in the Gwalior state and falls 
into the Gulf of Cambay. 


Tanki (Gujarati), a reservoir of water, an artificial pond, commonly known 
to Europeans in India as a tank. 


35. Sojitra, town* in Petlad taluka, Baroda state. * Mandelslo calls it Sejuntra 

(p. 22). 

36. Matar, head-quarters of Matar taluk in Raira district (Bombay Presidency 
Gazetteer, Vol. I, p. 289). 

37. Fran5ois de la Boullaye le Gouz. When he first came to India is not pre- 
cisely known but he was at Goa in 1648 according to Tavernier (Vol. I, 
p* 164). His Les Voyages et Observations was published in 1653 and 
apparently secured him some reputation. As a person conversant with Indian 
affairs he was appointed one Of the envoys to the court of Agra where he 
arrived in 1666. Towards the close of that year he was assassinated near 
Dacca on his way to China. Tavernier’s story of his death (Vol. I, p. 169) 
is inaccurate (Manucci, Vol. II, pp. 159 f£ and note; Tavernier, Vol. I, 
pp. 164-189). 

38. Banyan tree (Fields bengdlensis). Is it the Kabir-Vad situated on an island 
in the Narbada ri's^er neat Broach which James Forbes dfescribes in Oriental 
Memoirs, Vol, I, pp. 16-18? Mr. J, Copland wrote of the satue tree in 1814. Vide 
article entitled 'Account of the Cornelian Mines in the neighbourhood of 
Broach’ printed in Transactions of the Literary Society of Bombay, Vol. I, 
1819, pp. 313-14, cited at pp. 489-91 by Commissariat. 

3^. Jitbagh, ‘garden of victory’ to the south of the lake at Sarkhej, laid out in 
1584 by Abdiir Rathim Rhan-i-Rhanah in commemoration of his victory over 
Sultan Muzaffar III (Ah^nadabad Dist, Gazetteer, p, 292). For a description 
of the garden, sed Mandelslo (p. 34). 

46. A primitive Mbe v^ith many sub^sectioiis with different professions. The 
Rolis of Gujarat were turbulent people inhabiting hills and committing 
robbery. Traders were thef^ore compelled to buy their protection, (Forbes, 
Oriental Memoirs, Vol. II, pp. 162-163). 




1. Arrian (Flavius Arrianus), famous Greek historian (c. 96 to c. 180 A.D.). His 
best known work is Anabasis of Alexander though his Indica is of more 
direct interest to students of Indian history. Thevenot’s identification of 
Ahmadabad with * Amadavistis* of Arrian is however wrong. 

2. Sultan Ahmad Shah (1411-1442) of Gujarat, the founder' of Ahmadabad. It 
is said that the city occupies the site of an older one named Ashaval which 
is popularly attributed to Solanki Raja Karan of Anhilwada. 

2a. See Tieffenthaler, Description de VInde, p. 373. "‘Guzarat, called Ahmadabad 
in Persian, after its founder Ahmad, is counted among the largest cities of 

3. From gard, ‘dust\ The author ascribes the nick-name to Shah Jahan, 
and his statement is repeated by Forbes (Oriental Memoirs, Vol. II, p. 119). 
His father was no less disgusted with its dirt and climate. Jahangir called 
it a ^‘dustbin*', ‘‘the place of the simoom”, “abode of sickness”, “the thorn 
bed” and “the house of Hell” (Memoirs of Jahangir, Vol. II, p. 13). 

4. Governed the province for 6 years (1662-1668) (Sarkar, History of Aurang- 
zib, Vol. V, p. 429). 

5. Ahmadabad is situated in 2' North Latitude. 

6. The river Sabarmati, on the left bank of which Ahmadabad stands. 

7. Before entering the town I found myself in a pleasant avenue planted with 
trees, ending in a mosque. 

8. The reference here is obviously to the Hauz-i-Qutb pr Kankariya tank at 
Ahmadabad, which perpetuates the memory of Sultan Qutbuddin of Gujarat, 
It is said to have been completed in 1451, and is one of the largest of its 
kind in India, each of its 34 sides, according to Sir T. C. Hope, measuring 
190 feet. There is an island in the centre of it, which formerly had, a small 
garden called Nagina — “the jewel”. Mandelslo visited it in 1638. (Burgess, 
The Muhammadan Architecture of Ahmedabad, Pt. I, pp. 62-53). ; 

9. The more important tombs at Ahmadabad are those of (i) Ahmad Shah I; 
(ii) Ahmad Shah^s queen; (iii) Darya Khan; (iv) Azam Khan; (v) Mir Abu; 
and (vi) Shah Waziruddin. See Bombay Presidency Gaz., Vol. I, p. 257,. 

10. According to De Laet, Badur (Bhadwar) is 10 kos from Dayta (Dhaita) and 
eight kos from Nandurbar. In Akbar’s time it formed a part of the terri-. 
tories of Pratap Shah (The Empire of the Great Mogol, pp. 28-29), 

11. Khandesh. 

12. Caramanserai, from Persian kanvansarai, a serai for reception of caravans. 

13. Does he mean the richly carved marble tomb of Mughali Bibi, queen of 
Muhammad Shah II, in the Rani ka Hazira or the queens’ cemetery? . 

14. Maidan Shah or the King’s square, which formed the outer courtyard of 
the palace. It originally covered an area 620 yards x 330 yards and was 
surrounded in 1638 by two' rows of trees. Its main approach is through the 
Tin Darwaza or the Triple Gateway (Burgess, op. ciU, Pt. I, p. 25). 

15. Obviously the Tin Darwaza. 

16. Cotwal or kotwal, a police-magistrate. Thevenot writes of this official in 
greater detail in Chapter X, The duties of the kotwal, as given in the 
Ain (Vol. II, pp. 41-43) represent, according to Sarkar, ‘the ideal’. Also 
see Manucci, Vol. II, pp. 420-21. 

17. Are paltry. 

IS. Octagonal. 

19. The Jami Masjid or the cathedral mosque, constructed by Ahmad Shah I 
(1411-1442), founder of the city, in close neighbourhood of the Tin Darwaza. 
It forms one of the best examples of the adaptation of the local Jain architec- 
tural style for purposes of Muslim worship. Previous to the great earth- 
quake of 1918 it had four ‘shaking minars*. See Burgess, op. cit., Pt. I, 
pp. 30-36, Commissariat, pp. 107-110. 

This is a common mistake. Jumah is Friday but Jami, that which collects 
or assembles. 

20 . 



21. Arabic ^mu^adhdhin\ criers who call the faithful ^to the congregational 
prayer at specified hours. 

22. From Arabic hnam, *an exemplar’ or ‘leader’; hence originally the first four 
Khalifas who were leaders par excellence of the faithful and subsequently a 
divine whose function is to lead the daily prayer of the congregation 
{Hobson-Johson, p. 432). 

23. Muluk Khana, or the Royal Gallery, which is “shut ofi from the mosque by 
a perforated screen.” (Commissariat, p. 110; Burgess, op. cit., Pt. I, p. 34). 

24. Fakirs, from Arabic fakir, ‘poor’. The term is usually applied to a Muslim 
religious mendicant but sometimes indiscriminately used by western writers 
for all Indian ascetics irrespective of their faith {Hobson-Jobson, p. 347). 

25. Temple of Chintaman built by Shantidas, a Jain merchant, about 1638, at a 
cost of 9 lakhs of rupees. In 1644-46, Aurangzeb, then Viceroy of Gujarat 
converted it into a mosque, after effectively defiling and desecrating it. The 
temple was however subsequently restored to the Jains under the orders of 
lEmperor Shah Jahan. Shantidas had succeeded in saving the principal image 
and he built another temple for it in the city, [Ahmadabad Dist. Gazetteer, 
p. 285). For a contemporary account see Mandelslo, p. 23. 

26. Broken. 

27. Thevenot refers to Shah Alam’s mausoleum at Rasulabad, a mile and a 
quarter from the city, built by Taj Kllian Narpali in 1531-32. Shah Alam 
(1415-1475) was the leader of the Bukhari Saiyads in Gujarat. His vast wealth, 
reputation for piety and family alliances secured for him unprecedented 
political power. Muslims claim that the conversion of a Hindu chieftain was 

, due to the spiritual power of the saint (Commissariat, pp. 168, 208-9. 
Ahmadabad Dist. Gazetteer, p. 286). 

28. Ostrich eggs are still used for similar purposes in Muslim tombs. 

29. About sixty yards from Shah Alam’s is another mausoleum, where his descen- 
dants He buried. It is built on the same plan and scale as the saint’s. 
(Commissariat, p. 209; Burgess, op, cit., Pt. II, p. 20). 

30. The Masjid at ‘Shah Alam’ described in Commissariat, p. 211. 

31. The Shahi Bagh, a garden palace constructed by Shah Jahan while Viceroy 
of Gujarat. Mandelslo (1638) found the garden “very large, shut in by a 
great wall with ditches full of water, with a beautiful house having very ridh 
rooms.” For a more detailed description see Forbes, Oriental Memoirs, 
Vol. II, pp. 205-208 and Burgess, op. cit., Pt. H, pp. 57-60. 

32. A large pavilion, 

33. Tank. 

34. Though the king is not mentioned by name, the reference is obviously to 
the tomb of Ahmad Shah I. 

35. Sarkhej, about six miles from Ahmadabad. The village came to fame as the 
residence of the celebrated saint Shaikh Ahmad Kdiattu Ganj Bakhsh. 
(Burgess, op. cit., Pt. I, p. 46). 

36. The ancient capital of Gujarat was Anhilvada (Patan). 

37. There is a large number of tombs at Sarkhej including those of Shaikh Ahmad 
Khattu, Sultan Mahmud Begada, Muzafiar II and Mahmud III. For the 
Sarkhej group of buildings, see Burgess, op. cit., Pt. I, pp. 46-51, 

38. Shaikh Ahmad Elhattu. The construction of the tomb and the mosque was 
commenced by Muhammad Shah in 1446 and completed by his son five years 
. later. 

39. And as many doors. 

40. The mosque at Sarkhej has been described as “the perfection of elegant 
simplicity”. “Except the Moti Masjid at Agra, there is probably no mosque 
in India that surpasses this in simple elegance.” It “may fairly be con- 
'sidered an improvement on the plan of the Jami Masjid”. (Burgess, op. cit,, 

“ Pt. I, p. 49). 

41: It is flanked by. 

41a. The great tank at Sarkhej measuring 700’ x830’ feet was constructed by 
Mahmud Begada. 



42. In fine, only tombs are to be seen in that place. 

43. Designed. 

44. Mandelslo also writes: “The best Indico in the world comes, from aboxtt 
Amadahath, from a Village calPd Chirchees (Sarkhej)'\ 

45. The reference here is to Dada Harir’s or Bai Hariris well (Burgess, op. cit., 
Pt. 11, pp. 4-6; Ahmadahad Dist Gazetteer, p. 282). 

46. Stages, 

47. Square, 

48. Winding* 

49. The lady was the cliief superintendent of the sultan’s harem and the cost, 
according to a Sanskrit inscription, amounted to 329000 of an unspecified coin. 

50. Almost all the foreign travellers of the period refer to the animal hospital 
of Ahmadabad. 

51. More accurately, cheeta. 

52. Chintz or printed cloth. Portuguese, chita; Marathi, chit, and Hindi, chini* 
Derived from Sanskrit chitra 'variegated, speckled* {Hob son- Job son, 201 f). 

53. Masulipatam in the Kistna district, Madras, once famous for its manufactures, 
specially chintzes. 

54. Mylapore, a suburb of the Madras city. Dmschoten says “The aforesaid place 
called S. Thomas was in time past a towne of great traffique, (and as then) 
called (by the name of) Meliapor** (Vol. I, p, 82). Conti calls it Malepur 
{India in the Fifteenth century)^ ■ 


1. Bareja in the Daskroi sub-division of Ahmadabad district. 

2. I took the Cambay road on the right hand. 

3. Nagra, a village north of Cambay. 

4. Baldaeus emphatically though wrongly asserts that '^Cambaja is a different 
province from Gusuratte” {Description of the Coasts, etc., p. 505). 

4s. In 1638 Mandelslo found it “much greater than Surat^' (p. 31). 

5. And all have gates at the two ends. See Tavernier (Vol. I, p, 56) who also 

says, “at two hours after dark every street was closed by two gates.*’ Also 

see Mandelslo, p. 31. 

6. Limodra commonly called Nimodra now in the Rajpipla state. The cele- 
brated cornelian and agate mines are three miles east of the village, and lie^ 
about five miles south-west- of Ratanpur (Commissariat, pp. 262 and 
268 ‘W-.). Barbosa visited “Liniadura” and wrote of the cornelian rock (Vol. I, 
p. 143). Tavernier refers to the agates of Cambay (Vol. I, p. 56). 

7. Banias and Rajputs. 

8. The tomb of 'Umar bin Ahniad al Kazaruni, who bore the title of Zaur-al 

Malik. From an inscription on the tomb it appears that he died on 21 

October 1333, (Burgess, The Muhammadan Architecture of Bharoch, Cambay, 
Dholka etc., pp. 

9: Manucci also refers to the “hospital for sick birds” at Cambay (Vol. I, 
p. 156). 

10. This is confirmed by Tavernier (Vol. I, p. 56) : “IndigO' of the same kifid a^ 
that of Sarkhej is made, also, in the vicinity of the tovm^ (Cambay), and it 
was celebrated' for its trafiS^c when the Portuguese fiourished in India?.*’ 

I't. Tavernier also assigns the decay of Cambay to the same cause. (Vol. I, 

12. Thevenot obviously refers to the 'bore’ or rushing tide. See Tmb'. Gaz., 
Vol. IX, p. 297. 

1^. This Duteh coine there only at the end of September. 



H, Faces. 

15. The reference is to the south-west monsoon winds which blow from June to 
October, during which rains fall. These are accompanied by heavy storms in 
the month of September. 

16. Wrecked. 

17. Sought advice as to. 

18. Almadia, from Arabic al-madiya, "a raft'. In India, it is generally used 
for a canoe {Hobson-Johson, p. 15). 

19. Normally only at night time. 

20. The pirates of Malabar were notorious for their ravages. They were parti- 
cularly cruel to the Christians, as many of them were fanatical Moplah 
Mussulmans (Fryer, Vol, I, p. 164 and n; Biddulph, The Pirates of Malabar; 
Tavernier Vol, I, pp. 143-144), 

21. Sand banks, 

22. Charans who are found all over Gujarat. They acted as guards to travellers 
and goods. Their persons were held sacred and it was believed that a Charan's 
blood brought ruin on him who caused to it be split (R. B. Bnthoven, 
The Tribes and Castes of Bombay, Vol. I, pp. 271 ff. Also see Heber, 
Narrative of a Journey through thi^ Upper Provinces of India, Vol. II, pp, 40-41). 

23. Outcaste. 

24. Detour. 

25. Obviously Petlad. 

25a. Bilpad, south of Borsad, about 2 miles from the river Mahi. 

26. 'Grasias' or ^Garasias', an epithet said to be derived from the term grasa 
(lit. a mouthful), which was used throughout Gujarat and Kathiawar to 
indicate lands and villages given to junior members of the Rajput ruling 
families for their maintenance. The term came to acquire a bad odour in 
the 17th and 18th centuries when it was applied to armed bands of robbers 
’^ho exacted contribution, analogous to Marathi chauth and rakhi of the 
Sikhs, from vBlages as the price of their protection and forbearance. 

27. Sili, a village in the Anand taluk of Kaira district near the Mahi river. 

28. A very ill-clad fellow. 

29. Paisa, a small copper coin current in India. It is now equivalent to 1/64 
of a rupee, Thevenot elsewhere mentions that a rupee was worth 3Z^~33^ 
paisa only. According to Tavernier the value of a rupee varied from 46 to 
56 paisas (Vol, I, pp. 22-23), At Surat “the Company's Accounts are kept 
in Book-rate Price, viz. 32 to the Mam. and 80 pice to the Rupee'" (Fryer, 
Vol. n, p. 126). 

30. Normally, 

31. Immediately. 

32. Toll. 

33. “Ragout" in the original, stewed meat or fish, or stews in general. 


1. The correct latitude is 21® 12" N. 

2. Shivaji. (For details see Chap. XVI). 

3. The construction of the outer wall began in 1664 and was completed about 
1675. {Surat and Broach Dist, Gazetter, p, 89). 

4. Claim large compensation. 

5. Moderate size. 

6. The estimated population of Surat was, about 2 lakhs in the later ha-lf of 
the 17th century (Ibid, p. 90). 

7. November, December, January and February, etc. 



8. Comfortable lodgings. 

9. Used comprehensively for Europeans in general. 

10. Muslims. 

11. Though literally the term is applied to a person who is neither a Christian nor 
a Jew nor a Muslim here it refers to Hindus only. 

12. Shias. 

13. See Part II, Book II, Chap. XIII of The Travels of Monsieur de Theyenot, 
where he points out that the Sunnis acknowledge the first four Caliphs as 
the lawful successors of the Prophet while the Shias believe that Ali, the 
first of their twelve hnams, was his rightful successor. 

14. From Persian gahr, ‘infideP, a term of opprobrium generally applied to the 
Zoroastrians. See Dalgado, Vol. I, pp. 446-447. For Thevenot’s account of 
Gahrs still resident in Persia, see Part II, Book -II, Chap. XIV of the English 

15. Atash-parast, ‘fire-worshipper^ The Parsis however deny that they worship 
fire as such. 

16. The Parsis migrated to India in 716 A.D., and settled later at Navsari 
(Murzban, The Parsis in India j pp. 43 ff). 

17. The second Caliph who was at the head of the Muslim state from 634 to 644 
A.D. Persia came under his rule in 641 A.D. after the battle of Nehawand. 

18. Virji Vora, the richest merchant and banker of his time. The English had 
dealings with him as early as 1617, and he was the Company’s largest creditor 
in Surat. He had agents^ at Agra, Ahmadabad and other places. In 1643; 
the Court of Committees sent an ‘iron chest from Nuremburg’ as a present 
to Virji (Pant, The Commercial Policy of the Moguls, p. 137). He, died 
probably in 1677, and is frequently mentioned in the letters’ of the time 
(Foster, The English ' Factories in India) . Thevenot’s statement that Virji 
was a “Banian” leaves no doubt about his religion. 

19. The first English factory at Surat was founded in 1612. The Dutch estab- 
lished theirs four years later. For a sketch of the English factory, see 
Ovington, p. 226. 

20. In the 17th century, there were two important officers in Surat. The ofiEcer 
in charge of the castle commanded the soldiers of the garrison only aiid 
possessed no authority in the city. The city had a separate governor who 
received the customs duties and other Imperial revenues on behalf of the 
Mughal emperor. Ovington (p. 136) says that the governor of the castle 
“is always confin’d a Prisoner within its Walls”. See also Tavernier, Vol. I, 

p. 6. 

21. The author’s description of the houses in Surat is confirmed’ by Ovington- 
(p. 130) and other European travellers. 

22. Are expensive. 

23. Portuguese settlement and town in Gujarat about 100 miles north of Bombay. 
It possesses stately forests about two-thirds of winch consist of teak. 

24. Obtained from. 

25. Bambous split into two. 

26. Rainy season. 

27. Solidifies. 

28. Cloths, “des toiles” in the French text. See p. 48, Part III of Les Voyages 
de Mr de Thevenot, Paris, 1689. 

29. Game. 

30. The common thistle of India cultivated all over the country for its oil 
producing black seeds (Watt, Vol. II, p. 378). Wild saffron does not bear 

31. Sesamum indicum. Hindi, HI, tel etc. Its small flattish seeds yield an oil 
and are used as food. See Watt, Vol. VI. Part II, pp. 602 ff. 

32. Bitter. 

33. Navapur-petha in Nandurbar taluk in IChandesh district, Bombay. It was 
renowned for its grapes and melons in the l7th century, 

34. Brandy. . .. 



35. Jaggery, ''coarse brown (or almost black) sugar made from the sap of various 
plants’ % such as khajur, the palmyra,, the coco-palm etc. (JHohson~]phson, 
p. 446). 

36. Babul or kikar, the Acacia arabica. 

37. 'Tari’ or 'toddy’, the fermented sap of the tar or palmyra, and also of other 
palms, such as the date, the coco-palm (Hobson^Jpbson^ p. 927). 


1. Khajur {Phoenioc syl'vesiris) which yields toddy, and is grown freely in 
several parts of Surat district. 

2. More accurately cocoa-hut tree. 

3. Take. 

4. Bitter. 

5. If he wishes to occupy, 

6. There are sold etc. 

7. Omit "to be sold there also”. 

7a. Myrrh — "A gum-resin highly esteemed by the ancients as an unguent and 
perfume, used for incense in temples and also in embalming.” "True myrrh 
is the product of Balsafnodendron Myrrha, a small tree of the natural order 
Amyridaceae that grows in eastern Africa and Arabia” (Encyclopaediof 
Britannica, Vol. 19, pp. 114-115). 

8. A sweet exudation obtained from certain trees. The European manna is now 
obtained mainly from Sicily. The article referred to here seems to be of 
Persian or Arabic origin. Persian and Arabic manna "is the produce of 
Alhagi maurofum, a small, spiny, leguminous plant growing in Arabia, Asia 
Minor, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan and northern India.” {Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, Vol. 17, pp. 587-588). 

9. Ammonium chloride or Sal ammoniac, said to have been prepared from camels’ ^ 
dung near the temple of Jupiter Ammon in Africa. 

10. Mandelslo also mentions ^'Roenas, which is a root that dies red” (p. 19). 
'Rohina’, ‘rohna’, ’rohan’ etc. are all vernacular names of Soymida fehrifuga, 
the 'Indian red-wood tree’. The bark and not the root is responsible for the 
dye. See Watt, Vol. VI, Part TII, pp. 318-319. 

11. Are retailed. 


1. KhandL This weight is common in southern India, and is e(iuivalent to about 
500 lbs {Hobson-Jobson, p. 155). 

2. Maund (Eng.), man (Hind.). According to Tavernier the Surat maund varied 
between 40 and 42 seers (Vol. I, p. 334). 

3. There is no standard seer in India; it varies from province to province, 
According to Mandelslo a Gujarat seer was equivalent to "about 12 ounces” 
in 1638 (p. 67), Tavernier says that the Surat seer was equal to ^ livre or 
13 French ounces (Vol. I, p. 334). Fryer (Vol. II, p. 126) makes it slightly less 
than a pound (40 seers =37 pounds). 

4. Tola from Sanskrit tula, a balance. It is equivalent to 96 rattis, a ratti, 
according to E. Thomas, being equal to .1*75 grains. 80 tolas now equal 1 seer 
in India (Hobson-Jobson, p. 928). 

5. Mangelin, seed of Adenanthera pavonMa. According to Yule {Hobson-Jobson, 
p. 553) a seed of mangelin .was equal to about 4T3 grains in weight. For its 
varying weights at Goa, Bijapur and Golkonda, see Tavernier, JVol. I, p. 333. 
See also Watt, Dictionary of J^cpnomic Pro^uefs, Vql. I, pp. 407-103. 

?7 ’ 



6. From Arabic kirrat, a bean of the carob tree, that formerly served as^ a unit of 
weight equivalent to 1/24 of an ounce. It is now nsed to indicate the 
proportionate quality of gold. A diamond carat is however grains nearly 
(Hobson-Jobson, pp. 160-161). 

7. A val is equivalent to 3 rattis or about 5-733 grs. troy in weight (Tavernier, 
Vol, I, p. 333), 

8. Ghungchi, Sanskrit gunja, the seed of Abrus precatorius. Its weight vanes 
between 1*91 and 1*94 grs. troy, according to Ball. See Watt, Vol. I, pp. 10-14. 

9. Rupee (mod. sp.). In Thevenot’s time it was equivalent to 25. 3d, The 
weight is still a tola. 

10. Lakh (Sanskrit laksha), one hundred thousand, 

11. Crores, 10 millions or one hundred lakhs. 

12. Fadam (Sanskrit padman). 

13. Gold mohur, which equalled 14-145^ silver rupees in value. Tavernier also 
gives the same exchange value of a gold mohur as Thevenot. 

14. 20 sol&=l livre, equivalent to Is. 6d, See Ball, Vol.I, p. 327, 

15. Hardly, 

16. Tavernier mentions that 49 to 50, and sometimes 46 paisas went to the rupee. 
On an average, a paisa was equal to l/50th of the rupee. The value of a 
paisa at Agra was about l/55th or l/56th of a rupee (Tavernier, Vol. I, 
pp. 22-23). 

17. Mahmudi, equivalent to about 20 paisas or tw^o-fifths of a rupee. Fryer says 
it was ‘'somewhat less than an English shilling.'* (Vol. II, pp, 125-126), 
Its exchange value constantly fluctuated. Mahmudi was originally a Persian 
coin but it was later minted by the Gujarat kings. It was not a Mughal coin 
properly speaking. 

18. One twelfth of a sol or 3/40d, 

19. Badam, ‘bitter almonds’, Tavernier disagrees with Thevenot. According to 
him, “Sometimes 35, sometimes 40, of them are given for the Paisa”, (Vol. I, 
p. 23). 

20. A Spanish coin of the same value as the French ecu and therefore equal to 
4]^5 (Tavernier, Vol, I, p. 328), 


1. Arabic mufti, “The officer who expounds the law. He assists the qazi, or 
judge, and supplies him with fatwas, or decisions. He must be learned in the 
Quaran and Hadis, and in the Muslim works of law” (Hughes, A Dictionary 
of Islam, p. 367). Prof, P. Saran is of opinion that the mufti in India was 
“a sort of unofficial legal referee recognised by public opinioir” and he was 
not a regular official in the judicial department. {The Provincial Government 
of the Mughals, pp. 344-347; Sarkar, Mughal Administration, pp. 26-28 
and 114). 

2. Supervision, 

3. The qazi was the chief judge m criminal suits and tried them according to 
Islamic laws. All cases between Muslims as well as all suits between Muslims 
and non-Muslims came before him. For qualifications smd functions of a 
qazi, see P, Saran, pp. 339 ff; Sarkar, op. cit., pp. 26-27, 

4. Dispute. 

5. Maintains. 

6. Derived from Latin intendere meaning ‘to watch over’. The intendents 
controlled practically the entire civil administration, including the judicial, 
and revenue machinery, of the province. 

7. Waqai^Navis^ (sometimes written as waqaimigar also) was one of the agencies 
through which the central government kept itself informed of the day-to-day 
happenings in the proviixces, Tfie wdqdi-^vh was stationed at the provincial 



headquarters and reported to the emperor every occurrence of note. Sarkar 
says that his reports were first ‘‘communicated to the subahdar or, in the 
case of a field-army, to the general in command, before being despatched to 
the Bmperor.” (Sarkar, op» cit., pp. lyiS), 

8. Nawab, (English ‘Nabob*), as the provincial governors were officially sljded 
during the Mughal period. 

9. The Quran or Qoran. 

10. On arrival one lays before him. 

11. Sir Bashi, an ancient military title in Turkey. The officer exercised police 
control over the inhabitants of the district under his charge. 

12. Formerly the supervisor of a department was styled darogha but now the 
designation is limited mainly to the lower ranks in the British Indian police 

13. Shields. 

14. This is fully confirmed by Ovington (p. 138) and MiraUuAlmadi quoted in 
Saran, op, cit., p. 388. 

15. Part II, Book II, Chapter IV, p. 79. 

16. Khdbar^dar, 

17. A similar. 

17a. See also Ovington, p. 137. 

18. Manned also bears testimony to the kotwaPs responsibility for thefts and 
robberies, and describes how the kotwal utilised sweepers who went to clean 
every house twice daily as his spies (Vol. II, p. 421). 

19. Means. 

20. ‘Sequin*, a coin of Venice worth about 9s. Sd. in English money. (See Tavernier, 
Vol. I, p. ’ 32a). 

21. Khojah Minaz. 

22. Every possible enquiry. 

23. Had taken refuge with. 

24. Fanjdar, police magistrate in charge of a sarkar. His functions are briefly 
described in the Ain, Vol. II, pp. 40-41. See Manucci, Vol. II, pp. 450-451; 
Ovington, p. 139. 

25. Who is responsible for the security of the country about. 

26. Dohai or Duhai^Padshah, an exclamation or expression used in prohibiting 
in the name of the Padshah (Hob son- Job son, p. 321), somewhat similar to 
the Portuguese invocation ‘Aqui el Rei*. 

27. Court. 

28. Few penalties. 


1. Addressed. 

2. The French Company. , 

3. Manucci (Vol. I, p. 62) calls him “Brother Ambrozio’*, and Irvine identifies him 
with “Father Ambroise of Preuilly”. During the sack of Surat (1664) Shivaji 
did not plunder his house saving “The Frankish Padrys are good men, and 
shall not be molested** (Bernier, p- 1S8). Dr. Dellon also knew Father 
Ambrose and got from him a letter of introduction to Juan de Fonseca, 
Rector of the Jesuit College at Daman (Relation (Pun Voyage fait aux Indes 
Orientales, p. 233). 

4. Capuchins, a section of the great Franciscan order. 

5. The reference is to the formation of the famous Compagnie des Indes at the 
instance of Colbert and Tonis XIV in 1664 with the object of trading with 

India and the east. . r . ^ , 

6. Hubert Hugo, a Dutch pirate. Originally in the employment of the Dutch 
Company at Ahma^bad ha returnad honxe in J654 and sailed from Amsterdam 
for the east (1661) in the Black Eagle. On his way he caftled at Havre where 



he enlisted a number of Frenchmen who had brought a commission from the 
French Admiral, the Due de Venddme. The Black Eagle was driven by 
adverse winds to the Red Sea (April, 1662) where Hugo and his crew cap- 
tured a number of merchantmen. It was probably on this occasion that the 
dowager queen of Bijapur was robbed {The Efiglish Factoties w India, 1661- 
1664, pp. 189-190 and w. Court Minutes of the East India Company, 1664- 
1667, p. 7). 

7. On board his ship. 

8. Mocha or Mokha, a port in Arabia on the Red Sea. 

9. Caesar, Duke of Venddme (1694-1665), Admiral of France. 

10. Badi Sahiba, widow of Muliammad Adil Shall and regent during the minority 
of All Adil Shah II. She went on pilgrimage to Mecca four times, according 
to Manucci (Vol. II, p. 300). The incident mentioned here probably relates 
to her journey commenced in February 1661. See The English Factories in 
India 1661-1664, p. 88 n. 

11. Socotra or Sokotra, an island in the Indian Ocean belonging to Great Britain. 
It is situated in 12*30' N (not 11® 40' as Thevenot puts it) and is on the 
direct route to India via the Suez Canal. 

12. Mecca, 

13. The Bantam* 

14. He did not despair. 

15. Awaited. 

16. Carried. 

17. To the Grand Sheikh. The reference is to the dynasty founded at Mecca in 
the 11th century by Ibn Qitada who claimed descent from Hashim, the 
Prophet^s great grandfather. This house continued to rule there until 1925 
when Kang Hussain abdicated. The Hashimite family still rules in Iraq 
and Transjordan, (Gerald de Gaury, Arabia Phoenix, p. 24). 

18. Others. 

19. Spoke strongly about. 

20. And said. 

21. Aden, fortified town on the south coast of the province of Yemen, Arabia, 
situated in 12® 47' ISf. Lat. It was acquired by the British in 1839 {Imp. Gaz., 
Vol. V, pp. 9ff.). 

22. Charles de La Porte (1602-1664), first Duke of Meilleraye and Marshal of 
France. Thomas Reynardson wrote from Mokha on 20 July 1656 that 
“The last yeare a French Pyratt was forced by foule weather and want of 
provisions into Aden, where they were all put in prison and afterwards 
sent up to the Great Emaun, where they were all circumsized.** Sir William 
Foster suggests that the vessel referred to above probably formed “part of 
the squadron sent out by the Due de la Meilleraye for the Red Sea” {The 
English Factories in India, 1655-1660, pp. 58-59). The letter also mentions 
another ship of 26 guns from which the boat in question was separated by 
stress of weather. This almost confirms Thevenot ’s statement. 

23. For la Boullaye, see supra Note, 37, Chapter IV. Boullaye was the king’s envoy 
while Beber was the nominee of the new French Bast India Company. They 
arrived at Surat on 1 April, 1666 and left for Agra about a fortnight later, 
to secure a farman from the Mughal emperor in favour of the French 
Company. According to a contemporary English account, the envoys were 
not treated well; “They have had neither respect nor countenance shewed 
them, but tossed from post to pillar.” From Agra, Boullaye proceeded to 
Bengal and was murdered near Decca. 

Beber left for Surat and was robbed of all his belongings w^hile a day’s 
journey out of Agra. The emperor then recalled him and granted him the 
farman he wanted. After a brief residence at Surat Beber went to Goa 
where he died, (Manucci, Vol. II, pp. 151-152; The English Factories in 
India, 1665-1667). 

24. Sir George Ox^den. For details regarding his administration, see The 
English Factories in India, 1665-1667. 



1. Probably Mubammad Beg Khan who held this office in 1666. 

2. Umara or Omrah (plural of Atnir). The term was applied to the liigher 
officials and nobility at Muhammadan Courts, specially those of the Mughals. 
In the accounts of European travellers, it is used for a lord or noble of the 
Imperial Court {Hobsonr-Jobson, p. 637). The premier noble was ordinarily 
styled as Amir-ul-Umara (AUU-Akbari, Vol. I, p. 240). 

3. Obviously a misprint for cymbals in the original French which has been 
repeated in the translation. 

4. Fifteen days. 

5. And which. 

6. Decorated. 

7. The same as Barbosa’s Reyiiel and Peter Mundy’s Raneile. Raiider, situated 
on the right bank of the Tapti, 2 miles above Surat city, and an important 
trading centre before Surat rose to prominence (Bombay Bresidency Gazetteer, 
Vol. I, pp. 344-345). 

8. Fountains. 

9. Blue. 

10. Shot up. 

11. Arabic mania, Hindi mullaj 'a Muslim doctor of law’. 

12. Ovington was more favourably impressed with the performances of the 
kanchanis or dancing girls of Surat (see p. 153). 

13. Nimbler ones. 

14. Punishment. 


1. Dike to adorn. 

2. Darge sums were spent by the English and the Dutch on tombs. The instance 
mentioned by Thevenot was a comparatively insignificant one. An idea of 
their expenditure can be had from the fact that a bill of Rs. 6,000/- was 
charged to the Dutch Company for merely repairing the tomb of Baron Van 
Reede, one of their early chiefs. 

3. Read “a certain drinker” instead of '‘a great drinker.” Ovington also refers 
to this tomb (p. 236) but Mr. Rawlinson suggests that he derived his in- 
formation from Thevenot. An anonymous writer {Calcutta Review, Vol. IX, 
1848, p. 125) says that the tomb was built over the grave of a ‘‘notorious 
tippler” who, according to one account, was a ship’s butler, while others 
believed him to have been a person of distinction. The tomb has not 
survived to our times; whether it ever existed is a moot point. 

4. ^^Vrati'-', literally a person who has taken some vow, but used in a general 
sense for all ‘sanyasis’ and mendicants. 

5. With the intention. 

6. The name ‘Tapti’ is derived from tap, ‘to heat’. According to mythology, it 
is said to ' have been created by the sun to protect himself from his own 
warmth. The river has a reputation for sanctity, and the chief places of 
pilgrimage' are Changdeo, and Bodhan {Bombay Presidency Gazetteer, Vol. I, 
pp. 174-175). 

7. Sanskrit yogin, and Hindi yogi, ‘a Hindu ascetic, {Hobson^Johson, p. 461). 

8- From Persian darvesh, ‘a Muslim mendicant*. 

9. Mahadeva or Siva, the third deity of the Hindu trinity. 


1. A Banian had it made. 

2. It is mentioned by most of the 17th century travellers. Mandelslo (p. 18) 



and Roe (p. 90) refer to it briefly. But Pietro Della Valle devotes one entire 
section (VII) to this famous reservoir (Vol. I, pp. 32-35), and^ Peter Mundy 
also gives a fairly detailed description of the tank and its environs (Vol. II, 
pp. 31-32). Fryer says that “were it filled, the best Ship that swims in the 
Sea might ride in it” (Vol. I, p. 261). The tank is now dry a